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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Scarce Factory 408067 The The The Beatles Routemaster  A Hard Days Night  2009 1 64 sca f1028a
Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow Speichenräder KK Scale 1 18 Neu,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Mercedes Benz SLK 230 Cabrio 1996 - Modellauto 1 18 Maisto Mint IN DEALER BOX,.Kid Box hpi 1 43 McLaren F1 GTR car 1996 Launch,.VINTAGE OLD Märklin 8009 KRUPP TITAN Autocarro 1 43 Made in Western Germany,.1 43 1937 CORD BEVERLY SEDAN WHITE SAMS TAN INTERIOR WHITE METAL BUILD NO BOX,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Hot Wheels 2018 Car Culture Cargo Carriers Volkswagen T1 Panel Bus (Lot of 6),.Snap On 1969 Ford Mustang 302 Racer with accessories Die Cast Model Rare 01 Grap,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ISCALE MERCEDES BENZ W196 F1 FANGIO WINNER DUTCH GP 1 18 OVP NEU,.Corgi Juniors Carded Mini Cooper S 1300 Rare Now.,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.USSR CCCP GAZ 69A TO Models Ukraine white metal handmade OVP MIB 1 43 RARE,.DINKY TOYS 207 TRIUMPH TR7 RALLY No 8 - WHITE - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.1970 Chevelle Cragar 1 18 Scale Die Cast Metal American Muscle, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

JOAL 1 32 190 SKID STEER LOADER THOMAS 135S,.Mercedes 500 E 1986 Green Met.1 43 Spark Sp1020 Model,.Minichamps 402902010 Set VW Karmann Ghia + Porsche 911,.Vintage Original BOXED Corgi Toys No.208 JAGUAR 2.4 LITRE SALOON White,.

Kyosho 1 64 Lamborghini Gallardo minicar set,.Lot of 19 Kenner Star Wars The Power Of The Force & Episodei I Obi Wan Leia,.Best Model BT9691 FERRARI 250 LM N.1 WINNER PERTH 6 H CAVERSHAM 1965 SPENCER MAR,.NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 MG TD Arnolt Continental Sports 1953 White Art. NEO44611,.Hot Wheels Porsche lot of 25 1 64,.

Spark 1 43 BMW 635 CSI 2nd Guia Race Macau Grand Prix 1983 SA053,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1966 BMW 2000 TI Typ 120 Policia 1 18 MC Group 18042,.● RARE HTF PLAYART FASTWHEEL 1 64 HONG KONG UNPUNCHED TRACTOR DOZER GREEN,.Volkswagen VW Karmann Ghia Coupè Anno di Costruzione 1970 blue 1 18,Renault Sport R.S.01 Interceptor 2016 black white, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.VW Beetle BrezelBeetle + Sportberger G2 modelcar 450389100 Schuco 1 43,.

Porsche Cayman Gt4 Coupe 2016 Yellow SPARK 1 43 S4939 Model,.GUILOY 1 18 - F1 PredOTIPE - red,.DINKY TOYS 172 FIAT 2300 STATION WAGON ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX NEAR MINT RARE SELTEN,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Fujimi 1 43 - Ferrari 458 Spider Red,.

Hot wheels lot 26 Cars,. We agree in part.

PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET 1970 CAPUCINE YELLOW NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3036 FERRARI 456GT 1992 - METALLIC blueE,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.ASSISTANCE RALLYE LAND + MINI COOPER N°261 1 43,.Bentley - Five Corgi 1927 Model 9001 Toys,.1 43 Minicar Mclaren Mercedes,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Spark 1 43 Scale S2043 Model Car - 1993 Porsche 964 Speedster - White,.SPARK 1 43 S2041 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 3.2 SPEEDSTER CLUBSPORT 1987 WHITE,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Rio 4321 FIAT BALILLA AMBULANZA ITALIANA 1935,; MERCURY 1 43 FIAT 124 - MODEL IN GOOD CONDITION,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.1 Racing No16 1 18 SCALE New in box 187427,.Hot Wheels Display Case Wall Mounted 1 64 Scale Vehicle Racers Authentic New,V & V model Skoda 706R 1946 Pritschenkipper grey,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.F1 RIAL Ford ARC2 V8 Cosworth GP Brazil 1989 Danner STP Spark 1 43,.

1988 Volkswagen VW Passat B3 VR6 Variant black metallic 1 18 KK,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.AUTOART PERFORMANCE TOYOTA MR2 SPYDER 1 18 SCALE NIB,.Opel Commodore C 4 Türig grey metallic 1978, model cars 1 43,.Corgi Toys Gift Set 2 Land Rover With Rices Pony Trailer selten rar rare o3,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, TON10010 - Chargeur CATERPILLAR 950 GC sur pneu - 1 50,; Triple 9 Honda Civic EF9 JTC 1991 PIAA Sug 1 18 1800102,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Schuco 1 43 Art.03527 Mercedes Benz LP608 Pritsche Plane Feuerwehr Oberhausen,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Porsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.3 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 43 Spark - S5961 Citroën C3 WRC Monte Carlo 2018 C. Breen,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

SSM by Herpa 1 43 Panzer IS-2 83SSM3035 7th Guards separate heavy tank brigade,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - REMORQUE PLATEAU - REF MCM06 - 1 50,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Norev 181481 1 18 CITROEN DS19 1959 brown GLACE white CARRARE,.Diecast 1 18 2007 Chevrolet Camaro Congreenible Concept,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE 1969 WALLY BOOTH DRAG RACING 1 18 AUTOWORLD,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER 856XL MODEL TRACTOR REP101,.

Wartburg 353W 1985 Feuerwehr Cars & Co 1 18 NEU OVP,.Porsche 996 GT3 Road Challenge gold White 2004 (Spark 1 43 S4479),.GUILOY TOP LINE 1 18 BMW 327 CABRIO – 1937,.1 43 Hi Story Model Mazda Bongo 1000 route van White Yellow 1968,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Nex 1 18 Scale 18054 1963 Volkswagen T1 Bus Splitscreen Camper Yellow Model car,.

Code 3 Classics 1 64 Scale Seagrave Engine Model 12302 Fire Dept New York,.Neo BMW 3er E21 Baur 1 43 •,.PREMIUM CLASSIXX PREM12059 MERCEDES L911 POSTBRAUEREI 1 43,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 0 MOTO FLOWER POWER 29030,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.HOT WHEELS Fast & Furious Nissan GRAN TURISMO CARGO CARRIER LOT OF 36,.Aurelia B20 n.40 8th Le Mans 1952 Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.NSU Ro 80 Año Fabricación 1972 whiteo 1 18,.Mint Kyosho 1 43 Nissan Concept 2020 Vision Gran Turismo,.Vintage Hot Wheels Whip Creamer Hot Pink Redline US Base,.

RARE, DY-04 (008) Ford E 83 Leipzig 3,4,5 oct. 2003 Model, Dinky, Code 2, w.Box, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark Porsche Carrera Cup Sven 1 43 S5152,.Kado 14 1 43 1959 Toyota Toyopet Crown RS 1500 Handmade White Metal Model Car,. The PartridgeNOREV HENSCHEL HS3-180 TAS 6X6 SEMI REMORQUE PLATEAU BEIGE 1956 au 1 43°,.DV7181 TEAM T DAM GULF GR 8 LM 75 LE MANS 1975 1 43 3° SCHUPPAN JAUSSAUD,.BMW 733i E23 Baujahr 1977 dunkelgreen metallic 1 18 KK-Scale,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Herpa 121736 DAF XF SSC Euro 6 Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Henglein , PC - 1 87, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Trofeu 1129 SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 1ST TDC '97 1 43 Modellino,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.UT Models Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM 1994 1 18 Roland Asch (GER) (MBC),.SPARK HILL GH1 th British GP 1975 - Alan Jones S5675 1 43,PartridgeNEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 - OPEL KADETT CITY 43070 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Tekno Denmark 813 Ferrari racing car SWISS FLAG near mint original condition,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Mercedes-Benz 300SL Le Mans in 1 43 Scale by Spark, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1963 Studebaker Avanti black 1 18 Signature Models 18101,; SPARK Williams FW12 JeanLouis 1 43 S4029,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, ROLLS-ROYCE CORGI CAMARGUE 1 22 MADE IN ITALY, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, VW Escarabajo 1303 Congreenible orange 1973 1 18 Norev 188521, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHostaro Opel Kapitan 1956 in Metallic Green on 1 43 in Box,.

1 24 ROAD SIGNATURE PRESIDENTIAL SERIES 1961 LINCOLN X-100 KENNEDY CAR blueE yd,.1 25 POLISTIL Serie S Porsche 959 Gr.B White MIB No Burago Mebetoys Politoys, Clarke's negligent act.Autocult Brütsch Pfeil 1956 Red 1 43 ATC03003,.BMW 2000 CS 1965 dunkelred KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,.Scale model 1 43 Citroen CX Nilsson,grey 1985 DDR-Staatslimousine mit Standarten,.

Camion Berliet VSA à plateau brun foncé Rétro 87 - SAI 4802 - Echelle 1 87,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Spark Ligier JS P217 Le Mans 2018 Montoya de Sadeleer Owen S7017,SSM 1 43 Kampfpanzer KV-1,. In Noska,Subaru 360 1958 1 24 Big Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast Vol 5,.Hot Wheels HWP9952 FERRARI F 430 WINNER CAMP.ITALIANO 2007 1 43,.Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S blue Ab 2012 1 43 Spark Modell Auto mit oder ohne ind..,.FRANKLIN MINT 1954 CHEVROLET CORVETTE CONgreenIBLE 1 24 SCALE DIE CAST RED w COA, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mint Bmw Mini Bikes Two 1 18,.Mercedes Benz 300 SLR 1955 Model Stirling Moss 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car Rare,.Spark Model SB149 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT3 N.7 14th 24H SPA 2017 SMITH-JARVIS-KAN,.Western Minichamps Kit Monté Métal 1 43 - Porsche 936 Martini N°6 Le Mans 1978,. Id., p 923.

1 18 Sun Star Platinum KAISER HENRY J carribean coral - RARITÄT,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Citroen DS23 Limousine Pallas Dunkel red 1972-1975 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit ..,2004 Subaru Impreza WRX STi 1 18 JADA Import Racer Team redora Diecast NEW ,.Matchbox Lesney No.7-1RW, Horse-Drawn Milk Float,.Fiat 238 Garage Francorchamps Ferrari 1972 1 43 Model RIO,.Schuco 1 43 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 Cup Lim. 1 500 Modellauto Geschenk Spielzeug,.Ebbro 45380 1 43 MOTUL AUTECH GT-R SUPER GT GT500 2016 Rd.4 Sugo No.1 Finished,.Matco Tools Super Nationals Inagural Event October 23-26,1997 1 24 Dragster,.SPARK 1 43 S1311 ABARTH OT 1000 COUPE PININFARINA 1965 WHITE,. The parties Burago Mercedes-AMG GT Die Cast Model Car 1 18 Scale Diecast,.

Fiat 238 Antincendio Pista Fiorano Anni '70 1 43 Model RIO,.LLOYD LT500 1955 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43870,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, FORD MODEL T 1 18th by FRANKLIN MINT , unboxed from Deceased Estate.,; Altaya 1962-74 DAF 2600, Sattelzug Julian & Ellen ,1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

ALPINE RENAULT A310 THERIER TOUR DE CORSE 1974 1 43 SPARK S5478,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Bugatti Eb 110 1991 Bburago 1 18 with Box,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Midget Ii Van 1996 Spark 1 43 SJ031 Miniature,.SSM LAZ-695R Bus USSR Sports SSM-SOV1011,.Norev 1 43 - Citroen DS ID Break RTL avec Cameraman Tour de France 1963,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Corgi 419 Ford Zephyr Motorway Police Car Boxed,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Trofeu TFDERY05 AUDI SPORT QUATTRO N.1 METZ RALLY 1984 ROHRL-GEISTDORFER 1 43 Mo,.PEUGEOT 402 ECLIPSE 1937 New Norev 1 18,.2012 Ferrari 458 Challenge black Mate 1 18 Hot Wheels BCT90,.AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC14 - THE WAYNE ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP - SHELL,.Dinky atlas simca cargo miroitier,. The ScottsdaleSIKU 3279 Fendt 939 Diecast Model Toy,Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,.Record M.R.F. Jaguar XK 140 Cabriolet 1956 kit resin hand built model MIB Superb,. Id.,Minichamps - Heinz Harald Frentzen - Sauber Zetec - C15 - 1996 - 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Sovering gold Met Kess 1 43 KS43020002,; Neo Ford Ranchero - black - 1979 - 1 43,Franklin Mint 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CONgreenIBLE 1 24 w Orig Box,.1 18 Citroën SM 1971 blue platine AC632 - Norev,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 1 43 scale Porsche 911 R 991 2016 Gulf bluee Limited Edition,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MUS 029 IXO 1 43 Lancia Astura Pininfarina 1934,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MERCEDES W123 T - Modell 250 T S123 kombi E Klasse 1980 blue blue KK Metall 1 18,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Haze bluee Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43020003,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi Police Mini Van - bluee - Box B,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps 1 43 Opel Vectra GTS V8 OPC EUredEAM DTM 2004 Limited from Japan,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Brooklyn Models Vintage 1 43 Scale -1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser BRK, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CHEVROLET STREET ROD ENGINE 1 6 MODEL BY LIBERTY CLASSICS 84026, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, RARE TONKA STABLES 52620 -Steel Trailer, 2 Horses & Clear Dome Cover VINTAGE,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeWilleme LD 610 T Fordier Norev 879996 Includes Logs,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Corgi Toys 1 36 MORRIS MINI COOPER 40th ANNIVERSARY ENGLISH WHITE Car MIB`01 ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheWSI 1 50 SCALE 3-AXLE CHEREAU REEFER TRAILER MODEL BN 03-1071,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps PKW 1 43 Porsche 991 GT3 Werksabholung yellow,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Legende 2018 Limited.500 Pcs 1 43 Model NOREV,Uh 5331 Tractor Massey Ferguson 8220 1 3 2 New Boxed,.EFE 1 76 scale Diecast - C3 2 AEC STL Bus 37 Clapham Common Senior service,.CITROEN Xsara WRC Rallye Cyprus Zypern WM 2009 Solberg Lunde Sunstar 1 18,. The HuygheJada 1 24 Bigtime Muskel Vhtf red 1956 Ford F-100 Lkw Neu in Karton B,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCORGI CC05506 THE ITALIAN JOB 1998 ALL ORIGINAL AGE WORN ORIGINAL BOX AS SHOW,.

Quartzo 1 18 Scale 18291 Team Lotus Type 72E E. Fittipaldi 1972 Austrian GP,.Renault Juvaquatre Van 1951 Beige NOREV 1 18 NV185260 Model,.

Diecast Masters 1 50 71002 International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor in Red,.La Mini Miniera 1 43 Scale Model Car 25218G - Alfa Romeo Giulia Special Edition,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Creative Masters NORTHCORD LTD UKBUS 6013 Alexander Dennis Enviro 400,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeRENAULT DOMAINE 1957 STATION WAGON - CLASSIQUE 1 43 HANDMADE IN FRANCE RARE,.AUDI Quattro Rallye Test Monte Carlo 1981 Mouton Pons Testcar Minichamps 1 43,.

For example, in Partridge,Spark Model S5966 FORD FIESTA R5 N.35 11th (WINNER RC2) SWEDEN 2018 T.KATSUTA-M.,. In Jorgensen, supra,Special Delivery Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Deep Dish,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Minichamps 1 18 Porsche 959 1987 grijsmetallic nieuw in doos,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,LANCIA Delta S4 Rallye Gr.B San Remo Tabaton Esso 1986 IXO Triple9 N 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Schuco 1 43 Büssing 8000 Tankwagen Westfalen AG LKW Box 03131 105553,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark Models 1 43 Scale Resin S2117 - Jaguar XK120 Le Mans 1950,. Detroit Edison, supra.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 LOTUS F1 TEAM RENAULT E22 ROMAIN GROSJEAN 2014 417140008,.MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR 1927 AHREN'S FOX FIRE ENGINE MIB,.Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S. (bluee) 1930,.

Fiat 238 Assistenza Fiat 1971 1 43 Model RIO4239 RIO,.