Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO RIO RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model 2f9025

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO RIO RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model 2f9025
Bohemia TCHECOSLOVAQUIE n° 60A TATRA 75 Cabriolet fermé résine 1 43 rare,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals ALTAYA 1 18 Datsun 240Z - 1971 - E. Herrmann NEUF EN BOITE,.Chevrolet Nova Open Congreenible 1963 Saddle Tan 1 18 Model 3975 SUN STAR,.Trofeu 1129 SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 1ST TDC '97 1 43 Modellino,.Peugeot 403 Cabriolet, red, 1 18 - WELLY,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.2 MINT RARE Lesney Matchbox Toyota Celica Japanese J-21 & J-22 Picture Box JAPAN,.Solido 1 43 Land Rover 109 LWB Reserve Africaine + Wild Life Cage Trailer Mint ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.LLOYD LS 300 1951 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43960,.MARK43 1 43 Suzuki Hustler G Passion orange Finished Item,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark Model S5152 PORSCHE CARRERA CUP N.2 MOBIL 1 SUPERCUP 2016 SVEN MULLER 1 43,.1 43 Tanariv (France) WM LM85 Handmade Resin Model Car,.Plymouth Superbird ,winner Daytona 500 1970, Spark, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Ferrari California T Open Top Two color Bundle, Bburago - Two 1 18 Diecast Cars,.Ossamu Tezuka Princess Sapphire Figure RARE,.TEKNO HOLLAND 950 MERCEDES BENZ 0302 OAD REIZEN - CREAM 1 50 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.(V) triang spot on FORD ZEPHYR SIX - 270,.

Mercedes F1 Lewis Hamilton Gagnant Abu Dhabi Gp 2016 1 43 Echelle Minichamps,.Bentley Continental Gt Speed Cabrio St.James Red 2012 Minichamps 1 43 436139061,.Mercedes-Benz Clase C Congreenible (A205) Diamante whiteo 1 18,.Peugeot 302 Darl ´ Mat Cabriolet 1937 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.RENAULT 1000 KG BOUCHERIE SERIE LIMITEE 1000 EX CIJ BY NOREV NEUF EN BOITE,.

NACORAL 1 43 JAVELIN NO= 104 - GOOD CONDITION - IN ORIGINAL SHOWCASE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 1994 Lotus Esprit S300 Le Mans SPARK,.MERCEDES BENZ LP 608 PORSCHE GULF 1 43 SCHUCO,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK19 001A - 1955 Chrysler 300C Hardtop Coupe - Red,Volkswagen KDF Cabrio Eagle's Nest 1938 With 5 Figur 1 43 MINIMINIERA MMRIO4248P,.1 18 Norev Citroen GS Club 1972 Camargue bluee blue Nr. 181625 in OVP,.

PORSCHE 911 2.4S (green) 1972 1 43 SPARK S4925,.MATCHBOX COLLECTIBLES YYM38060 - 1950 FORD E83W FIELD SERVICE AMBULANCE,.POLITOYS E Ghibli Maserati ref 591 EXPORT (made in ) + Box,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Pilen M282 Indra Rallye Rally car,. We agree in part.

VW Passat B3 Variant VR6 (1991) 1 18 KK Scale KK180073,.Bentley Corniche Green Metallic 1971 1 43 NEO 44145,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Corgi US06006 America's Finest Dodge Monaco New York State Police Ltd Edition,.Yat Ming 20038 1914 Ford Model T Fire Engine 1 18 Scale New In Box,.1 18 Norev Fiat 500 Giardiniera 1962 light green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; FDS Kit à Monter 1 43 - Ferrari 250 TR Testarossa 1958,.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4578 TRIUMPH TR6 1969 GREEN,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, RARE Gaz 67-420 Jeep Medical Car Ambulance Hand Made Vector models 1 43,; SEAT IBIZA ST break anthracite 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Hot Wheels super treasure hunt 70 Plymouth Super bird Green ,.Burago 5.5” RENAULT 5TL RALLY 1 24 Diecast Model CAR Vintage 0115 Red RARE,Franklin Mint 1 24 Duesenberg J 1935 New NOS Mintnoboxed Worldwide shipping,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Johnny Lightning Fast & Furious Chevy Chevelle SS 1970 OVP,.

ZIL -130 Kung Emergency service Gorsvet of Night Watch film 1 43 SSM,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Spark 1 43 Scale S4503 - Citroen DS3 WRC th Abu Dhabi 2015,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA Super 1300 - 1 43 Mebetoys A-3,.Mclaren P1 2013 orange AutoArt 1 43 AA56012 Model,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Wiking 1 32 077325 Traktor Claas Arion 650 mit Frontlader - NEU OVP,; Spark - 1 43 - Dallara F3 Macau GP 2014 - Max Verstappen,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MPC 1 25 PROMO - CHEVROLET VEGA 1976 LIME GREEN - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO RIO RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model 2f9025Volkswagen Beetle Kafer With Ski 1953 Red RIO RIO RIO 1 43 RIO4561 Model 2f9025

Spark 1 43 Scale S3035 - F1 Lotus E20 Monaco GP 2012,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Best Model BT9440 FERRARI 275 GTB SPIDER RED S.MC QUEEN 1 43 Modellino,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MODELLINO OPEL KADETT C CARAVAN 1978 GREEN IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.CORGI KITS CIRCUS ELEPHANT & TRANSPORT CAGE OVP 1 43,.MAISTO 1 18 36115 JEEP WRANGLER RUBICON BRUSH FIRE UNIT,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Sunbeam Tiger Mki Coupe Ht 1964 bluee Spark 1 43 S4057 Model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Fiat Balilla Autocarro 1935 Pubblicita' Balilla + Figure 1 43 RIO4364P RIO,.

Model 1 1 76 Dbay Mercedes-Benz O305 Diecast - HKR120 rt.4 9A Hong Kong Buses,.BEST MODEL BT9398 FERRARI 512 BB green black 1 43,.Rio 4329 GENERAL 40 HP GRAND PRIX 1902 1 43 Modellino,.DINKY Meccano England original 1947 RILEY SALOON RMA RMB (40a) light green,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Eligor ELI101489 HOTCHKISS PL20 4x4 CCF LE PERREON 1 43 Modellino,.

Conrad MAN F2000 + Trailer Man for Europe in White on 1 50,.Diecast Masters 1 50 Trailer Head Toy Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Car,.Joblot 24 mix 1950 to 1970 bus corgi & matchbox,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Volkswagen Bulli T1 Samba Fiera Di Norimberga 2019 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180153N Mod,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.EBBRO Porsche 910 1969 Japan GP (blue white) 1 43 OVP ,.FERRARI FXX EVOLUZIONE blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS T6922,.VW VOLKSWAGEN pretzel beetle + sportberger G2 Caravan 1 43 Schuco 450389100 NEW,.Ebro 1 43 D station ADVAN GT-R 2014 finished product,.VINTAGE DIAPET YONEZAWA NISSAN R 382 1 40 RED COMME NEUF EN BOITE,.

Matrix Opel Diplomat B Fissore Cabriolet in White 1971 MX11502-011 Ltd 504 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Abarth 1000 Bialbero Gt 1961 Red 1 43 Spark S1301 Model,.Ikarus-280.33 articulated city bus, Moscow green-white ,. The PartridgeHERPA FERRARI TESTAROSSA TRAILER- DUTCH PROMO - RED 1 87 VERY RARE - GOOD IN BOX,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3303 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Mexico Rally 2011,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 410 150206 - Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 W06 Hybrid,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR TEAM AUTORLANDO SPORT 24H LE MANS 2007 IN METALLO, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Mercedes Benz 300Sl Coupe 1956 Red Spark 1 43 S4959 Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Renault Sport R.S.01 Interceptor 2016 black white, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.IFA ROBUR GARANT 30 K - DDR FEUERWEHR Saßnitz mit Anhänger _ ATLAS IXO 1 43,PartridgeOriginal Land Rover Modellauto Discovery HSE Luxury Edition 1 43 51LDDC009SLY,.MODELLINO FORD C-MAX COMPACT 2010 ROSSA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 32 Britains (England) Limited Edition 1893-1993 centenary tractor, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 Spark Falken Porsche 911 GT3 R VLN Nürburgring ´11 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCAR,; Schuco Mercedes-Benz Unimog U300 1 43 Feuerwehr FFW Stuttgart (JS),; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18070BK, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ford Sierra Rs Cosworth 1986 Grey Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMinichamps 410150044 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS F1 TEAM W06 HYBRID LEWIS HAMILTO,.

Mercedes Benz E-Class 300Ce 24V Cabriolet 1990 NOREV 1 18 NV183567,.Mga Twin Cam Soft Roof 1958 bluee 1 43 Bizarre Bz380 Model Car, Clarke's negligent act.Spark Model S5258 BRABHAM BT44 R.ROBARTS 1974 N.8 15th BRAZILIAN GP 1 43 Modelli,.NEO 1 43 - HONDA CRX DEL SOL 1992 (DUTCH VERSION) - EXCELLENT CONDITION- 32,.KK-Scale KKDC180022 Alfa Romeo Alfasud, 1974, white,.

True Scale 1 43 Lola T280 HU3 N. Takahara Coca-Cola 114341,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Alfa Romeo 8C Le Mans 1934 E. Howe - T. pink Richards Spark S3887 1 43,Schuco Mercedes 170 V Kastenwagen 1 18,. In Noska,Mercedes S class 600SEL W220 1 43 Minichamps,.1 18 KK Alfa Romeo weiss white Limited Edition OVP,.Hot Wheels 2006 Acceleracers POWER BOMB Team color Series 2,.Peugeot 106 1 43 kit COMPLETAMENTE IN METALLO, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mercedes Sprinter Die Post Bringt Pakete Eligor 1 43,.( Gokr ) 1 18 Autoart Mercedes Benz C - Class,.ANTIQUE GAS POWERED MILITARY ISSUED HEATER FOR ARMY VEHICLE,.Bulli VW T3 Porsche B32.Bus Baujahr 1984 hellblue met. KK-Scale KKDC180222 1 18,. Id., p 923.

MERCEDES LP911 Camoin Citerne MILCH PREMIUM CLASSIXXS 18277 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 43 GEMBALLA AVALANCHE GTR 500 (RED) Spark S0729,MODELLINO AUDI A4 R. CAPELLO DTM 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Meccano 20074036 Junior Fire Engine,.Politoys APS 45 Lancia Flaminia Coupe scala 1 41 made in ,.FORD Fiesta New WRC 2018 Rallye Monte Carlo Bouffier Yacco Royal Spark 1 43,.Ferrari 330 P4 Jouref Evolution Scala 1 18 Made in ,.DS E-Tense Salon De Geneve 2016 Metallic Green 1 43 Model PM0103 NOREV,.Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S 2017 bluee SPARK 1 43 S4977 Model,. The parties FN MPC 2-1014 N GAUGE BUILDING KIT 1 32 MASERATI INDY,.

Spark Model S4424 PORSCHE 934 N.68 DNF LM 1978 POULAIN-FEITLER-HOLUP-DOREN 1 43,.Dinky Toys 25d Type 2 Petrol Tanker Original Rare,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MAYBACH ZEPPELIN 1932 WHITE blueE blue WEISS L. E. 528 PMA 436039408 1 43 NEW OVP,; PORSCHE 911 934 DRM 1976 Norisring Vaillant Wollek Kremer Minichamps 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Ferrari 250 California ISA 1959 1 43 Red + White Roof Model 0245 ART-MODEL,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark 1 43 BR01 - Nissan n.27 LMP2 SMP Racing S4644,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Citroen DS19 Charles De Gaulle 1960 With Figure 1 43 Model RIO,.FORD Coupé bordeaux 1949 echelle 1 18 MIRA 6251 voiture miniature de collection,.Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC062 - Lancia D24 - Mille Miglia 1954,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Danbury Mint 1959 Cadillac Series 62,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MINICHAMPS® 400 051112 1 43 VW 411 Variant 1969 Feuerwehr Offenburg NEU OVP,.AUDI R8 RED 2008 HARD TOP MAISTO 1 18 PREMIERE EDITION SCALE 1 18 red red,.Rare 2003 Revell 08444 1 18 Scale VW Microbus Concept Car Metal Diecast Model,.Audi Coupe GT 1981 Light golden - Metallic Brown 1 43 NEO 43377 NEW,.Oxford Diecast 1 18 Scale 18MBC006 - Messerschmitt KR200 - Royal bluee,. The ScottsdaleSchuco 7259 OPEL GTC CONCEPT 1 43 Modellino,(34) Hot Wheels Nissan 240sx 180SX TYPE X lot multiple generations,.Trofeu TF1729 BMW 2002 TI N.11 15th RALLY RAC 1973 A.WARMBOLD-J.TODT 1 43 Modell,. Id.,Brumm BM0288CH FERRARI 126 C2 M.ANDRETTI 1982 N.28 3rd ITALY GP 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev Porsche 911 GT2 2007 white 1 18 187572 5,; Corgi Toys 217 Fiat 1800 two-tone car made in Gt Britain Near Mint,Brumm BM0534 FERRARI 250 GTO N.19 2nd LM 1962 GUICHET-NOBLET 1 43 Modellino,.Matchbox super Kings K-97A1.Version Set complited Mint OVP good Condition 1983,. The ScottsdaleA Corgi cc20101 Fred Dibnah's choice Fowler B6 with low loader & boiler,,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 Ixo Fiesta Wrc 2012 9,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; GMC Vandura Van A-Team Bj.1983 - Oldtimer Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Giocher PN01P PUNTO NUOVA POLIZIA,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Modeler's 1 43 Takumi Fujiwara AE86 Trueno New Initial D the Movie,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 RS 2.7 Limited Edition 1 of 1973 weiss white in OVP,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Porsche 911 991 II Carrera S Coupe Weiss Endurance Racing Edition Ab 2012 limi.., (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Mazda Mx-5 Nr-A Anno di Costruzione 2015 Bianco 1 18 Tripla 9, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Herpa 1 87 Kenworth Henglein Kühlkoffersattelzug by Rosner,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeIxo 1 43 Mitsubishi Lancer Evo V 1998 Year Osutorariarari Won T. Mak New F S,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, RARE AUTO PILEN CHEVROLET ASTRO I blueE METAL REF 315 MADE IN SPAIN 1971 1 43 bis,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheConrad 2826 1 50 Liebherr Hydraulik Kettenbagger R952 excavator yellow Box 105096,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CODE 3 WOOD RIVER ILLINOIS,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 082100 - 1992 Ford Escort RS Cosworth - Red,Bmw 2000 Cs 1965 Dark Red Limited 1000 Pcs 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Autoart 1 43 Jaguar C-Type Siver; Near Mint,.Neo 1 43 Opel Kadett C City Irmscher, black,. The HuygheMERCEDES BENZ O 307 Überland Linienbus - SONDERMODELL POST Edition Brekina 1 87,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNOREV 1 18 1956 CITROEN 2CV FOURGONNETTE BERLIET 181600,.

Best Model BT9701 PORSCHE 550 RS N.118 2nd T.FLORIO 1959 MAHLE-STRAHLE-LINGE 1 4,.1 43 Nissan Gt-R 2007 Ebro Kyosho,.

1958 Studebaker golden Hawk RED 1 18 Road Legends YatMing 20018,.1 43 Minichamps Porsche 356 A Speedster , 1956 , Weiss,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Neo 45100 Fiat 1100 ES Pininfarina 1950,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeInnocenti Mini Cooper 1300 Export 1973 Red 1 43 Kess Model KS43012030,.Simca Aronde Monthlery Special 1962 Grey Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.

For example, in Partridge,Renault Magnum 08 Autotransporter-HZ + 3 MB Vito Obermann Herpa 155748,. In Jorgensen, supra,MATCHBOX YESTERYEAR Y-13 1918 CROSSLEY UK MATCHBOX MEMBERS CHRISTMAS 1979,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche 962C Le Mans Winner 1988 1 18 Norev 187403,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ebbro 1 43 Honda Coupe 9 1970 Yellow from Japan,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark - 1 43 - Porsche GT3 R Macau GP 2014,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark S7623 Porsche 911 GT2 RS Baujahr 2018 in indisch red 1 43 NEU ,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Sunstar audi quattro 1 18,.POLISTIL 10401 BMW R75 R 75 R-75 ELEPHANT MOTOR MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,.BENTLEY Continental Gt Ride-On Push Car,.

Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 121662 - 1974 Fiat X1 9 - Red (Copper),.