Spark 1 43 Scale - S0056 Dome S101-Judd S101-Judd S101-Judd LM 2004 d00cdf

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Spark 1 43 Scale - S0056 Dome S101-Judd S101-Judd S101-Judd LM 2004 d00cdf
SSM Soviet Tank T-64B-60 1 43 3031,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals The Brooklin Collection 1 43 Studebaker Two Tone Starliner 1953,.Corvette C6 R Le Mans 2007 1 43 Model S0168 SPARK MODEL,.MAJORETTE CHERVOLET IMPALA TAXI S200 1 64 RARE MODEL,.Vintage Maisto Special Edition 1959 Cadillac Eldorado Biarritz Pink 1 18 MIB,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE CASE IH STEIGER 485HD TRACTOR MODEL BN COMBO1,.Minichamps 1 18 - F1 Sauber Petronas C20 Heidfeld,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Politoys no.107 Lancia scala 1 45,.IXO 1 43 Scale Metal Model LMC143 - Jaguar XJ-R9 V12 Le Mans 1988,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1974 Rover 3500 V8 Policia Reino Unido 1 18 MC Group 18045,.Morgan 4-4 Flat Radiator S1 RHD 1936 green, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Diecast Car Model Changan CS15 SUV 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT , Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Wiking MB Actros MP1 Easy Container Sattelzug Vi586,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 5 Türer red 1972-1983 1 18 KK-Scale Modell Auto mit ode..,.PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 RS 2014 RIVIERAblue 1 43 Minichamps 410063222,.Art Model AM0058 FERRARI 290 MM STREET 1957 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.

Mebetoys No A27 Ferrari P4 Racing Car - Red (Original 1960's Boxed),.BENTLEY Brooklands Coupe 2007 STUNNING BIANCO LINEA Minichamps 1 of 2008 pcs,.Mark43 1 43 Honda Civic Type R FK2 Sunlight Yellow PM4348Y,.Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 dunkelblue - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.1999 RED Ford Mustang Cobra SVT 1 24 Diecast Model 1999-2004,.

NOREV159984 - CITROEN T46 EDF Ech 1 43 - 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Corgi Toys Vintage Model Car 208 - Jaguar 2.4 Litre Saloon - White,.Mercedes Benz L 3500 Tankwagen ARAL 1954 cistern Minichamps 1 43 439350071,.Die Cast Model 1 24 F60 AMERICA 2014 Ferrari Collection No.42 New from Japan,2018 HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER ULTIMATE CHASE Q CARD VARIATION,.Spark Model S1147 Lola T70 MkII Gurney winner Can-Am Bridgehampton, Boxed,.

Matchbox Moko Lesney 3 cement mixer perfect orange metal wheels mint in box,.Bmw 502 Congreenible Autenrieth Brown 1 43 Neoscale NEO46385 Model,.Kess Porsche 924 Le Mans Edition in White 1982 KE43024002 Ltd Ed 225 1 43 NEW,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

CORGI 239 VOLKSWAGEN 1500 KARMANN GHIA - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.

TOYOTA Tercel 4WD 1983 Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44530,. We agree in part.

Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1951 Jaguar C-Type,.1 43 Mark43 Nissan Fairlady 240ZG bluee Metallic,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.35d AUSTIN 7 OPEN TOURER (Yellow Version) RARE ,.SB13 Herpa 303392 MB Actros MP2 Titan Schwerlast-SZ + Röhre Kübler 1 87 OVP,.MODELCARGROUP MCG18047 FORD COUNTRY SQUIRE METALLIC GREEN WOOD 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; LIONTOYS 2040001 DAF 105 XF SC 8x4 Szm weiss 1 50,.FORD F350 Ambulance Air Force (1982) silverINA diecast 1 43 New Condition toy,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NOREV 1 18 1987 PORSCHE 911 TURBO TARGA 3.3 DIE-CAST blueE 187663,; 1965 Ford Shelby Mustang GT 350R White with bluee Stripes with Signature 1 18 by,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Renault Megane RS • Sirius Yellow • 2017 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Carmen Red-High End Diecast,Spark - 1 43 - ART Grand Prix McLaren MP4-12C GT3 , 24H Spa 2014,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Xx Siku 3477 MB Trac 1800 1 3 2 Farmer Nip Xx,.

Matchbox Superfast German Issue No 33 Police Motorcyclist GREEN POLIZEI MIB RARE,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Norev Alpine Renault A110 1600S whitehe 1971 1 18 185303 19,.Mikansue 1 43 Scale Built Model Car Kit 22 - Adler Racing Car White Unboxed,.Wiking Valtra T174 mit Frontlader - 1 32,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Schuco Varianto Limo 3041 in excellent working all original condition,; Minichamps 1 43 1989 Mercedes-Benz 500 SEL Limousine- Kohl, MIN436039300,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Neo LaSalle Series 50 Coupe - metallic-red - 1940 - 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

SIKU PORSCHE 928 - 1037 - Lufthansa Junior Service - blue - NEU,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Maisto 1 18 scale Diecast - 31815 Ford Mustang Mach III Yellow,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Ferrari California Spider 2014 Red 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 18 Signature Lincoln Zephyr 1939 Cabrio red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.(V) triang spot on AUSTIN HEALEY 100 6 - 105,.KYOSHO 09501GRG Lamborghini Veneno grey metallic - 1 18 NEU in OVP ,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Corgi ERF Ect & C S Trailer- J R Adams,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Trax TRS9 25th Ann Set Ford Falcon XR GT Road Car & 1967 Gallaher 500 Race Car,.

Land Rover Range Rover Evoque Baujahr 2011 baltic blue 1 18 Century Dragon,.VINTAGE HOT WHEELS 1969 REDLINE YELLOW PEEPING BOMB-MADE IN USA-VERY NICE PIECE,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 410 120082 - Force India F1 Team Showcar 2012,.Gulf Racing McLaren MP4-12C GT3 24H Francorchamps 2012 , Truescale models,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.B9914 Handmade Iron Reminiscence Decoration L 26W 12H 15 Cm Classic Car Model,.

Minichamps 1 43 - Mercedes E Class 1994 W124 Cabriolet pinkwood,.Minichamps 430 051038 Volkswagen 1957 Karman Ghia Cabriolet light bronze 1 43,.PORSCHE 966 Spyder 1992 Brumos Racing Sebring Resin TSM SP 1 43,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Porsche 911 Supercup Champion 1998 P. Huisman Minichamps Nr. 430986910,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Citroen GS 5 Türer Beige 1970-1986 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indivi..,.MIRA 4017 SEAT 128 URGENCIAS - AMBULANCE - WHITE 1 43 - GOOD IN BOX - ( FIAT ),.RARE Corgi 77501 1960's DC Comics 1 24 diecast Batmobile with BatCommunicator,.Redline Hotwheels Aqua 1970 Light My Firebird oc17823,.Herpa 1 87 MAN TGX XXL FC Bayern FCB Triple Sieger Fahren MAN,.

NOREV Auto modélisme CitrŒn DS E-Tense Salon de Genève 2016 - Echelle 1 18 - Ver, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 RS 1973 white green 187636,.Ebbro EB44058 LEXUS SC430 N.39 DENSO DUNLOP SARD SUPER GT 08 1 43,. The PartridgeMcLaren MP4-12C Spider (RHD) - white - TSM-Model - 1 43,.Neo 1 43 NEO43397 1975 JENSEN INTERCEPTOR S3 DHC Red ..Mint n Boxed.,.Herpa Set Scania 143 & Iveco „Auf Achse Edition 5 – Folge 33-37“ Nr 157155 H512,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Ebbro 44204 Lotus Europa S2 Type 65 1969 bluee (Resin) 1 43 scale, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Volkswagen VW Maggiolino Wiesbaden Police Speed Control 1957 1 43 Model RIO,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1953 Corvette Polo White 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33142,.F1 BRABHAM BMW M Power Turbo BT55 Monaco GP 1986 Angelis Olivetti Spark 1 43,PartridgeERTL 1957 Chevrolet BELAIR American Muscle 1 18 Diecast Red White,.Scania 1 50 Tekno (ohne Box),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BC Transit New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701009 Standard (2018), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 24-2 YELLOW WEATHERHILL EXCAVATOR KGPW,; Norev Citroën Dyane 6 - Tuileries green 1 18 - 181621,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, TEK70480 - Container 40 pieds réfrigéré YANG MING - 1 50, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 911 RSR , 24H LeMans 1994 , Spark models,.

Porsche 918 Spyder indisch red 1 18 Welly,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK27 003 - 1957 Eldorado Brougham PCTS Special 1 Of 750, Clarke's negligent act.DINKY TOYS FRANCE 531 FIAT 1200 Grande vue avec glaces Réf 531,.Corgi CC10705 Scammell Highwayman Ballast & Caravan for Harris's in 1 50 Scale.,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3362 - Mini JCW WRC th Monte Carlo 2013,.

1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Cream White-High End Diecast,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 410130201 Replica Model, bluee,MCG Opel Manta B Mattig 1991 yellow-blue 1 18 aus dem Film Manta-Manta 18095,. In Noska,Corgi Smith's Karrier US Army Field Kitchen, Good Condition,.Gama 1 41 Opel GT 1900 hellred,.Ferrari 512Bb Shilhouette Prova 1978 Be9275 1 43 Model Car Diecast,.UH UNIVERSAL HOBBIES - RENAULT 5 GT turbo - white - 1 43 - Modellauto model car, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Politoys 508 Russian Remake 1 43 Innocenti Morris IM3 Diecast Model Car,.Art Model AM0305 FERRARI 166 MM SPYDER N.14 WINNER MAR DEL silver 1950 C.MENDITEG,.LOT 51146 Seltener Schuco 763 LKW Krupp Wasserwagen original 60er Jahre,.Solido RACING Renault Mégane Tropy 2007 1 18 Pedro Petiz (POR) (MCC) NEW OVP,. Id., p 923.

BMW M3 E30 ND MACAU GP 1987 D. QUESTER SPARK LIM. SA033 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, SPARK 1 43 MX012 PORSCHE 997 CARRERA CUP 2008 ALERTE,Spark Model Lotus 24 Maurice Trintignant 1 43 S2138,.Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 21 2006 1 43 de la pink (ESP) GP HUN (JS),.RENAULT ALPINE A 442 H LE MANS 1978 RAGNOTTI FREQUELIN NOREV 1 18,.CLAAS Direct Disc 520 with Cutting Unit Trolley,.(Go) 1 18 Minichamps Lamborghini gellardo LP600 +GT3 NIP,.Toyota IQ 2009 Pearl 1 43 Model 44696 EBBRO,.Spark Mercedes-Benz F600 Concept Car 2006 1 43 gold Metallic (JS),. The parties MINICHAMPS 430 062328 Porsche 356 C Coupe 1963 black 1 43,.

Mint Ebro 1 43 Motul Advan Z 07 Rare â–ª,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 991 GT3 Cup PCCA 2014 Egidio Perfetti Limited 500 SA062,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Pre-owned Franklin mint 1960 Mercedes Benz 300SL, no Box, loose,,; SUPERB MINT BOXED 1972 - 1973 CORGI TOYS NO 164 WILD HONEY DRAGSTER , (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 18 Minichamps Mercedes Gallardo LP600 GT3 Reiter NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Best Model BT9586 PORSCHE 55O RS N.33 RETIRED LM 1957 LARROUSSE-VON FRANKENBER,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Chevrolet Impala El Camino 1959 bluee White 1 43 Spark S2906 Model,.Walldorf Miniaturen kit Mercedes-Benz 170 S Cabriolet 1 43 (JS),.Ford P2 Estate (Turquoise White) 1957-1960,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 43 BO8BK 1970 CHEVROLET CAMARO TransAm KIT BY SMTS,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Tatra 111 Flatbed with cover 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs 47028,.MCG Mercedes Benz 460K Nurburg 460 460 K (W 1 18 18033,.1 64 Kyosho Fiat Panda,.Norev Renault Caravelle 1964 - Finlande blue Metallic 1 18 - 185151,.1 18 Sunstar Mercedes Benz E320 E Klasse Taxi mit OVP,. The ScottsdaleCLC090 _ TATRA 603 - 1970 CZ _ IXO 1 43 in Vitrine,Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982,.Mercedes 220 SE Coupe (W128) 1958 red, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,. Id.,Renault 5 Turbo Hertz" Yellow white 1 18 4554,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Citroen Gs 1971 Erable Beige 1 18 Norev 181623 Grande Series,; BROOKLIN 46X 1959 CHEVROLET ELCAMINO,Ertl Peachstate 1969 Shelby Cobra GT-500 1 18 Scale Diecast '69 Mustang Car,.Peugeot D4B Ambulance 1963 White NOREV 1 18 NV184699 Miniature,. The ScottsdaleNorev - Traffic Police Municipal 2014 Renault Vehicle Miniature, 518025, White,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Spark 1 43 Scale US020 - Mazda Predotype 6H Of Watkins Glen 2016,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Display case, Mahogany wood colour base Hand made, scratch resistant acryli,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 5284 Ursus 1201 - 2WD, 1 32 Universal Hobbies UH,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GAZ M22 Volga Ambulance 1960 NEO 43808 resin 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Huion Inspiroy H640P Graphic Drawing Tablet Battery-free Stylus Pen digital with,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, MINICHAMPS WILLIAMS BMW MALAYSIAN JP.MONTOYA R.SCHUMACHER1 43 F1 BOITE D'ORIGINE, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1971 FORD MUSTANG STEVE CONDIT LA HOOKER NHRA FUNNY CAR 1 18 AUTOWORLD AW1106, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SSM LKW 1 43 KSP-2001 (66) Feuerwehr,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePorsche 956 n.2 Le Mans 1983 Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18Kyosho Lamborghini Urakan Resin Model Car,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMinichamps 410152491 BMW M4 Team RMG Marco Wittmann DTM 2015 - 1 43 ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.RENAULT 8 Gordini Rallye Tour de Corse Piot 1966 RAR IXO Altaya 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Scale model 1 18 Ferrari 348 TB red,1964 Ford Mustang 1-2 Congreenible Indianapolis 500 Pace Car 1 18 Auto World AW20,.BMW 635 CSi “STP” Intertec 1985, spark models,.Porsche 911 Carrera Rs 2.7 Coupe 1973 White Green Deco NOREV 1 18 NV187636 Model,. The HuygheHerpa 310062 - 1 87 - Man Tgx Xlx Teletrailer Semitrailer M.Windmill Wings New,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-97 RANGE ROVER POLICE SET OVP 1979,.

Faie Swift Runner Diecast Cars Lot of 8 Hong Kong Camaro Mustang Trans Am more,.Volkswagen Beetle Maggiolino Lufthansa 1957 bluee Yellow Rio 1 43 RIO4502 Model,.

1 43 Dism Cedric Van Y30 Pr Car Fuji Nishi Fire Service,.PORSCHE 911 type 930 CABRIOLET US black 1 43,. Nonetheless, on the facts of EFE 1 76 Scale - 32101A RMF Routemaster last day of route 38 subscriber special,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1969 Chevrolet Camaro Yenko 1 24 Diecast Greenlight--like the fast & furious car,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3362 - Mini JCW WRC th Monte Carlo 2013,.

For example, in Partridge,Hot Wheels And Matchbox Lot 39,. In Jorgensen, supra,NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 281 Mercedes Benz 280 W126 Light bluee,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Chevrolet Bel Air 2400C Cabriolet 1953 blue bluee metallic 1 18 Sun Star,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Signature Models 1949 Jaguar XK 120 1 18 Scale Diecast Metal Roadster Car,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark 1 43 Ken Okuyama Design Kode9 GULF SJ034,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Peugeot D4B Ambulance (1963) 1 18 Norev 184699,. Detroit Edison, supra.

DCP 1 64 SCALE PETERBILT 379 60 BUNK WHITE RED TOP, FENDERS, AND STRIPE,.NOREV 1 18 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3L Coupè 1987 Olive Green Art. 187575,.AUDI Studie Predotyp Quattro Spyder 1991 orange Resin BOS Sonderpreis 1 18,.

JadaTOYS 1 24scale FAST & FURIOUS 7 Dom's '70 Dodge Charger R T (OFF ROAD,.