Rio 4317 FIAT 501S 501S 501S SAETTA DEL RE 1915 18 1 43 7154b0

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Rio 4317 FIAT 501S 501S 501S SAETTA DEL RE 1915 18 1 43 7154b0
CORGI CLASSICS 1 50 31002 NATIONAL BENZOLE FODEN FG TANKER & MORRIS J VAN,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark Model S5810 LIGIER JS P217 GIBSON N.23 DNF LM 2017 BARTHEZ-BURET-BERTHON 1,.Hot Wheels LIBERTY PROMOTIONS Surfin' Series 1 WAVE RIDER (VW DRAG BUS),.Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Gta Coupe' 1988 Met. Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO46023,.METAL BUILT KIT SQUIRE - 2 SEATER - PALE blueE 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Ford P7 Estate (Green Metallic) 1968,.AVD ZIS-151 Fire engine PRM-43 model kit 1 43 1377AVD,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.KIT FERRARI F92A 1992 ALESI CAPELLI 1 20 FUJIMI 09054 SP8,.Corgi Toys 96011 MR.Bean's Mini perfect mint in box all original condition,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Pilen Renault 17 TS made in Spain 1 43 scale rare model near mint condition,.Trofeu Minipartes Ford Sierra RS Cosworth Ireland COL 1987 1 43 Diecast,.Volkswagen Beetle 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 -188523 NOREV, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Saurer D 330 Swiss Army green Tek Hoby 1 87,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 403651203 - 1965 Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 2 - Red,.Minichamps Volkswagen T1 Kombi Kastenwagen Resch & Frisch 1963 1 43 430052216,.1957 Studebaker golden Hawk Arctic White in 1 18 Scale Diecast by Sunstar SS6152,.

Ferrari F1 Hot Wheels model,.Diecast Car Model Toyota C-HR CHR 1 18 (Green White) + GIFT ,.Rio RI4452 FIAT 508 BALILLA N.57 8th (3rd) MONTE CARLO 1933 PRINCE NARISCHKINE 1,.Ferrari 250 Monza Spider Pininfarina Street Version 1954 JOLLY MODEL 1 43 JL6076,.Schuco Mercedes-Benz O 319 1 43 Varta (JS),.

SHELBY COLLECTIBLES 133 1966 SHELBY MUSTANG GT-350H 1 18 RED with gold STRIPES,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Kyosho Original 1 43 Toyota 86 Gt Limited 2016 As Light Bull JAPAN Import,.1992 McLaren F1 XP-1 First Predotype McLaren F1 in 1 43 Scale by TSM,.CORGI 74401 1 50 FRENCH Citroen T55 Grande-Echelle Sapeurs Pompiers de Mulhouse,Citroen HY 1969 grey 1 18 Solido neu + OVP 1850020,.NEO NEO45220 1 43 AUDI 80 GR.II W.BERGMEISTER H-J.NOWAK ETCC MONZA 1980,.

GREENLIGHT 1 18 1965 FORD XP FALCON (50TH ANNIVERSARY) BUS DIE-CAST blueE DDA001,.WILLIAMS FW20 GP AUSTRALIA 1998 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.AUDI A5 CABRIOLET WHITE 2009 NOREV 188351 + CAPOTE SOUPLE brown ROADSTER,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

DINKY TOYS - 129 VW VOLKSWAGEN DE LUXE SALOON BEETLE,.

Schuco 4768 AUDI R8 V10 NURBURGRING 2009 1 43 Modellino,. We agree in part.

Mercedes Sauber C9 Winner Suzuka 400km 1989 1 18 Norev 183441,.METOSUL 5 VW VOLKSWAGEN KAFER GNR SUPERBE AVEC BOITE 1 43 TRES RARE,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Norev 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Van 270521 - 1965 Ford Transit - Red,.Dale Earnhardt Jr 1 6 Remote Control Car - RARE no Budweiser sponsorship,.Lamborghini Reventon Matt Grey Museum Series Minichamps 1 43 436103950 Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 5209 Deutz-Fahr TTV 7250 - 2017 Version 1 32,.Code 3 corgi tekno stobart rail hook loader drawbar combo (l@@k),. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3007 Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa 1957 Red,; BMW 3er 3 er Series 323i E30 Limousine dark red r 1982 Minichamps Diecast 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

BUS SAVIEM S53M TRANSCAR NOREV 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,.Borgward Hansa 2400 Pullman bianco grey 1955 Neo 1 43 NEO44355 Model,Porsche 911 2.0 T Coupé 1969 Burgundred 1 18 Norev 187630,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronze 1 18 Model 185271 NOREV,.

C.I.J. FOURGONETTE RENAULT DAUPHINOISE - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1 43 Minichamps VW 1200 Käfer 1947 British Car Hire 431051294,.Danbury Mint Ford 1940 Deluxe Coupe 1 24 Scale A1,.HOT WHEELS 2 Park N Plates CAMARO Z28 Pink Tag Tampo & Tag VARIATIONS RARE,,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ebbro 44942 Run Up Group Nissan Skyline GT-R SUPER GT300 2013 No.360 1 43 scale,; EBBRO 1 24 KIT IN PLASTICA FURGONE CITROEN H LA CAMIONNETTE STAR ART 25007 4800,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, DINKY TOYS 175 HILLMAN MINX,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Brooklin 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK29 001 -1954 Kaiser Manhattan 4-Dr Sedan - bluee,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

RACING CHAMPIONS 2003 FORD FOCUS STREET TUNER Fast and The Furious Die-Cast 2003,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Ford Escort I TC ADAC Gp des Voitures de Tourisme 1968 Arundell 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

NOREV MADE FRANCE CHRYSLER NEW-YORKER COUPE DECAPOTABLE + REMORQUE BATEAU ROCCA,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Novelty Ferrari Minicar Showa Shell Limited Edition 7 Pieces Set,.KK-Scale KKDC180182 Alfa Romeo Spider 4 1990 black,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 43 Best Model Lola T70 Spyder Car from 1966 Bridgehampton D.Gurney,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Politoys no.108 Gobron Brillie 1899,.

Jada 1 24 Scale 98271 - Fast & Furious Brian's Nissan GT-R (R35) Ben Sopra,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera Metallic Yellow AA54614,.Audi R18 E-Tron Quattro , 24H LeMans 2014 , Sparkmodels,.Trofeu TF1303 PORSCHE LMP1 98 N.7 RETIRED LE MANS 1998 ALBORETO-JOHANSSON-DALMAS,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1967 Peugeot 404 Coupe Apink weiss1 18 Norev 184831,.

Corgi 319 Lotus Elan Coupe w Detachable Chassis,.SUNSTAR - 1 18 - PORSCHE 356A 1500 GS - CARRERA GT - 1329,.BMW 502 Congreenible Autenrieth 1956 Brown NEO46385 1 43,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Diecast Masters 85235 CAT 613G Wheel Tractor Scraper Schürfzug 1 50 neu OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.FERRARI 312 PB 1973 BBR MODELS 1 43 N. TAMEO MFH HIRO MG MODEL AMR TENARIV,.VA 35460 DINKY MeccanoSupertoys 20 Ton Lorry Mounted Crane,.1 64 DCP blueE T660 KENWORTH DAY CAB W ANHYDROUS TRAILER,.Fiat 127L 3P 1977 White Ed.Lim.Pcs 250 1 43 Kess Model KS43010070 Model,.Hot Wheels City Lot of 25 Cars 2014 2015 NIB Sealed NOS Mustang Charger,.

Neo Plymouth Fury Congreenible - black - 1958 - 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark Model S5961 CITROEN C3 WRC N.11 9th MONTE CARLO 2018 C.BREEN-S.MARTIN 1 43,.Herpa Mercedes-Benz Actros Bigspace Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Henglein Pizza 1 87,. The PartridgeFord Country Squire 1960 Wooden Red 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.Tatra T148 Pritsche Militär (Army),.CORGI TOYS CITROEN BREAK POLIZEI 1 43 CODE 3,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1966 PONTIAC GTO GEETO TIGER ERTL 1 18 SCALE DIECAST, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.First Gear 10-4085 1 34 1953 White 3000 COE Delivery Van,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NOREV 1 18 1987 BMW M 535i DIECAST CAR MODEL 183267 blueE,.CITROEN SAXO 3 Portes blue MINIROUTE 27 1 43,PartridgeNOREV 1 18 1956 PEUGEOT D4A CYCLES PEUGEOT DIECAST CAR 184710BL,.RIO 4235 FIAT 238 1970 BIANCO WHITE,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Bentley Continental Sc Cabriolet 1996 Red Metallic, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PORSCHE 911 - 997 CARRERA S anthracite Maisto 1 18,; Rio 4311 RENAULT AG 1910 GREEN 1 43 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CORGI 486 KENNEL SERVICE WAGON(with four dogs) NEAR MINT., (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 50 Corgi Seddon Atkinson Horse Transporter Set Whitbread GB 27701, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePontiac Gto Coupe 1964 Yorktown bluee Met SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1826 Model,.

Schuco Blech Auto  Nr. 1750  Vorkriegsmodell,.HUGE 1 12 Scale 1992 Jaguar XJ220 LeMans bluee Model Car Maisto 33201 With Base, Clarke's negligent act.AB668 NOREV ANCIEN DYNA PANHARD yellow 1 43 en boite,.RK Modelle LKW ZIL 131 3-Achs offene Pritsche grey,.Ebbro 45141 HONDA FIT 3 HYBRID Attract Yellow Pearl 1 43 scale,.

Bentley Continental Cabriolet 1984 Red SPARK 1 43 S3824 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Sabra Gamda Koor Cragstan Detroit 8110 Cadillac eldorado coupé 1967 Mint in box,Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast Ferrari Testa Rossa Millennium Series MIB,. In Noska,Somerville Models Minimarque 1 43 Scale 100A - Austin FX4 Taxi - Navy,.Elecon Russie 1 43 - Kamaz 43105 Cellule Militaire Russian Army,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord D Caravan 1975 Yellow 1 43 Minichamps-Diplomat,.BN47-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 Sattelzug Ford Dachser+Shell+540 etc, NEUW+1x OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.American Classics AA10 1951 Studebaker Commander Panorama Coupe Grey 1 43,.Saviem SC1 1964 Service Scolaire NOREV,.Minichamps - Christian Klien - Red Bull - RB2 - 2006 -1 43 - Rare,.MAISTO 1 18 - 31145 BMW M6 CABRIOLET - DARK blueE,. Id., p 923.

FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE CASE IH STEIGER 485 WHEELED TRACTOR MODEL BN 50-3190,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Renault Alpine A110 1600S 1971 blueemetallic,Rio RI4300 CITROEN DS 19 N.243 119th MILLE MIGLIA 1957 FAIDERTE-DELANGLARD 1 43,.Western Models WMS 3 - 1951 Jaguar XK120 Fixed head coupe NMIB 1 43 scale,.Citroen Ds Spezial bluee White 421184180 1 18 Solido,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale MIN 062122 - 1992 Porsche 911 Carrera 2 4 - Met bluee,.VECTOR MODELS MERCEDES BENZ 03500 BUS + 1950 METAL HANDMADE 1 43,.Ebbro 44205 Lotus Europa S2 Type 65 1969 Brown Mustard Yellow (Resin) 1 43 scale,.CORGI 57405 NEW AVENGERS GAMBITS RED JAGUAR XJS DIECAST MODEL CAR + METAL FIGURE,. The parties Chevrolet Corvette 427 196 - 1 18 - Auto World,.

PORSCHE 962C winner ADAC Super sprint Nurburgring 1986 1 18,.1 43 Spark Nissan R88C Le Mans 1988 Hoshino Wada Suzuki S5080,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Hot Wheels Porsche lot of 25 1 64,; BROOKLIN MODELS 1 43 - 103 PLYMOUTH PLAZA CLUB SEDAN - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 21, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Old Fire Brigade Model Car Sheet Metal Car 50 cm Oldtimer Fire Engine,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Lola T280 , Vainqueur 1000km Paris 1972 , Sparkmodels,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Gaz Volga M24 Volkspolizei Police 1967 Green White MCG 1 18 MCG18015 Model,.Kit Lancia Flaminia Zagato Sport Rally Monte Carlo 1961 - Tron kit 1 43,.NOREV 1885203 VW Käfer 1303 Limousine Baujahr 1973 in greenmetallic 1 18,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Mercedes W05 , Winner GP Abu Dhabi S3142 , Spark models,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Replicars NEO43452 Borgward Hansa 2400 white black 1955,.Pokemon Center Original Stuffed Christmas 2017 Arorarokon,.Dinky Toys England original Bentley S2 in seltener Farbe kupferbrownmetallic ,.CORGI TOYS DARK blueE RARE OPEL SENATOR SCALE 1 36 UNBOXED CLEAN ORIGINAL,.Star Wars New Item D 'Han Solo' Star Wars Kit REVELL HOBBY 1 72 RV06718 Model,. The ScottsdaleMIN540924301 by MINICHAMPS MCLAREN MP4 V12 1992 A. SENNA 1 43, Märklin 860 7 - MERCEDES 3500, BEIGE, WIE NEU, TOP-RARITÄT ,.Winnebago Brave 1995 2nd Edition Die Cast New in Box USA Made 10 Ertl,. Id.,Rio RI4440 FIAT 238 LA STAMPA 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Model Car Scale 1 18 Renault Clio Williams Norev Diecast Car Model Coche,; Hot Wheels JDM Lot of 36 Mixed Years Brand New No Dupicates,Politoys URSS 1 43 - Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Grey,.1 18 Norev GT bei Citroen Salon de Paris 181610,. The ScottsdaleMINICHAMPS 436038220 MERCEDES BENZ SL65 AMG 2013 1.43 + Boite HQ,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BROOKLIN MODELS 16x 1938 DODGE VAN APOTHEEK de KORENBLOEM 1993 1 750 Netherlands,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MERCURY 1 43 - FIAT 850 COUPE NO= 44 - VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Audi Sport Quattro S1 - Rallye San Remo 1985 - Walter Röhr (1 18) - IXO,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox RW 02D Mercedes Trailer 1. Gußform mit Box,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Bitter SC Coupe' Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Road Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 92608 1971 Jaguar E-Type Roadster Green, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 24 Johnny Lightning 1970 Pontiac Trans AM WhiteRare Misprint 1970 Superbird, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Spark 1 43 Scale S3354 - Citroen DS3 WRC th Monte Carlo 2013,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMATCHBOX SUPERFAST ROLA-MATICS POLICE PATROL RARE blueE LIGHT J BOX 1975,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, PORSCHE 911 TARGA 2013 INDISCH red 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410062440 NEU,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheLesney Matchbox 67 Datsun 260Z 2+2 bluee with Red interior Extremely Rare ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps Jeep Grand Cherokee in Red on 1 43 in Box,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Verem Resin Military Army 1 50 - DUKW,MADE IN HONG KONG - FERRARI No. 7111 - F1 SHARK NOSE - RARE GOOD CONDITION,.Ebro 1 43 Xanavinismo Gt-R Low Down Force Fuji Test 2008,.Herpa 310215 H0 Set m. 2 Modellen, 80J. Wandt 1 87,. The Huyghe185271 Norev 1 18 Renault 30 TX 1981 bronze brown,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps 1 43 Scale 400 092992 - BMW M3 GT2 ALMS 2009 - Muller Milner,.

Conrad Excavator 914 Litronic in Dark Yellow on 1 50,.DeAGOSTINI 250 California 1957 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.57 F S,.

1953 Porsche 550 Carrera Panamericana IV Diecast Model,.Schuco 5554 FORD COUPE ROAD SC.1 24,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Bburago 1 18 Scale Lamborghini Huracán Polizia Diecast Vehicle (colors May,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMINICHAMPS Porsche 917 10 Rinzler Motoracing Charlie Kemp Can-Am Watkins Gle,.MAISTO 1 18 - 36637 MORGAN AERO 8 - DARK GREEN,.

For example, in Partridge,NIP 1 64 DIECAST HOT WHEELS ULTRA HOTS LOT 7 CAMARO MUSTANG CHARGER FORD PANEL,. In Jorgensen, supra,DINKY - 417 - MOTORWAY SERVICES FORD TRANSIT - MINT & BOXED - 1978 79 VINTAGE,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lotus Elise 111S - Model year 2002 - Rare 1 18 Scale in vgc - Classic Motorsport,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR SEIKEL MOTORSPORT 24H LE MANS 2007 IN METALLO MINI,. That is the same situation in this case.1 18 Renault 5 GT turbo,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Bean paste 6 10 pieces Enter Shokugan & Gum,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Rio 4359 FIAT 1100 103 TV 1955 1 43 Modellino,.Vitesse Chevrolet Corvette 1973 1 43 Aubriet Depince 24h Le Mans (JS),.Citroen DS 21 Pallas Taxi Milano 1970 1 43 RIO 4506,.

F1 BRABHAM BT44 Ford Cosworth Watson Italian GP 1974 John goldie Spark 1.43,.