Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Corgi 1 50 CC12912 Scania Topline Curtainside Stephen Sanderson 2648 2900 MIB,.1 18 Maisto Dream Classics Alpine Renault 1600s 1971 bluee Rarity,.Chevrolet Nova Open Congreenible 1963 Saddle Tan 1 18 Model 3975 SUN STAR,.JCB 807 Crawler Excavator NZG MODELLE WEST GERMANY N.141 - 1 35 in scatola,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Snap On Tools COLLECTABLE 1970 Dodge Charger R T 1 64 Scale Die cast VERY RARE,.1 43 SPARK MATRA SIMCA MS 670B 1973 LE MANS ,3RD,JABOUILLE JAUSSAUD,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps 1 43 - BMW Serie 3 E36 Coupe Red,.Best Model BT9315 FERRARI 330 GTS 1968 blueE MET.1 43 Modellino,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.DeAgostini Simca Topolino - DINKY TOYS,.Aral Tanklastzug aus Metall von Märklin 8008 u.a.,.Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 1974 White 1 43 Model S4997 SPARK MODEL, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Car Model Almost Real Mercedes-AMG GT R GTR 2017 1 43 (Glossy Chrome) + GIFT ,.Spark Model S5455 HONDA CIVIC EF3 N.100 WINNER GRP3 JTC SUZUKA 1989 U.KATAYAMA-E,.ART MODEL AM0070 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 YELLOW 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 RSR Le Mans 2013,.
Camion PANHARD MOVIC ANTERIST & SCHNEIDER 1 43,.1 87 Shuco Benz Carrier Tank Car Model Car Car Model Die Cast,.Universal hobbies 1 43 Renault 21 Turbo red,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 ROVER 800 STERLING k4 AVEC SA BOITE,.CHRYSLER 300E CONgreenIBLE 1959 - HANDMADE BROOKLIN BRK 41,.
Lamborghini Miura S 1969 gold 1 43 Model 436103000 MINICHAMPS,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1961 CHRYSLER IMPERIAL CROWN WHITE WITH BROWN INTERIOR 1 18 ROAD SIGNATURE 20138,.NEO 1 43 - BENTLEY CONTINENTAL TOURING NEO44215 - MINT CONDITION IN BOX,.Spark Model SG419 MERCEDES GT3 N.47 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 BAUMANN-MORTARA-JUNCAD,Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.19 1 24 360 Modena 1999,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 ELITE FERRARI 250GT CALIFORNIA SWB LM 1969 DIE-CAST WHITE T6931,.
Minichamps 431 027001 BMW 7 Series 2008 FO2 in Metallic bluee 1 43rd Scale,.Old Vtg Adams Bros Probe 16 Diecast Toy Car Pilen 1 43 ESSO Decal Made In Spain,.1 43 Minichamps Audi TT Roadster 1999 weiss 430 017238,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Corgi Jeep FC-150 working conveyor forward control with Figure 1 43,.
Wiking 773 45 Fendt Vario 828 (2014) 077345 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,. We agree in part.
Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet Anno di Costruzione 1987 Avorio 1 18 Norev,.Premium ClassiXXs 18430 1 43 VW VOLKSWAGEN T3A WEINBERGER SCHALKSMUHLE HEARSES,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.EBRRO 1 43 Honda S800 Racing 1967 Suzuka 1000km (43934) finished product,.Dinky Toys 130 Ford Corsair metallic red made in England EXC-NM,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 430 065106 PORSCHE 911 RS 1995 GREEN,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BMW M1 red 1 18 GT Norev,.REMORQUE PORTE-VOITURE DOUBLE ESSIEUX AVEC RANGE PNEUS TEXACO red - 1 18 GMP,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Dinky Toys 1413 Citroen Dyane very very near mint in box all original condition,; Best Model BT9068 ALFA ROMEO TZ1 N.40 ACCIDENT LM F.MASOREO-J.ROLLAND 1 43 Model,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
SPARK Porsche 93678 H. Pescarolo 1 43 S4432,.Ferrari 375 MM H Pescara 1953 Villoresi Marzotto 1 43 Model 0081,RK Modelle LKW ZIL 131 3-Achs offene Pritsche grey,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 43 Nissan Sunny Kai,.
Matchbox Die-Cast Collectible - 1916 Ford Model T Fire Engine,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Moskvich 422 Van Post 1954 (DiP 1 43 140102),.Corgi CC14803 Scania 113 143 Curtainside Mulgrew European, Dromore Co. Down Cert,.Die cast 1 43 COLLECTORS CLASSICS chevrolet 1955 with box,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Vintage diecast vehicles job lot x 43,; UT Jeep Willy`s USA Militär Geländewagen , OVP, 1 18, K014,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Norev Sb 1 43 - Porsche 911 Targa White,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
TYRRELL 006 GP ITALIA 1973 TAMEO KITS SERIE WCT SCALA 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Simca 9 Aronde 1953 red 1 18 Norev 185742 neu & OVP,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
NZG 409 KAELBLE TYP KDV 22 E 8, 1 50 [F],
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
2x Chevrolet Chevy Camaro, 1969 und 2006, Jada Big Time Nexgen Muscle, OVP, 1 24,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Volkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 Light Green w White Roof 1 18 Model,.Vintage Hot Wheels 24 Car Collector's Case,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.A800 Fly Wing DIY Remote Controller 3D 6G Mode 2.4GHz 780mm Wingspan Kids Glider,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Speccast 26077 FORD COUPE'CLASSIC AUTO 1932 1 25 Modellino,.
TSM Models 1 43 Alfa Brabham BT46 - South African F1 GP 1978 - Niki Lauda,.Kit à monter ALFA ROMEO 155 GTA 1 43,.Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo Miliz.Naz.1933 Rio 1 43 Rio4221 Modellino Diecast,.Mini Cooper S 2015 Light bluee 1 18 Norev,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ferrari 250 Spider California Competizione Red 1 43 Model 0115 ART-MODEL,.
Mercedes F1 Lewis Hamilton Gagnant Abu Dhabi Gp 2016 1 43 Echelle Minichamps,.PORSCHE 966 IMSA Daytona 24h 1991 Truescale Resin Highend 1 43,.MERCURY 1 43 - FIAT 128 RALLY NO= 22 - VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Neo Models Morgan 4 4 Flat Radiator in Green 1936 46236 1 43 NEW,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Norev C36100 RENAULT 100KGS AMBULANCE MUNICIPALE Modellino,.1 18 TSM Lemans 24hr Winner Tournament trophy,.Corgi 1 76 Scale 42403 - Bedford Val Panorama - Magical Mystery Tour Bus,.Luxury Collectibles 1 43 - Cadillac SRX Credver 2011 bluee,.VERY RARE 70's GREEK KiBi WIND UP RENAULT R 8 POLICE MIB SLJ COPY N MIB,.
Atlas Editions Dinky Toys 917 - Guy Van - Spratts MIMB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Rio RI4518 FIAT BALILLA 1936 DITTA G.PATRONE MATERIALI EDILI 1 43 Modellino,.Greenlight Collectibles 12990 1 18 Gulf Oil - 2012 Shelby GT500,. The PartridgeHot Wheels Pop Culture KISS Lot of 4 - A-OK, Dream Van, '56 Nomad, '59 Chevy,.Porsche 956 Winner Le Mans 1983 1 43 - 43LM83 SPARK,.Stahlberg Finland Saab 900 Turbo 1982 dark green in near mint condition,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, McLAREN HONDA MP 4-7 - AYRTON SENNA 1992 540924301 Minichamps 1 43 new in a box , although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce white Di Milano 1973 1 43 Rio RIO4475 Model,.Spark Triumph TR2 E. Wadswoth 1 43 S4453,PartridgeWyatt & Tizard 4mm Scale White Metal Kit - B1 - Freelance Steam Crane Engine,.RARE HOT WHEELS NISSAN Skyline GTR Error Wheels Card Variation 1 Of A Kind ,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, FORD Fiesta New WRC 2018 Rallye Monte Carlo Bouffier Yacco Royal Spark 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ixo model RAT43900OR BUGATTI VEYRON 16.4 GRAND SPORT 2012 orange 1 18 Modellino,; NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO43287 - BMW 3er (E21) Baur - Dark Metallic Grey,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford GT43 GT40 550hp 2004 White bluee Stripes 1 43 Minichamps, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, GAMA MINI 973 - Porsche 911 - 1 42 - UNITED STATES AUTO CLUB - NEU in OVP Model, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMinichamps 430032294 Mercedes-Benz 250 TD (S123), 1982 Massstab 1 43,.
Corgi Priestman Shovel, Good Condition in Original Box,.FB Models 1 43 Scale Resin FB01 - Alfa Romeo 6C 2300 Touring St - Amarante Beige, Clarke's negligent act.Auto Cult ATC03004 1 43 SHELTER NETHERLANDS 1958 YELLOW,.Edsel Citation Congreenible 1958 Light Green Met.1 43 Spark S2961 Modellino,.Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper Washington Fire Co. No.1 Ltd Ed. 1561 of 2000,.
NOREV 1 43 SCALE - PEUGEOT 404 - TOUR DE FRANCE 1962,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari 375 Plus Prova 1954 Red 1 43 Model 0347 ART-MODEL,Ertl 1 18 Idéal blue F-150 Ford Ranch King Camionnette D'Occasion Très Nice,. In Noska,UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 5234 Deutz-Fahr AgroPrima 4.56 1 32,.TOGI 1 23° Diecast Alfa Romeo 1750 Grand Sport 1930,.IXO -9 motorcycles of competition IXO ALTAYA 1 24,.TA295 MINIMAX SPARK MODEL PORSCHE 919 HYBRID Ref WAP0205010E 1 43 NEUF BOITE, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.NOREV - 1 18 - AC COBRA 289 - 1963 - 182752,.Minichamps 1 43 - Porsche 911 993 Cabriolet Soft Top 1994 bluee,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT2 RS 2018 - S7624,.HOT WHEELS TREASURE HUNT (1) NEW FOR 2018 - '16 CADILLAC ATS-V R (MOMC),. Id., p 923.
1 43 RIO 1931 Mercedes-Benz SSKL Mille Miglia Winner Caracciola 4543,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, REVELL OPEL KADETT B RALLYE 1900 - 1 18,1 18 1991 Lancia delta hf integrale 16v N.1, 1st rally san remo SUNSTAR sun3119,.Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 VW T 1B Camion silverforma Persil Von 1958,.1 43 1937 CORD BEVERLY SEDAN WHITE SAMS TAN INTERIOR WHITE METAL BUILD NO BOX,.NOREV 1 18 1937 PEUGEOT 302 DARL'MAT ROADSTER DIECAST CAR 184821,.Metal Sign Hey Mon No Problem Spshm Tin Sign Decoration - Cadillac Premiere,.1 18 Norev Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue 185210,.Spark 1 43 Lotus 18 n.33 German GP 1961 Tony Maggs S4821,. The parties American Muscle 1968 Chevy Chevelle SS396 - White 1 18 scale,.
Hot Wheels RLC Halloween Dairy Delivery Collectors 2003,.Corgi Plough - Red Yellow - A+ A,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1997 Revell John Deere 1 24th Scale Nascar,; Rio 4282P FIAT 501 FIUME '19 1 43+PERSONAGGIO Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Art Model AM0382 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA LWB SPIDER AMERICA 1958 RED 1 43 Modelli,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI CLASSICS 1 50 31002 NATIONAL BENZOLE FODEN FG TANKER & MORRIS J VAN,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)WSI COLLECTIBLES IVECO STRALIS HI-WAY 4X2 CAB UNIT orange 04-1158,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 Schumacher World Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Minichamps BMW M3 BMW MTeam 1 43 430872047,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,McLaren MP4-12C, 24H Spa 2013, Sparkmodels,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.SCHUCO SH2569 PORSCHE 356 A CABRIO BEIGE 1 43,.Corgi Mercedes actros mp4 & reefer trailer- Mcculla,.Kit Abarth 2000 Sport Pininfarina Scorpion 1968 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.Majorette Pjm Garage Quarter General 7 203145002 Veh Miniature Set of 4,.Peugeot RCZ R Concept Coupe Matt black mit gold Ab Facelift 2013 1 18 Norev ..,. The ScottsdaleBEST MODEL BT9199 FERRARI 308 GTB 1975 RED 1 43,TTC (Tgoldnto) New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701058 Standard Scheme,.Tokoloshe 1 43 1968 Ferrari 250 LM Le Mans,. Id.,AIRFIX HOBBY KITS Ford Fiesta modellismo vintage 70' lotto,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, KADEN DODGE WC -52 1 24,; RARE THE EDDIE STOBART STORY CORGI CC86610. Boxed Mint,Sqadron Wings BAe Hawk T.1A, 1 48 Limited Edition (Number 218),.Ford Fiesta Rs Turbo Mkiii 1989 Red Ed.Lim.Pcs 258 1 43 Kess Model KS43015020 Mo,. The ScottsdalePagani Huayra 2012 Green Met Spark 1 43 S3563 Model,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 914 6 914 6 24h Le Mans Kvist Krumm 1971 Max Moritz Spark 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Porsche 917K h Kyalami 1970 Siffert Ahrens 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 187581,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Trofeu 1618 AUDI QUATTRO 4'TOUR AUTO '84 n.2 1 43 Modellino,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1487 - Corvette C6-R Corvette Racing LM 2008,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 HotWheels Ferrari Celebrating 60 Years of Victories NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCA,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 43 Minichamps BENTLEY EMBIRICOS 1939 blue 438 139821, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, NOREV 1 18 CITROEN DS3 WRC RALLYE DE FRANCE 2012 REDBULL NEUVILLE GILSOUL 181553, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Provence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin - K472 Jagaur XJR-12 Winner Daytona 1990,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 35 PANZER V - PANTHER D DRAGON PREMIUM ÉD + ADD ON,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 Aston Martin DB9 6.0 V12 COUPE año 2013 Welly 18045bk black Mate,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 Citroën GS X3 año 1979 color yellow Norev Ref.181624,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.What 4 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Lt. Green,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 43 Premium Classixxs VW T3 a Bus Wohnanhänger Circus Roncalli 11459,Ford Capri Mk III 2.8 Injection Baujahr 1982 hellgreen metallic 1 18 Norev,.MATCHBOX SERIES A LESNEY PRODUCT N° 34 VOLKSWAGEN CAMPER CAR CON SCATOLA,.SPARK 1 43 S1648 TYRRELL 007 DUTCH GP 1976 ALESSANDRO PESENTI ROSSI,. The HuygheWOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Taunus P3 17m Saloon 1960 Red Cream 1 43 Minichamps-GT,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ AMG GT C ROADSTER - 2017 - 183451,.
Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC090 - Gordini T24 - Le Mans 1953,.Citroen SM green 1970-1975 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiuellem ..,.
MODELCARGROUP MCG18047 FORD COUNTRY SQUIRE METALLIC GREEN WOOD 1 18,.Telsalda Ford Econoline Camper Van Hong Kong 1960’s friction toy tat,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK86 - 1938 Cadillac 60 Special - Green Unboxed,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 18 1 18 scale Diecast model 2011-2016 Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 Cpe Burago,.REVELL KIT 7490 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER SUN ROOF MINT BOXED SEALED,.
For example, in Partridge,Bateau 1 43 de BATMAN - BATBOAT Corgi Toys 167 - Série années 60 - Bon Etat,. In Jorgensen, supra,Wiking 099078 Flink & Robust Hanomag-Dienst NEW,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.2018 Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary Redline Set All 5 Diecast 1 64,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1971 FORD MUSTANG SPORTSROOF GREEN SUN STAR 3620 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Corgi Toys 213 Jaguar 2.4 Fire Service,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.DINKY TOYS JAGUAR XK 120 - REF-157 Meccano Made in ENGLAND,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 13 1998 1 18 David Coulthard (GBR) (JS) DV,.Tandem Car Trailer Gulf Oil in 1 43 Scale by GMP,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK30 - 1954 Dodge Royal 500 - Unboxed,.
Sunstar 1126 London Cab Taxi TX1 1998 Targa Red 1 18 OVP,.