CITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971 1 43 Neuf en boite L3 e9faaa

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
CITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971    1 43 Neuf en boite L3 e9faaa
TENARIV KIT (built) McLAREN M23 1974 - MIKE HAILWOOD - F1 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Collection Of 3 Rare Spot On Cars Jaguar XK-E Humber Super Snipe Bentley Saloon,.Minichamps BMW Sauber F1 08 - R Kubica - A+ A,.H0 1 87 NPE NA99017 Borgward B 4500 Tanklastzug Aral neu,.TOYOTA Celica GT4 GT-4 Rallye Gr.A Sainz 1000 Lakes Repsol 1990 IXO Alt 1 18,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.AUTOWORLD AW209 1 18 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG 289 INDY 500 PACE CAR DIECAST MODEL,.Ford Capri MkIII Turbo 1981 White Ford Motorsport 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.DM 1 50 Caterpillar Metal Construction Wheel Loader 980G Vehicle Car Model 85027,.Spark Model S5345 LOTUS 72C E.FITTIPALDI 1970 N.24 WINNER US GP 1 43 Modellino,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 Nissan Sunny Kai,.Brumm BM0044CH FERRARI 500F2 A.ASCARI 1953 N.5 WINNER BRITISH GP W PILOTE 1 43 M,.1 50 Diecast Masters Caterpillar 85921 DM CAT 627K Wheel Scraper Tractor Yellow, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

DINKY TOYS Ford Cortina Mk1 Rally, 1 43, am,.1 18 Hot Wheels Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 in yellow Yellow, RAR RARE ,.1 18 Honda Civic TUNERZ tuning fast furious - Hot Wheels - 3L 050,.Bburago BU16003R FERRARI CALIFORNIA T (CLOSED TOP) 2014 RED 1 18 Modellino,.

Matchbox Regular Wheels Cement Mixer made in England Moko Lesney NMIB+,.RUSSIAN USSR DATED 1995 MADE 'LADA' MODEL 2107 BOXED - VERY RARE MODEL,.Best Model 9483 FIAT ABARTH 750 ZAGATO 1958 1 43 Modellino,.PORSCHE 956 L Le Mans 1983 BP Pilote Henns Ballot-Lena Schlesser Spark 1 43,.Fiat 1100 Es Pininfarina red 1950 Neoscale 1 43 NEO45100,.

Hanomag Komissbred 1924 Schuco 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 SRC10K 1961 FERRARI 156 120 KIT BY SMTS,.Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8007 Bentley S2 Congreenible Light green gold,.Kyosho 1 43 Alice Motors â–ª Lancer Evolution X Test Car,PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1 24 MOTORIZED ''NEW,SEALED BAGS INSIDE BOX''MINT,CLASSIC,.Conti Models 1 43 Scale - Lancia Stratos Alitalia Green White,.

FERRARI SCG 003C 24h Nürburgring 2017 Westphal Laser Simonsen Spark 1 43,.MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN V12 VANQUISH 007 J. BOND IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.AMPHICAR blueE NEO 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM16 BA & Hose set modern C Figures,.

Minicar Plus 1 43 - Renault 19 16S Cabriolet red 1993,. We agree in part.

Mercedes-Benz L319 Früba 1957 Nuovo Norev 1 18,.1 43 MINICHAMPS 403 751202 Alfa Romeo 33TT 12 1000km Monza 1975 Winner BBR Spark,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.2000 Hot Wheels 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie,.GAMA MINI 973 - Porsche 911 - 1 42 - AUTOLITE SPARK PLUGS Decal - NEU in OVP,.Matchbox SF Nr. 45A Ford Group 6 purpurmetallic top in Box,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Conrad Merecedes Benz 6 wheel Cement Mixer, 1 50 scale, vgc,.Anbrico Model Kits 1 76 OO Scale White metal - AMB1 B6 Showmans Super Lion,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3360 Porsche 911 Carrera GT 1993 Yellow,; PORSCHE 935 MORETTI 1000 MILES PORTLAND 1978 1 43 SPARK US041,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

VILLAMODEL BUILT F1 FERRARI 246T C.AMON LADY WIGRAM TROPHY 1969 43,.1 43 Minichamps Opel Blitz 1,75t Pritschenwagen Schultheiss Bier 439 051024,1 18 Bburago Dodge Viper GTS Airbrush Millenium NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 Cup Le Mans 2014 Aiello Mobil1 Adidas Reserve Spark 1 43,.

KIT FIAT 128 COUPÈ SCUDERIA FILIPINETTI 1 25 LM092K,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Chevrolet Corvette C1 1953 Canopy Closed Metallic bluee 1 43 Neoscale NEO45746,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 TRIUMPH TR6 1968 76 blueE NEUF EN BOITE,.MODELLINO FORD FOCUS RS WRC RALLY MONTE CARLO 2002 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, UT Models - Porsche 911 Cabrio (Soft Top) Yellow - NEW BOXED in MINT CONDITION,; Renault R5 Supercinq GT Turbo silver Rally Tour de Corse Ragnotti 3 Türer 2. G..,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, SUN1485 - Voiture coupé CHEVROLET Corver de 1963 color or - 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

CITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971    1 43 Neuf en boite L3 e9faaaCITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971    1 43 Neuf en boite L3 e9faaaCITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971    1 43 Neuf en boite L3 e9faaaCITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971    1 43 Neuf en boite L3 e9faaa

Fiat 8V 1-Series 1953 BIZARRE 1 43 BZ117 Model,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

DINKY 956 DIECAST TURNTABLE FIRE ESCAPE,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Limousine Obsidian black W212 Vor Facelift 2009-2013 ..,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

NEO NEO44351 1 43 FORD P7A LIMOUSINE 1967 LIGHT blueE,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Politoys SB 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTC 4 Green,.2001 Johnny Lightning 1969 Dodge Daytona Green WHITE LIGHTNING HTF,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark Model S5807 LIGIER JS P217 N.17 13th LM 2017 LAFARGUE-LAFARGUE-ZOLLINGER 1,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.DG MODELS DAVE GILBERT 1 43 AUSTIN SEVEN 4 SEETS VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.

IXO 1 43 SIMCA 1501S BREAK 1969 NEUF EN BOITE,.Spark Model Benetton B194 J. J. 1 43 S4482,.Schuco 01179 Piccolo Pop-Art Edition 1 mit 4 x Mercedes 1936 Neuheit 2016,.Minichamps 1 43 - Porsche 911 GT3 CUP - Supercup 2006 D. Huisman,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 43 Spark Falken Porsche 911 GT3 R VLN Nürburgring ´11 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCAR,.

True Scale 1 43 McLaren 2013 MP4-12C GT3 Goodwood Festival 134325,.1 43 CL64K ASTON MARTIN DB2 (1st series) KIT BY SMTS,.Citroen SM Opera by Henri Chapron (dark red),.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 30 DODGE ROYAL 500 CONgreenIBLE - 1954 - 1 43 - NMIB,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Spark 1 43 - Porsche 911 991 GT3 Cup deep bluee Porsche Design 2012 WAP0201540H,.KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - hellblue - 1 18,.Minichamps 402052090 VW Touareg 2002 w horse trailer Polizei Dresden 1 43 MIB,.1 64 Dcp Cabover Kenworth,.Spark 1 43 Scale S2043 Model Car - 1993 Porsche 964 Speedster - White,.

BMW 325i 1 24 ( Fujimi ), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Brand new SIKU Super 1 50 toys metal,.Norev 1 18 Ford Capri 280 Diecast Model Car Green 182718,. The PartridgeWolga M24 1972 Taxi - weiss - 1 18 MCG,.KK-SCALE 1 18 PORSCHE B32 VW T3 1984 grey MODELLINO,.Porsche 911 Turbo 1977 Slate bluee Metallic 1 43 Minichamps 430069007 NEW,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Original Corgi Club Magazine No. 19, Summer 1961 with Envelope, - Superb., although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 4984 Zetor Crystal I 2011 2WD- red gold 1 32,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1976 Ford Mustang II Mach 1 blue 1 18 Greenlight 12868,.CITROEN SM ESPACE HEULIEZ 1971 1 43 Neuf en boite L3,Partridge1932 Ford AA Open Cab Fire Engine—YFE09,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3360 Porsche 911 Carrera GT 1993 Yellow,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Schuco Piccolo Auto Union Renndienst Race Car Transporter SHU01622, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Renault R5 Supercinq GT Turbo silver Rally Tour de Corse Ragnotti 3 Türer 2. G..,; Solido CITROËN Dyane 6 Jade Green 421184010 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 30 DODGE ROYAL 500 CONgreenIBLE - 1954 - 1 43 - NMIB, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Schuco Piccolo Auto Union Renndienst Race Car Transporter SHU01622, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSolido CITROËN Dyane 6 Jade Green 421184010 1 18,.

PEUGEOT 504 COUPE 1969 1 18 NOREV (MIMOSA WHITE),.Matchbox Superfast No 25 Peugeot 205 GREEN Grey Base MIB Rare, Clarke's negligent act.AUDI QUATTRO 1980 SATURN METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 430019429 NEU,.Herpa 1 87 Liebherr LTM 1045 1 Mobilkran Feuerwehr Leipzig OVP (RB9268),.Polistil ca. 1 60 Nr. RJ 19 Ford Escort Limousine silvermetallic,.

HOT WHEELS 2018 50th RACE TEAM SUPER TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER FACTORY SEALED W+,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, PEUGEOT 504 COUPE 1969 1 18 NOREV (MIMOSA WHITE),Norev 183578 Mercedes-Benz 300 1955 - hell grey 1 18,. In Noska,MECCANO DINKY TOYS 195 JAGUAR 3.4 LITRE ENGLAND UK CAR EXCELLENT NEAR MINT,.TENARIV KIT (built) McLAREN M23 1974 - MIKE HAILWOOD - F1 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,.Collection Of 3 Rare Spot On Cars Jaguar XK-E Humber Super Snipe Bentley Saloon,.Minichamps BMW Sauber F1 08 - R Kubica - A+ A, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.H0 1 87 NPE NA99017 Borgward B 4500 Tanklastzug Aral neu,.TOYOTA Celica GT4 GT-4 Rallye Gr.A Sainz 1000 Lakes Repsol 1990 IXO Alt 1 18,.AUTOWORLD AW209 1 18 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG 289 INDY 500 PACE CAR DIECAST MODEL,.Ford Capri MkIII Turbo 1981 White Ford Motorsport 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. Id., p 923.

DM 1 50 Caterpillar Metal Construction Wheel Loader 980G Vehicle Car Model 85027,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Matchbox Superfast No 25 Peugeot 205 GREEN Grey Base MIB Rare,Spark Model S5345 LOTUS 72C E.FITTIPALDI 1970 N.24 WINNER US GP 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 Nissan Sunny Kai,.Brumm BM0044CH FERRARI 500F2 A.ASCARI 1953 N.5 WINNER BRITISH GP W PILOTE 1 43 M,.1 50 Diecast Masters Caterpillar 85921 DM CAT 627K Wheel Scraper Tractor Yellow,.DINKY TOYS Ford Cortina Mk1 Rally, 1 43, am,.1 18 Hot Wheels Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 in yellow Yellow, RAR RARE ,.1 18 Honda Civic TUNERZ tuning fast furious - Hot Wheels - 3L 050,. The parties Bburago BU16003R FERRARI CALIFORNIA T (CLOSED TOP) 2014 RED 1 18 Modellino,.

Matchbox Regular Wheels Cement Mixer made in England Moko Lesney NMIB+,.RUSSIAN USSR DATED 1995 MADE 'LADA' MODEL 2107 BOXED - VERY RARE MODEL,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, AUDI QUATTRO 1980 SATURN METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 430019429 NEU,; Best Model 9483 FIAT ABARTH 750 ZAGATO 1958 1 43 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

PORSCHE 956 L Le Mans 1983 BP Pilote Henns Ballot-Lena Schlesser Spark 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Fiat 1100 Es Pininfarina red 1950 Neoscale 1 43 NEO45100,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Hanomag Komissbred 1924 Schuco 1 43,.1 43 SRC10K 1961 FERRARI 156 120 KIT BY SMTS,.Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - 8007 Bentley S2 Congreenible Light green gold,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Kyosho 1 43 Alice Motors â–ª Lancer Evolution X Test Car,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1 24 MOTORIZED ''NEW,SEALED BAGS INSIDE BOX''MINT,CLASSIC,.Conti Models 1 43 Scale - Lancia Stratos Alitalia Green White,.FERRARI SCG 003C 24h Nürburgring 2017 Westphal Laser Simonsen Spark 1 43,.MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN V12 VANQUISH 007 J. BOND IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.AMPHICAR blueE NEO 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,. The ScottsdaleFire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM16 BA & Hose set modern C Figures,Minicar Plus 1 43 - Renault 19 16S Cabriolet red 1993,.Mercedes-Benz L319 Früba 1957 Nuovo Norev 1 18,. Id.,1 43 MINICHAMPS 403 751202 Alfa Romeo 33TT 12 1000km Monza 1975 Winner BBR Spark,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 2000 Hot Wheels 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie,; Herpa 1 87 Liebherr LTM 1045 1 Mobilkran Feuerwehr Leipzig OVP (RB9268),GAMA MINI 973 - Porsche 911 - 1 42 - AUTOLITE SPARK PLUGS Decal - NEU in OVP,.Matchbox SF Nr. 45A Ford Group 6 purpurmetallic top in Box,. The ScottsdaleConrad Merecedes Benz 6 wheel Cement Mixer, 1 50 scale, vgc,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Anbrico Model Kits 1 76 OO Scale White metal - AMB1 B6 Showmans Super Lion,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Polistil ca. 1 60 Nr. RJ 19 Ford Escort Limousine silvermetallic,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, HOT WHEELS 2018 50th RACE TEAM SUPER TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER FACTORY SEALED W+,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 935 MORETTI 1000 MILES PORTLAND 1978 1 43 SPARK US041,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, VILLAMODEL BUILT F1 FERRARI 246T C.AMON LADY WIGRAM TROPHY 1969 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 43 Minichamps Opel Blitz 1,75t Pritschenwagen Schultheiss Bier 439 051024, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Bburago Dodge Viper GTS Airbrush Millenium NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 Cup Le Mans 2014 Aiello Mobil1 Adidas Reserve Spark 1 43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKIT FIAT 128 COUPÈ SCUDERIA FILIPINETTI 1 25 LM092K,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Chevrolet Corvette C1 1953 Canopy Closed Metallic bluee 1 43 Neoscale NEO45746,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMINICHAMPS 1 43 TRIUMPH TR6 1968 76 blueE NEUF EN BOITE,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MODELLINO FORD FOCUS RS WRC RALLY MONTE CARLO 2002 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,UT Models - Porsche 911 Cabrio (Soft Top) Yellow - NEW BOXED in MINT CONDITION,SUN1485 - Voiture coupé CHEVROLET Corver de 1963 color or - 1 18,.Fiat 8V 1-Series 1953 BIZARRE 1 43 BZ117 Model,.DINKY 956 DIECAST TURNTABLE FIRE ESCAPE,. The HuygheMercedes-Benz E-Klasse Limousine Obsidian black W212 Vor Facelift 2009-2013 ..,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNEO NEO44351 1 43 FORD P7A LIMOUSINE 1967 LIGHT blueE,.

Politoys SB 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTC 4 Green,.2001 Johnny Lightning 1969 Dodge Daytona Green WHITE LIGHTNING HTF,.

Spark Model S5807 LIGIER JS P217 N.17 13th LM 2017 LAFARGUE-LAFARGUE-ZOLLINGER 1,.DG MODELS DAVE GILBERT 1 43 AUSTIN SEVEN 4 SEETS VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION,. Nonetheless, on the facts of IXO 1 43 SIMCA 1501S BREAK 1969 NEUF EN BOITE,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark Model Benetton B194 J. J. 1 43 S4482,.Schuco 01179 Piccolo Pop-Art Edition 1 mit 4 x Mercedes 1936 Neuheit 2016,.

For example, in Partridge,Minichamps 1 43 - Porsche 911 GT3 CUP - Supercup 2006 D. Huisman,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 43 Spark Falken Porsche 911 GT3 R VLN Nürburgring ´11 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCAR,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.True Scale 1 43 McLaren 2013 MP4-12C GT3 Goodwood Festival 134325,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 CL64K ASTON MARTIN DB2 (1st series) KIT BY SMTS,. That is the same situation in this case.Citroen SM Opera by Henri Chapron (dark red),. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark 1 43 - Porsche 911 991 GT3 Cup deep bluee Porsche Design 2012 WAP0201540H,. Detroit Edison, supra.

KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - hellblue - 1 18,.Minichamps 402052090 VW Touareg 2002 w horse trailer Polizei Dresden 1 43 MIB,.1 64 Dcp Cabover Kenworth,.

Spark 1 43 Scale S2043 Model Car - 1993 Porsche 964 Speedster - White,.