Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals SCHUCO VW VOLKSWAGEN LT - AUDI VORSPRUNG DURCH TECHNIK - 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 34,.1 43 Lotus Evora, 24H van Spa 2011., Spark,.Alfa Romeo 1750 1932 Grey 1 43 Model RIO,.Alfa Romeo Spider 3 Serie 1 mit abnehmbarem Softtop Baujahr 1983 türkis 1 18 KK,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Hot Wheels Extreme Action Light And Sound Sharkruiser Creepy Start Up Sounds USA,.BMW Z4-M COUPE no. 77 ADAC 24 H Nürnburgring 2009,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Dinky 342 austin mini moke boxed vintage 1966-72,.1 43 SPARK S0714 RUF CTR 3 PRESENTATION 2007..,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.HOT WHEELS LOOSE random LOT OF 50 read add,.1 50 Scale International HX620 Tandem Tractor Diecast Masters 71008 Trailer Hea,.. MINICHAMPS FORD TAUNUS 1960 TURQUOISE MINT BOXED, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Spark 1 43 Lotus 3-Eleven Road 2017 S4897,.Herpa LKW Scania R Topl Aerop. Ga-KSZ Stelzl,.CORGI TOYS OLDSMOBILE SOLO FÜR U.N.C.L.E CODE3 UNIKAT,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 Schumacher World Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
Ferrari Dino 246GT Anson 1 18 Die Cast Model,.Original McLaren M6A Hot Wheels Redline USA Metal Collectors Button,.AC GREYHOUND 1959 GREEN MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO45015,.Hot Wheels Porsche lot of 25 1 64,.1 87 Brekina + 1400 VW T1 b DSB Dänemark DK Pritsche + Kasten,.
Audi Quattri Coupe 1981 Sun Star Mikkola Hertz,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Predar PR0255 FIAT 500 TENDER TWO CASTAGNA MILANO 2008 LIGHT blueE 1 43 Modellino,.1 43 TSM124384 Acura NSX Cabriolet, Purple 2012 Avengers Cars, Resin HONDA NSX,.Porsche 911 Turbo - 1 43 - Schuco,Franklin Mint Hose Co. No. 3 Tanker Trailer,.Norev 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car 185720 - Simca P60 Montlhery - Cream Red,.
Mint Opened Mini Car Body Only Jl 1 64 1971 Plymouth Gtx,.CORGI 318 LOTUS ELAN S2 1965-67 ORIGINAL NICE CAR IN WORN ORIG BOX MISSING FLAP,.Porsche 911 Carrera 1993, blue-Metallic, NOREV 1 18,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
CORGI 1 50 HERITAGE 71802 RENAULT JL20 SEMI CITERNE PERE BENOI Brand New RARE ,.
MINICHAMPS BMW M3 ( E30 ) 19587 WEISS OVP 1 43 LIMITIERT RARITÄT,. We agree in part.
NEO MODELS Ford Falcon Futura Sprint 43 1 43,.Schuco Tempo Matador Cargo Fret rapide limité Isaria Scooter 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Ertl TORINO COBRA green - RARITÄT neu OVP ,.Spark Oreca 01-AIM O. Panis 1 43 S4551,.1 43 RL33 ASTON MARTIN PROJECT 215 KIT BY SMTS,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; SHELBY DAYTONA COUPE LEMANS 1965 1 43 KYOSHO 03051F,.Vw 1500 S Tipo 3 1963 Red ModelCarGroup 1 18 MCG18090 Model,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Tatra 128N blue weiss, Pritsche 1951- 1 43 Premium Classixxs PCL47076 NEW,; Neo 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car NEO 43712 - Opel Ascona B 2.0 J - Yellow,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Schuco 1 43 Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 Lim. 1 500 Modellauto Geschenk Spielzeug,.Ford Falcon XB 351 GT Sedan 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Mulberry Model Car,1 43 RELIANT SCIMITAT GTC SE6 IN RED. NEO,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.UT MODELS 962600 BMW 320i SUPERTOURING - 1st SPA 1996 - 1 18 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.
Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3355 Porsche 911 GT3 CUP UPS,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1997 Porsche 911 (993) Coupe Mint Green 27801 Ut Models 1 18,.KK-SCALE 1 18 ALFA ROMEO SPIDER 4 1990 NERA MODELLINO,.A.S.S WIKING ALTER LKW MB 1620 KONTINENT MÖBEL 1975 GK 513 11B CS 774 1A 1WTOP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 ERTL AUTOWORLD PHIL BONNER T BOLT DRAG CAR RARE ,; DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 2011 FORD SHELBY GT350 RED W WHITE SHELBY SC352 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, New 1 43 Minichamps BMW M4 GTS F82 Turbo six cylinder coupe white M3,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Panhard 24 BT Red Dark White 1964 Car Miniature 1 43 Collection Withebox,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
MARK43 PM4311R 1 43 HONDA Integra Type 98 Spec DC2 Milano Red,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1 24 MOTORIZED ''NEW,SEALED BAGS INSIDE BOX''MINT,CLASSIC,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
1 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz Volkswagen Käfer 1951 türkis RARITÄT §,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera in yellow AUTOart Maßstab 1 18 OVP NEU,.Porsche 993 RS Club Sport , Spark models,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Opel Kapitän 1959 Ocean Green Alabaster Grey 1 43 Minichamps 430040007 NEW,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Haze bluee Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43020003,.
WIKING Demag Mobilkran red gesupert Rettungswagen Scale 1 87,.DINKY TOYS - MORRIS OXFORD SALOON - YELLOW & GREEN - ORIGINAL,.Hobby Japan MARK 43 1 43 Toyota Altezza RS 200 Super Bright Yel Japan,.BMW Z4-M Coupé h Nurburgring 2009 - 1 43 - Minichamps,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.TAIYO JAPAN TIN TOY CHEVROLET CAMARO POLICE HIGHWAY PATROL - L26.0cm RARE - GOOD,.
Norev Norev Renault 5 Supercinq GT Turbo - Alain Oreille 1 18 - 185805 -,.Bburago 1 18 Scale Lamborghini Huracán Polizia Diecast Vehicle (colors May,.Corgi Classics FAB 1 - Pink - A+ A+,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Mercedes 500 SEC (W126) Magic Top BB Tuning 1985 white, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Norev Porsche 911 E Targa 1969 orange 1 18 187633,.Schuco Porsche 911 Coupe indian red 1 43 450891200,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes AMG S 63 Coupe 2016 S4917,.SPARK RENAULT 4CV 1063 rd Le Mans 1951 F. Landon - A. Briat S5210 1 43,.1 18 Revell Fiat Abarth 1000 TC white red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
Politoys 1 43 - Alfa Romeo 33 Ital Design Iguana Green M14, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.2006 Hot Wheels 20th Annual Collectors Convention bluee '67 Camaro,.Wiking Brekina roskopf konvolut Mercedes Benz bus 1 87 100 Jahre Omnibus,. The PartridgeOpel Ascona J B 2-door orange NEO43712 1 43,.Zetor 25A Tractor red - Mechanical Tin Toy,.NZG MODELLE 700 TEREX TL260 WHEEL LOADER - WHITE + GREY 1 50 - VERY GOOD COND,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, ALFA ROMEO 6C JANCOVITS 1950 EQUIPE TRON 1 43 P239, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Lamborghini Murcielago Lp640 Yellow Museum Minichamps 1 43 436103920 Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark S3802 1 43 1952 Bentley Mark VI Standard Steel Sports Saloon, Green Met,.Franklin Mint 1 24 1910 Cadillac Model Thirty 1 24 scale,PartridgeKit pour miniature auto CCC Panhard Dyna X86 canadienne référence 119,.Best Model BT9626 JAGUAR E COUPE' 1961 LIGHT GREEN MET.1 43 Modellino,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Norev 1 43 Scale diecast - NORUNA Renault Laguna c w Turntable Display, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, HOGAN WINGS HO0113GR 1 200 PIA 747-200 OLD LIVERY AP-BAT,; HESKETH 308 JAMES HUNT PRIMERO WINNER DUTCH GP 1975 1 43 SPARK S2239,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, RAI'S 1 43 Nissan Cube Z12 2012 Japan Police Car Diecast Model H7431204, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Rio 1 43 1927 Bugatti 41 Royale Torpedo, Closed Top, bluee, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeTop 43 (France) Porsche 917 (Zitro Racing) Le Mans 1970 Diecast 1 43 NIB,.
Spark Model S5346 LOTUS 72D DAVE CHARLTON 1972 N.29 RETIRED BRITISH GP 1 43 Mode,.RARE Gaz 67-420 Jeep Medical Car Ambulance Hand Made Vector models 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Spark 1 43 Lotus XI n.41 16th Le Mans 1957 A. Héchard - R. Masson S4401,.Peugeot RCZ Coupe Weiss mit blackem Dach Ab Facelift 2013 1 18 Norev Modell ..,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size TOYOTA SOARER 20 Resin Kit,.
NEW ALPINE A110 TOUR DE CORSE 1973 gold COLLECTION 1 18 SCALE DIE-CAST BURAGO,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Nissan Patrol Geländewagen Bj.1984 - Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,RENAULT 4 1965 COPENHAGHE blueE NOREV 1 18,. In Noska,Spark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale Resin S2517 - Audi R18 TDI Audi North America LM 2011,.Fire Rescue Wirginia Beach 1 64 Model CODE3,.Minichamps 1 43 Model 40 Special Speedster Edition 1 437082080 NEU OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Cadillac CTS Sport Sedan 2011 Crystal Red 1 43 Model 10099 LUXURY,.TAKARA JAPAN 803644- FLIGHT ATTENDANT JAL - JENNY's TRAVEL UNUSED IN - BOX RARE,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.70 GT Russian Team A. Karac SB114,.Lexus Lfa 2010 White Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431660 Model,. Id., p 923.
1 18 WELLY HOLIDAY EDITION 1941 CHEVROLET SPECIAL DELUXE,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Norev France miniature Coupé SIMCA 1000 N°73 1 43 D'origine Plastique,Spark Jaguar D P. Frere 1 43 S2131,.Ebro 1 43 Honda FIT 3 HYBRID Premium White Pearl finished product,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale Diecast FM201 - 1968 Dodge Charger - Copper,.BoS MODELS 1 43 Audi pinkmeyer 2000 aluminium,.Volkswagen VW Bus T3 1993 White 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Vintage - LAND ROVER 109 - 1 43 Solido Ref. 56,.BURAGO 1 18 3039 FERRARI 348TB 1989 RED,. The parties Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 30718A - BMW M3 Sport Evolution,.
CORGI CLASSICS 97714 50th Anniversary D-DAY Operation Overlord Deceased Estate,.Lada Samara 1984 red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Bmw 2000 Cs 1965 Dark Red Limited 1000 Pcs 1 18 Model KK SCALE,; Toyota Yaris Lappi Finland Winner 2017 1 43 Spark S5169, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Magirus S 6500 Schuco Post Edition unbespielt in OVP,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 64 Kyosho Toyota ALTEZZA bluee Diecast Model Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1969 Dodge Cgoldnet R T Hardtop Diecast in 1 18 Scale by Auto World AMM1116,.Dinky Toys Military Anti-Aircraft Gun on a Trailer - 1950's Post War Dinky Toy,.1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 Targa 1991 Politie Netherlands Niederlande NL 400 ..,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 18 Norev SIMCA 1000 LS 1974 - AMARANTE RED 1857413,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.NEW Conrad, International 5600i - bluee, 1 50 Scale Diecast Construction,.Peugeot 207 Yellow Metallic - 1 18, Norev,.Citroen 2CVa Año Fabricación 1950 Mate gold 1 18 Norev,.NEW 1 18 Scale Diecast Solido Yellow Coca-Cola Volkswagen Beetle Original Box,.PORSCHE 962 962C 956 II bluepunkt Joest 1000km Nbr 1987 Wollek Ludwig Norev 1 18,. The Scottsdale1 50th Diecast Master 320D L Hydraulic Excavator Model Caterpillar Engineering V,Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11JR67 Mercedes Benz 500K Special Roadster,.MODELLINO ALFA ROMEO 6C 1750 G.S. 1930 WHITE IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Id., Herpa 265140 Scania Topline With Silo Trailer Edo Geisha Asam 1 87 H0 Scale,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1974 HOTWHEELS PORSCHE 911 - 3 - MB 1,; 1 18 Welly CW Porsche Boxster S bluee - RARITÄT ,MATCHBOX LESNEY B LAND ROVER SERIES II, BPW, EXCELLENT, BOXED TYPE B, LOT B,.Hot Wheels REDLINE TWINMILL 1969 ANTIFREEZE VERY NICE ,. The Scottsdale1 18 Norev Citroen DS23 1973 elfenbein 181582,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, JOLLY MODEL JL0752 - ALFA ROMEO 1150 CONRERO red 1960 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Peugeot 206 CC, red, 1 18 - WELLY,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 356A 1500 Gs Carrera Gt Año Fabricación 1957 blue Claro 1 18 SUNSTAR,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 Carrera Targa Usa 1985 Green 1 43 Neoscale NEO43248 Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, AUSTIN POWERS SHAGUAR & ROADTSER MODEL KITS MADE BY REVELL (XP),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, SPARK PORSCHE 911 GT2 Evo Le Mans 1996 Jarier - Couple - Chappell S5513 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 mendoza blue 184832, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Wiking Rollachser Magirus Feuerwehr Leiterwagen - orangered - frühe Version,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSabra 8107 Pontiac GTO made in Israel Gamda Koor Near Mint,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CLASSIC 1 43 MARK SKAIFE HOLDEN MOBIL HRT COMMODORE CAR SIGNED ON ROOF,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSchuco Eicher 3125 1 32 450779100,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Rio 4363 FIAT 0 CABRIO 1914 RED 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 18 Lamborghini Murcielago (White) Burago 18-12022,Chevrolet Corvair Coupe 1963 black, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,.Ferrari 250 California ISA 1959 1 43 Red + White Roof Model 0245 ART-MODEL,.Porsche 918 Hybrid Spyder 2015 mit Dach red 1 18 Welly Museum OVP,. The HuygheCORGI 267 BATMOBILE, ORIGINAL CLOTH BADGE, SUPERB, MINT CONDITION.,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheFerrari California T Spider Closed Roof 2014 Grey Burago 1 18 BU16902GR Model,.
Schuco 1 45 Micro Racer Porsche 356 construction kit 450177400,.FRANKLIN MINT NO DANBURY MINT 1 24 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk coupe,.
Jaguar Heritage E-Type Coupe Lightweight 1963 Aluminium BEST 1 43 BE9680 Miniat,.TAM20061 by TAMIYA LOTUS TYPE 79 KIT DI MONTAGGIO - 1 20,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CHEVROLET Impala Coupe 1959 Spark 1 43 S2902,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark 1 43 Triumph TR3S Spider Team Standard h Le Mans 1959 Art. S1395,.Citroen 2CV 1980 yellow Mimosa Yellow 1 43 Minichamps,.
For example, in Partridge,DINKY TOYS No 136 VAUXHALL VIVA - Smart Looking Model with Box,. In Jorgensen, supra,Lotus Elan S3 FHC 1965 Spark S2221 resin 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MERCURY 1 43 - FIAT 850 COUPE NO= 44 - VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Matchbox Moko No 14 is the Bedford Lomas Ambulance VNMB,. That is the same situation in this case.Lote de 8 coches 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Tin s Manufactured 75602 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 429 302 RACER n.02 1 24,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1 43 Ferrari FXX in het bluew, Red Line,.1930's Wyandotte Press Steel Congreenible orange Toy Air flow Car 4 1 4”,.Fiat 600 Viotti Coupe - creme green met. - 1 of 299 - Matrix Scale Models - 1 4,.
Citroen Mehari 1983 Ataca Yellow Norev 1 18 NV181525 Model,.