Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Vintage Tekno Denmark 851 Scania Bus CR 76 DSB 1968-72 very nice condition n.box,.Hot Wheels Leo Mattel India Chevy Monza in Red, loose,.BMW Alpina B7 Turbo1 18 OTTO,.WINROSS 1 64 TgoldNTO ONTARIO BN AMERICA TRACTOR AND TRAILER ,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.MCG Mercedes Benz 460K Nurburg 460 460 K (W 1 18 18033,.± LION CAR DAF 400 BUS VAN PTT TELECOM VERY NEAR MINT BOXED,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ASSISTANCE RALLYE LANCIA IVECO+LANCIA STRATOS N°4 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 - Porsche 911 Supercup Champion '98,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Car Miniature CITROËN 2CV AZL Trunk Dome of 1957 NOREV 1 18,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1969 DODGE CgoldNET R T 50TH ANNIVERSARY DIE-CAST blueE AMM1116,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale V98155 - 1964 Mini Moke Conv - Snowberry White, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Auto Art Gateway 60039 MERCEDES BENK CLK DTM 2000 1 43 n.24,.Porsche 917K winner 24h le mans 1970 Hermann Attwood 430706723 Minichamps 1 43,.TrueScale TSM134314 1 43 Resin 1967 Chevrolet Impala 2-Dr Hardtop, Ermine White,.Rio RI4539 FIAT 128 4 PORTE 1969 yellow POSITANO 1 43 Modellino,.

Eligor Surber 1 43 Ref 11244 Scania - Monroe Magnum,.Herpa Scania 164 L V8 Scania Infomate in Yellow White on 1 87 in Box,.Auto Art Gateway 60673 PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 CUP orange 1 43 Modellino,.MAISTO 1 18 - 31692 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA S - RED,.Corgi 336 James Bond Toyota 2000 GT w figs & Missiles original ,.

Corgi 12801 Foden FG Artic & Long Platform Trailer Ltd Ed No. 0002 of 6700,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Porsche 911 991-2 Gt3 Coupe 2017 bluee Met SPARK 1 43 WAX02020063,.1 43 HONDA NSX-T TARGA EBBRO YELLOW,.1 87 Mercedes-Benz Actros LH MP2 Sattelzug Athens 2004 - Dealer-Edition - herpa,TEAM SLOT CAR 11103 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA GTA YELLOW L12.5cm - UNUSED IN BOX,.Dinky Toys Renault Floride Réf 543 Excellent état,.

NOREV 1 18 1973 Simca 1000 Rally Monte Carlo Diecast Model Car Red (185707),.HOT WHEELS REDLINE CLASSIC '36 FORD COUPE green w metal badge button 1968,.Ford Mustang II Cobra 1978 Greenlight 1 18 white red NEU OVP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Nostalgia tin car vintage car 28cm bluees bredhers,.

TAKARA Chgold Q Le Mans Challenge Set Audi R8 Porsche 911 GT3,. We agree in part.


A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.007 James Bond Set 2002 Die Another Day Limited Edition SET 1 43 402041202,.SUNSTAR - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVAIR - 1963 - 1486,.Spark 1 43 Scale US005 - Nissan Deltawing Hrs Of Sebring 2013,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Mercedes F100 1991 - Spark 1 43 in Box 34906,.Bruder Jeep Wrangler Unlimited Rubicon with Light skinned Policeman - New,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Gama bluee 1 25 Scale Monza Die Cast Car on Base,; NOREV183451 - Voiture cabriolet MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT C Roadster color yellow -,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Sw2261, Wiking Hanomag Kurier Getränkewagen 1 87 HO 343 1,.SPARK Dauer 962 Winner Le Mans 1994 Baldi -Dalmas - Haywood 43LM94 1 43,Spark MG B GT Coupe 1967 1 43 S4140,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Shelby-Toyota 2000GT 1 43 Del Prado - 23 CP Die Cast Model Car Brand New in Box,.

Ebbro EB44034 PORSCHE 911 RSR N.8 6th NURBURGRING 1974 MULLER-VAN LENNEP 1 43 Mo,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ertl Nascar John Andretti Kanawha Chevrolet Lumina 1 18 Scale,.1 43 Spark Model MG B GT V8 1973 S4141,.Polistil 1 16 Scale Diecast - 01664 Alfa Romeo Alfetta 1750 White,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, MARK43 PM4388GBL Car 1 43 Suzuki Hustler G Summer bluee Metallic Finished Item,; FORD Grand Torino Coupe Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44740,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MCLAREN MERCEDES MP4-16 2001 FORMEL 1 F1 COULTHARD 1 18 MINICHAMPS DEALER,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Planex 1 43 Lotus 79 French GP 1979 finished product,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Kess Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio Light Grey Metallic 1984 KE43000191 Ltd 250,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Kenner Classy Crasher Cars SSP 1974,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Universal Hobbies 1 50 Scale UH5644A Scania R Series - Boyle Transport & Keyring,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car WAP 020 125 17 - Porsche 911 GT3 RS - Green,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.PORSCHE 935 MARTINI LE MANS 1976 EBBRO 43768 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Revell 28503 Renault Clio Sport V6 Trophy,.

TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.MATCHBOX FREEMAN INTER-CITY COMMUTER - 22 MIB NEUF BOITE SUPERFAST,.Mercedes Sprinter Long Base UK Police 1 43,.Oreca 05 Nissan Thiriet TDS Racing , 24H LeMans 2015 , Sparkmodels,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Universal Hobbies 1 50 DOOSAN DX160W Wheeled Excavator Diecast Model UH8134,.

TEKNO SCANIA 142m HARRY VOS 215 & 347 INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT SPEDITION,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC10501 - ERF KV Platform Lorry - Cgoldnation Cafe Diorama,.Ferrari Dino Competizione 1 43 KingStar KS103,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Norev Sauber-Mercedes C9 Winner 400 km Suzuka 1989 - Baldi Schlesser silver 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Maserati Khamsin 1977 grey metallic 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 437123220,.RENAULT MEGANE VAMPIRE Norev blue 1 18,.Lotus Mk XI Eleven • Corgi Toys 151a • 1 43 diecast • NEAR MINT + ORIGINAL BOX,.2012 French Dinky Toys Atlas Edition Diecast No. 25B Fourgon Tole Peugeot,.Diecast Masters 1 50 Trailer Head Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor 5colors Toy,.

BBURAGO - METALLMODELL - OPEL KADETT GT E RALLY - 1 24 - (5.DIV-25), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark 1 24 Scale LMS009 Audi R10 TDi Audi Sport North America LM 2007 Faulty,.CORGI CC25910 Routemaster Route 11 Liverpool Street Station,. The PartridgePorsche 911(993) Cup 3.8 (white),.HPI Racing 1 43 Scale 8075 - Lancia Stratos HF Tour De Corsa,.Simca Aronde 1954 hell blue 1 18 Norev 185741 neu & OVP,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture 2018 B Case Team Transport Set of 4 FLF56-956B, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Autoart 1 43 Scale Diecast 50931 - 1999 Bugatti EB 218 Genf - Dark bluee,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Danbury Mint 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk 1 24 Diecast Car,.Mattel 1 43 1974 Ferrari 312B3 Lauda Spanish GP,PartridgePEUGEOT 406 AMBULANCE SMUR Villefranche sur SAONE 1 43,.Burago 1 18 Ferrari F50 (1995) red - 3362 - Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911GT3 RS Nurburgring 24 Hours 2008, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Auto Art Gateway 60132 MERCEDES BENK CLK DTM 2001 1 43 n.2,; Opel Manta B OPACO Film (1991) yellow blue Metallizzato pink 1 18 Mod.,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CORGI CLASSICS 97714 50th Anniversary D-DAY Operation Overlord Deceased Estate, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ebbro S101 114 Scale Car, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 50TH DIECAST MASTERS INTERNATIONAL HX620DAY CAB TANDEM 71007 Trailer Head,.

1 18 Norev Mercedes Benz Patent Motorwagen 1886 green,.Hot Wheels TREASURE HUNTS Lot Of 12 W Proctective Covers NOS , Clarke's negligent act.SPARK 1 43 S1311 ABARTH OT 1000 COUPE PININFARINA 1965 WHITE,.RENAULT 12 GORDINI 1971 blue DE FRANCE NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.NEW JERSEY POLICE-GARDEN STATE PARKWAY-ROAD CHAMPS-CHEVY-POLICE SERIES 1 43,.

Lotus Europa Twin Cam 1971 Red 1 43 Spark S2215 Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CODE 3 WOOD RIVER ILLINOIS,1976 Lada Niva Feurewehr Bomberos Alemania red-whiteo 1 18 MC Group 18006,. In Noska,Hot Wheels Offroad and Workshop Lot of 29 2014 Vega Challenger Charger,.IXO 1 43 Unic Auteuil 1963 LKW Gastransport TRU015 NEU OVP,.Wiking 1 32 077320 Traktor Anhänger Claas Uniwrap Rollant 455 - NEU OVP,.Porsche 997 GT3 R ,24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Corgi 436 - Citroen Safari ID 19 - Yellow,.Schuco Mercedes 170 V Kastenwagen 1 18,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG no. 28 GT3 Super Taikyu 2012,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC20305 - Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor - Katrina,. Id., p 923.

VW New Beetle Cabrio orange 1 18 Autoart neu & OVP 79754,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Matchbox YFE20-M 1912 Mercedes-Benz Fire Engine 1997,VOLKSWAGEN TOUAREG bordeaux 1 18 2002,.WEISE-TOYS 1020 DEUTZ-FAHR Agrostar DX 6.31 1 32,.Spark 1 43 Ford GT40 LM 1967 S5177,.Minichamps Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 Basse 1 43 437123238,.WIKING MB 312 MÖBELWAGEN UNBESCHRIFTET W449,.BMC AUSTIN Mini Cooper S Rallye Monte Carlo Mäkinen 1965 IXO Altaya N 1 18,.NSU RO80 Saloon - Marklin Germany 1 43 34893,. The parties 1 87 EM5100 Iveco Euro 6 LKW Transporter neutral NEU für Umbau Eigenbau,.

Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.23 ROWE Racing SG189,.1 18 Norev Porsche 911 RS 1973 white green 187636,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Regular Wheels LESNEY MATCHBOX 45 FORD CORSAIR CAR & BOAT MINT IN BOX MIB,; CAT 1 18 2.4GHZ Radio Control - Front Loader Construction Vehicle Toy for Kids, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1968 Fiat 500 Giardiniera Estate Positano Yellow 1 18 Norev 187724,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI NO. 218 ASTON MARTIN DB4 - RARE YELLOW WITH CRISS CROSS WHEELS,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)BMW M6 GT3 No.35 24h Spa 2017 (M.Palttala - C.Krognes - N.Menzel M,.Renault R30 Tx 1981 Brown Met NOREV 1 18 NV185271 Model,.Vintage 1968 Hot Wheels Super-Charger Sprint Set,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,UT MINICHAMPS MODEL D2 Mercedes-Benz 1998 1 18 Ludwig Zonta FIA N M B,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.SSP Herk Action Stunt Set,.Occasion MINI COOPER ONE blue 1 43,.Modell 1 18 Volkswagen VW T3 Bus Red Star 1992 red Norev 188542,.1 18 Norev Renault Clio 16S greymetallic 185234,.Spark 1 43 Scale S1009 - F1 Mercedes AMG W03 Brazilian GP 2012,. The ScottsdaleInnocenti 950S Spider 1962 Yellow Matrix 1 43 MX30902-012,BMW M3 E30 Touringcar 24h Spa Winner 1987 Lease Plan Poele Theys Spark 1 43,.@. 1 43 RIO SL075 AUTOCARRO FIAT 18BL 18 BL ANNIVERSARY CENTENARY MIB RARE,. Id.,Ebbro EB44443 NISSAN GT-R N.12 FUJI 2010 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, RENAULT VIVA GRAND SPORT A CLEF ED LIMITEE 1000 EX CIJ BY NOREV NEUF EN BOITE,; Spark S4198 1 43 Resin 2013 Porsche 918 Spyder with LHD, Light Yellow,RAI'S 1 43 Nissan Cima Hybrid Y51 2013 JP Police Car From Japan New F S,.ERT7465 by ERTL MERCEDES BENZ 190 SL COUPE 1 18,. The ScottsdaleSpark F1 Matra MS5 1967 J.S. Gavin 1 43 S1595,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BRUDER 2452 CAT ruspa grande con cingoli,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CAMPING CAR CITROEN C25 Pilote 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Dinky toys 571 Coles Mobile Crane Boxed - Original Condition,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Display 12x Volkswagen beetle met surfplank Welly 42343 SB 1 34 - 1 39 die-cast,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, CORGI 1 50 - CC12209 SCANIA CURTAINSIDE - PETE OSBORNE LOGISTICS LTD,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Cabriolet 1990 Turquoise Minichamps 1 43 430067332 Model, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 635D Vintage Politoys M 518 Rolls Royce Coupé 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Hummer H3T (birch weiss) 2006,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePrecision 100 Collection 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Congreenible Diecast 1 18 Scale,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Super Gt 2006 Lexus Selmo Test Car Specifications 1 43 Ebro,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFiat 1900B Gran Luce Coupe 1957 Green Beige NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45112,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Spark S4936 1 43 Resin 2016 Porsche 991 Carrera S Coupe with LHD, Dark Grey,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK30 - 1954 Dodge Royal 500 - Unboxed,1 43 NEO Resin Model Saab 900 Turbo 16S Aero White 1992,.ERTL TEXACO - WINGS OF TEXACO MODEL BN 20684P,.2016 Porsche 991 (II) CARRERA S Tennis Grand Prix 16.04 24.04 1 43 Spark,. The HuygheNOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN GT BY CITROEN - SALON DE PARIS 2008 - 181610,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 1948 FORD WOODY WITH SURFBOARD DIE-CAST CREAM 20028CRM,.

Ford camion Depannage Dinky Service 25R - Dinky Toys Meccano - Voiture ancienne,.Maisto Chevrolet NOVA SS 1970 chevy 1 18 ProRodz Fast drift speed gt r cars dub,.

Bentley Continental Supersport 2009 Top Gear with The 1 43 MINICHAMPS 519431390,.Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 Baujahr 1972 hellblue metallic 1 18 KK-Scale,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Wiesmann Roadster Mf5 2007 Metallic gold 1 43 Neoscale NEO44601,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMinichamps - Heinz Harald Frentzen - Sauber Zetec - C15 - 1996 - 1 18,.1 43 HotWheels Ferrari Celebrating 60 Years of Victories NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCA,.

For example, in Partridge,Minichamps 1 43 Jonathan Palmer Renault RS17 Formula 1 Australia 2017 417170030,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark Model Ligier JS27 Phillipe Alliot 1 43 S4268,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Meri Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - Ferrari 640 F1 1989 Airscope,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,BMW V12 LMR Lehto Muller Kyosho 1 18 opening hood 80 43 0 018 218,. That is the same situation in this case.Roxley Models White Metal Leyland DAF Jaguar Fire Sevice,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MATCHBOX King Size No. 12 Kranwagen green BP Foden Breakdown Tractor Scale 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SOLIDO 1 18 CITROEN 2CV SAFARI RAID 66 BOX x,.Rio RI4512 FIAT 1500 6C VIGILI DEL FUOCO 1948 1 43 Modellino,.UT MODELS 1 18 - 180 964281 OPEL CALIBRA J.J LEHTO ITC 1996,.

Bentley Flying Spur W12 2012 Dark bluee 1 43 Kyosho 05561NX NEW,.