OPEL OPEL OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models 76a226

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
OPEL OPEL OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models 76a226
Norev 1 18 1976 Citroen 2CV 6 Diecast Model Car orange 181514,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Peugeot 3008 Gt 2016, Grey Metallic, 1 43 Norev,.1 43 Vemac 350R Ebbro 2007 Super Gt No. 4,.2002 Corvette 'California Anaheim Angels' 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33462,.1967 Chevelle SS396 RED H T 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 7246,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Matchbox Harley Davidson Tractor Trailer,.MAZ 200V semi trailer MAZ 5215 SSM 7003 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Kyosho 1 43 - Caterham Super Seven JPE 2000 carbone alu,.21 Vintage Johnny Lightning Muscle Cars USA 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Die Cast Lot,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Peugeot Onyx Concept Fahrzeug Paris 2012 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne ..,.RARE OLD CORGI TOYS LAND ROVER 109 WB BREAKDOWN SERVICE DEPANNEUSE 1 43,.Fiat 238 Polizia 1972 1 43 Model RIO, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Ferrari 512S Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Red,.Conrad Demag AC 25 Telescopic Crane in White on 1 50 in Box,.Zetor 25A Tractor red - Mechanical Tin Toy,.Dinky 195 Jaguar 3.4 Saloon fantastic original vintage diecast boxed,.

Corgi Forward control Jeep - bluee Red interior - A B,.Chgold Q TAKARA Toy's dream project 2003 Limited 5 Cars Set Vol.2 NEW F S,.1967 Beetle Kafer Stuttgart Germany Police Car 1 18 Diecast Model Car Greenlight,.VW Volkswagen Beetle Käfer HERBIE 1962 TV Kino Movie Hot Wheels Elite N 1 43,.5 x Modellauto GAMA BMW 3x 325i, BMW 525i und BMW M1 Maßstab 1 43 1x OVP,.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 882031 - BMW M3 Eifelrennen DTM 1988,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CITROEN CONCEPT GT WHITE SALON DE PARIS 2008 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY NOREV 181610,.2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari red-red 1 18 Bburago 16001,.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 22 B Vauxhall Cresta copper GPW Lesney 2,Spark Porsche 935 K3 A. Charlotte 1 43 S4168,.Original boxed and condition TRI-ANG WIZARD STOP.ON CAR,.

NV184783 by NOREV PEUGEOT RCZ COUPE 2013 1 18,.EBBRO 44267 1 43 Honda From japan,.1 87 Wiking MB SK Porta Fenster Wechselkoffer HZ,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Mercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP,.

Schuco Scale 1 32 VW T1 Kasten Dachser Spedition Used,. We agree in part.

CORGI TOYS AUSTIN A60 ( DRIVING SCHOOL ) 1 43 CODE 3,.Mercedes-Benz SSK Count Trossi Der blacke Prinz Baujahr 1930 black 1 18 KK-S,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPÉ 1982 silver 1 18 WELLY,.Siku Super 3726 DÜWAG Straßenbahn, Sondermodell Siku Museum,.Best Model 9454 LOLA T70 SPIDER NASSAU 1966 1 43 Modellino,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; EBRRO Johnson Skyline R33 1995 (1 43 die-cast 43,933) finished product,.ERTL MERCURY COUPE LEAD SLED LOWRIDER INCL.FIGUR 1 18 SEHR RAR ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Triple 9 Honda Civic EF9 JTC 1991 PIAA Sug 1 18 1800102,; F1 LOTUS Renault T97 Turbo Ayrton Senna 1985 Olympus elf NEW Minichamps 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Renault R20 Ts 1978 Light Green Met NOREV 1 18 NV185265 Model,.BENTLEY Continental Gt Ride-On Push Car,BMW M5 535i E12 1980 white, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.NZG Modelle 1 50 Scale WHEEL-TYPE EXCAVATOR CAT 224 (Art Nr. 259),.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.FERRARI 250 LM RED 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY HOTWHEELS 23914 NEW OVP,.BMW 2000A 1962 silver 1 43 Minichamps neu + OVP 437023000,.Trofeu Ford Sierra Cosworth Tour de Corse 1987 D. Auriol 1 43 TRLMA07,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,; Alpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 White with red stripping NOREV - NO 185303 1 18,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, NOREV187411 - Voiture de compétition PORSCHE 962 C 24 Winner ADAC Eifelrennen Nu,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

OPEL OPEL OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models 76a226OPEL OPEL OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models 76a226OPEL OPEL OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models 76a226OPEL OPEL OPEL KADETT C SEDAN in bluee 1 18 scale model by KK Scale Models 76a226

Universal-Hobbies 4144 Massey-Harris-Ferguson Work-Bull 1 16,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.67 24H SPA 2014 GDL Motorsport SB083,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CORGI AN13805 MERCEDES BENZ ACTROS SKELETAL TRAILER & CONTAINER - MINT in BOX,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.JAMES BOND 007 CORGI COLLECTION - 007 The Definitive Collection,.Lamborghini Gallardo LP 600 Street 1 18 151111100,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.CURSOR - METALLMODELL - MAGIRUS DEUTZ - PRITSCHEN LKW - 1 50 - (7.BM-191),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Rowland Miniatures W&T 4MM Scale White Metal Kit - B6 - Anti Balance Plough,.

ERTL 1 32 SCALE CASE IH MAGNUM 175TH ANNIVERSARY MODEL BN 44135A,.Cord L-29 Phaeton Sedan 1931 - Matrix 1 43 - MX40307-011,.Schuco Fortschritt ZT 303 tractor red whit 1 32 450775100,.Rio 4356 FIAT 1100 YV TAXI DI BERNA 1955 1 43 Modellino,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.SUNSTAR SS3975 CHEVROLET NOVA OPEN CONgreenIBLE 1963 SADDLE TAN 1 18,.

CHRYSLER GHIA FALCON 1955 MATRIX 1 43,.CORGI 1 50 CC15201 MAN TGX CURTAINSIDE DYCE CARRIERS LTD ABERDEEN (D29),.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Falk Denmark 1 43 Model RIO,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Rio 4384 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA TI n.102 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ligier JS OAK Racing , 24H LeMans 2015 , Spark models,.HOT WHEELS Car Culture Team Transport set 72 Plymouth Cuda,Duster, PORSCHE 962,.NEW IN BOX Holden Monaro HK GTS 1 32 Diecast Model McPhee Racing Series,.Toyota Toyopet CgoldNA ST10 1957 1 24 Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast 3CA27,.Mercedes W116 450 SEL interrupteur vitres électriques 8122,.

1 87 Herpa MAN TGX XLX Melmer Starkenberger Bier A Silo-SZ 121743, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 911 (991) GT3 Red 1.43 Minichamps Model Car WAP0201490H,.Saab 900 GLi 1981 blue metallic, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,. The PartridgeEagles Race 1 18 Scale Diecast - 002008 Ferrari 250 GTO 1964 Red,.1955 Oldsmobile Super 88 Congreenible green 1 18 Welly 19869C,.Fiat 500 Giardiniera 1968 yellow 1 18 Norev 187724 neu & OVP,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car VA05209 - Ford Granada Ghia - Miami bluee, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.PORSCHE 911 RSR n°59 vainqueur 24H DAYTONA 1973 1 18,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce pink Celeste 1 43 Model RIO,.ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 92498 1969 CORVAIR MONZA RED,Partridge1 18 NEUHEIT Norev - Citroën DS 23 Pallas 1973 - Tholonet Beige,.Russian CCCP USSR Bus LAZ 695E Classic Bus 1 43 MIB OVP,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, RENAULT 5 TURBO Alll White UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 4547 1 18, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, HOGAN WINGS HO0113GR 1 200 PIA 747-200 OLD LIVERY AP-BAT,; CORGI 1 50 COLLECTION HERITAGE 74103 CITROEN TYPE 55 FOURGON CHAMBOURCY,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, MINICHAMPS 1 43 PORSCHE 935 ′PORSCHE KREMER′, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 437123220 Maserati Khamsin - 1977 - grey metallic, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeJob Lot Vintage Diecast Corgi Matchbox Lesney Tootsietoys Cars Vehicles Bundle,.

1 43 McLaren MP4-20 , British GP 2005 , Spark models,.Scania 1 50 Tekno (ohne Box), Clarke's negligent act.KK-Scale 1 18 Mercedes-Benz 250T W123 Kombi 1978-82 rood metallic nieuw in doos,.TOYOTA 2nd Ractis ( Verso-S ) Super Red V 1 30 Toyota special order NEW,.Spur N 1 160 Metallmodell MAN Tank-Lastzug Aral (SL8071) o.,.

PORSCHE 356 Speedster black Steve ´ S Speedster - SCHUCO 1 43 -,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 Red 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,Century 1 43 Scale White metal 2701 Mercedes 500 SL 1975 dark bluee,. In Noska,Spark 1 43 Tyrrell 021 Yamaha GP 1993 Miyazawa Japan new.,.Display 12x Mercedes-Benz E-class taxi 2016 Welly 43703TI 1 34-1 39,.Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Cabriolet 1990 Red Minichamps 1 43 430067330 Model,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR M318F WHEELED EXCAVATOR MODEL 85508, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.PORSCHE GT3 997 CUP WINNER CLASS PAUL RICARD 2016 LIM. SPARK SF112 1 43,.Spark S7623 Porsche 911 GT2 RS Baujahr 2018 in indisch red 1 43 NEU ,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1965 PONTIAC GTO gold SUN STAR 1809 1 18 DIECAST CAR,.1 43 Rampini Mercedes-Benz 220 Taxi Berlin 1952 Handmade Resin Model Car,. Id., p 923.

1976 Chevrolet Monza No.14 Campeón Imsa Al Holbertr en 1 43 Escala de Spark,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fiat 131 Abarth red 1980 IXO 1 18 18CMC003 Model,1 24 1955 Chevrolet Nomad Danbury mint,.MATTEL 2017 FAST AND FURIOUS SET OF 13 CARS 1 55,.AUSTIN BUGEYE HEALEY SPRITE 3 LONG YELLOW BUGEYE HEALEY SPRITE WHITE LIGHTNING,.Club Bialbero A2000 ALFA ROMEO 2000 RED 1 43 Modellino,.Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green,.FORD Fiesta New WRC 2018 Rallye Monte Carlo Ogier Red Bull MS-RT Spark 1 43,.Auto Cult ATC03004 1 43 SHELTER NETHERLANDS 1958 YELLOW,. The parties Large Lot (12) 1 64 Diecast Model Cars Brand New Unopened,.

Modellauto siku 3713 3413 LKW Tieflader mit Bagger für Bastler ,.1 43 Premium X Ford mustang Tour De France 1964 Procter -Cowan,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Dinky Supertoys 949 Wayne School Bus With Windows &seating,; MCLAREN F1 GTR SUZUKA JOHANSSON AYLES GOODWIN HPIRACING 8213 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Datsun blueebird U910 (bluee Metallic),.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Rio RI4166 FIAT 128 CARABINIERI 1 43 Modellino,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Redline Hotwheels Light bluee 1969 Continental Mark III,.Corgi Toys 227 Morris Mini Cooper primpink and white roof only,.2019 HOTWHEELS '68 MERCURY COUGAR SUPER SECRET TREASURE HUNT - NEW - SHORT CARD,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark Model Audi Q3 RS 2015 1 43 S4457,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CORGI CLASSICS THE BEATLES COLLECTION BEDFORD VAL MAGICAL MYSTERY TOUR BUS,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 113101 - 1965 Renault 16 - Yellow,.CORGI 1 50 - 80307 GARRETT ROAD TRACTOR & FLATBED TRAILER - ANKER VALLEY,.ASSISTANCE RALLYE SIMCA 1500 + 1000 RALLYE N°3 1 43,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Rekord P2 Caravan 1960 Grey 1 43 Minichamps-Diplomat P1,. The ScottsdaleX 1 18 UT MODELS MCLAREN MC LAREN F1 GTR XP1 orange NEAR MINT CONDITION,Bentley T2 (dark green) 1977,.Renault 5 GT Turbo Phase 1 de 1986 blue NOREV - NO 185207 - Echelle 1 18,. Id.,NEO MODELS Saab 95 GL Brown 1 43 43767,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AUTO WORLD 1 18 1967 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z28 DIE-CAST blueE AMM1101,; Trm12001Vr Ixo 112 Honda Nsr500 2001 V.Rossi Gp Nastro Azzuro,Lot CIJ Norev 4CV Police Renault Citroën 2CV Calberson Quiralu Porsche neuf 1 43,.Alpine Renault A110 1600s 1971 Gendarmerie 1 18 Model NOREV,. The Scottsdale1 43 Spark Morgan Aero 8 Supersport GT3 2010 S0373,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Revell Fast & The Furious '70 Dodge Charger 1 25 Scale,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1969 REDLINE HOT WHEELS RED BARON NEAR MINT ,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ZiL-131 (AC-40) Feuerwehr Pouch 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs L.E.,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Batman Batwing With Figure Batman Vs Superman Movie 2016 JADA 1 32 JADA98325 Mod,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Ebbro EB44422 ARTA GARAIYA N.43 2nd SUZUKA SUPER GT300 2010 M.NITTA-S.TAKAGI 1 4,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, SPARK LIGIER JS31 GP Japan 1988 René Arnoux S3968 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 613G WHEEL SCRAPER MODEL BN 85235, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, HOT WHEELS PISTOLA RADAR RADAR GUN MISURATORE DI VELOCITà MATTEL K5906 NUOVA,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeDinky 40a 158 Toys Riley Saloon Green Meccano original Diecast 1411-14-15,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1969 Marx Super Speed Flyers Instant Speedway Toy Vehicle SURFER Mint SEALED,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheURAL-375D flatbed with tent bluee ,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Revell Team Sabco Chevrolet Nascar 1998 1 18 Jeff Green (MCC),independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz L319 1957 Deutsche Post Nr. 183417 OVP,Brooklin 1 43 - Ford Sedan Delivery Van O'neill Ford Service,.KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder - red - 1967 - 1 18,.1953 Corvette Polo White 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33142,. The HuygheWESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 24 1979 MARCH 792 F2 POLIFAC,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheFERRARI CALIFORNIA T CLOSED TOP MET GREY SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 BY BBURAGO 16902,.

Maisto Premiere Edition Audi R8 Diecast Vehicle,.Corgi US51011 M4 A3 Amphibious Sherman Tank US Army, 741st Tank Batt. in 1 50.,.

MODELLINO AUDI A4 PLAYBOY CH. ABT DTM 2007 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size TOYOTA SOARER 20 Resin Kit,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1 18 Mazda MX-5 MX 5 Roadster Diecast Metal Car Model Toy Boy Girl Gift Red,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSpark Model SA131 HONDA CIVIC EF3 N.26 MACAU GUIA RACE 1990 TOSHIHIRO YOSHIDA 1 ,.Vintage 1970s Mattel Zowees “Goin’ Fishing” Hot Wheels Redline Era,.

For example, in Partridge,Hotwheels 1 43 Scale Model Car P9928 - Ferrari GTO - Red,. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche 962C Le Mans Winner 1988 1 18 Norev 187403,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Vintage Matchbox Car Lesney England 1970's Leyland Petrol Tanker BP In Box,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,NOREV 1 18 1963 PEUGEOT D4B AMBULANCE DIE-CAST WHITE 184699,. That is the same situation in this case.Chevrolet Impala Station Wagon 1959 Red White 1 43 Spark S2905 Miniature,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MODELER'S 1 43 Shingo Shoji EG6 Civic Painted Model Japan,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3351 - Mini John Cooper Works th Monte Carlo 2012,.J.E. MORGAN KNITTING TAMAQUA ERTL 1 64 T384 INTERNATIONAL CAB W TRAILER,.PORSCHE RS 1960 LM 1960 JOLLY MODEL JL756,.

Peugeot 206 RC 2003 red 1 18 Norev 184823 neu & OVP,.