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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals A-Team L'Agence Tous Risques 1967 Chevrolet Impala Sport Sedan 19047 1 18,.Minichamps 410025227 BMW M4 (F82) GTS black metallic Maßstab 1 43 NEU °,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3303 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Mexico Rally 2011,.New Ferrari California T Closed Top Red Signature Series 1 18 Diecast Model Car,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Porsche 911 GT3 (grey) 2017,.Ferrari 308 Gts 1978 bluee Metallic 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ERTL 1 18 Scale American Muscle 1969 MAG WHEEL YENKO 427 CAMARO ISSUE (GREEN),.CHEVROLET Corvette Z06 R GT3 GT Masters Roller Keilwitz 2011 Minichamps Res 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Chevrolet Monte Carlo bluee Metallic 1978 NEO 44790,.NV187583 by NOREV PORSCHE 917K th PLACE WATKINS GLEN 1970 1 18,.S2811 Spark 1 43 1972 BMW Alpina 3.0 CSL (E9) orange Chrome Trim on Fenders, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

BURAGO 1 18 - 18-12065 ALFA ROMEO 8C 2300 MONZA - RED,.Ebro 1 43 Lenovo team impulse SF14 2014 finished product,.MODELER'S 1 43 Junro Kawai Skyline 25GT Turbo ER34 Painted Model Japan,.Norev Porsche 911 RS Touring 2.7 1973,.

GUILOY 1 6 YAMAHA TR1 MOTORCYCLE Model Diecast Engine BIKE Spain oat,.Opel Manta B Mattig Baujahr 1991 yellow orange 1 18 Model Car Group,.Team Lotus 16 No. 14 Graham Hill Dutch GP 1959 S1835 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,.Racing Champions Hot Rod Magazine '57 Chevy Issue VHTF,.Corgi SP1002 Twin set Jaguar Mk2 3.8 & XJ6 S.1 4.2 Staffs. Police Factory Sample,.

Rio RI4493 CITROEN ID 19 BREAK 1962 BORDEAUX grey 1 43 Modellino,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.LION CAR DAF 3300 RALLY PARIS-DAKAR 1983 342 COLOUR YELLOW + BOX SCALE 1 50,.Fiat 238 Abarth Servizio Corse 1970 Rio 1 43 RIO4391,.TROFEU RRAC13 - Ford Escort Mk.I António Peixinho Vila Real 1969 - 1 43,VW Käfer Gulf hellblue orange, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.MATCHBOX LESNEY MODEL NO.5a LONDON BUS (52mm) NMIB,.

Premium Classixx PREM13353 VW LT28 BRANDWEER 1 43,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 410 130078 - Lotus F1 Team R.Grosjean Showcar 2013,.Best Model BT9251 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 CODA LUNGA 1968 RED 1 43 Modellino,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Matchbox SF Nr.66D Tyrone Malone Superbox white top in rarer L Box,.

Mercedes AMG GT (C190) 2015 red, Modellauto 1 18 Maisto Exclusive,. We agree in part.

1 12 Ducati 999 F07 Lanzi WSBK 2007 1 12 • Minichamps 122070257,.BBURAGO 18002 MV RENAULT RED BULL RACING TAG HEUER RB13 1 18 MAX VERSTAPPEN,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Revell Steve Mcqueen Bullitt Dodge Charger Metal Kit,.1 43 ARROWS FA1 (1978) R.PATRESE - SRC FORMULA 1 BUILT MODEL,. (S) crescent FERRARI 2.5 LITRE - 1286,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MINICHAMPS 430960019 TYRRELL YAMAHA 024 Mika Salo 1.43 NB,.Schuco Piccolo 2er Set Weihnachtsmodell 2004 MB SLR + 300SL OVP (y5439),. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Siku V Series Model Aral Tankstellen-Bauzug - Hanomag Henschel 355 (8.SI-34),; Spark Model S4721 LANCIA D20 COMPR.N.30 DNF LM 1953 P.TARUFFI-U.MAGLIOLI 1 43 Mo,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Mint Mini-Champs 1 43 Mini Carp Joe 406 Coupe World Limited 1344,.1 18 Dongfeng Peugeot 2016 3008 Credver Copper Brown Metallic Dealer Edition,Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 105 - Mercedes Benz 300SL - Red,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Art Model AM0290 FERRARI 195 SP N.1221 WINNER COPPA D.TOSCANA 1950 SERAFINI-SALA,.

V 234 Siku 1 55 Ford Transit Bus Polizei Mannschaftswagen mit Box 512309,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Marks N - Mercedes 911 Hängerzug - Continental Art.-Nr. 1386 BB 979,.Spark Model S5383 MATRA MS11 J.P.BELTOISE 1968 N.6 9th FRENCH GP 1 43 Modellino,.Matchbox b - Sports Boat - Red Cream Or White (BPW) - A+ A+,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Hi-Story HS137DB 1 43 MAZDA ATENZA SEDAN 2016 Deep Crystal bluee Mica,; Rio 4279 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA SOS MILANO 1968 Modellino,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels 2018 Lamborghini Aventador Miura Homage Super Treasure Hunt.,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Top gear 1 64 tgs01 set of 5 1956 FJ Holden vans,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

PORSCHE 935 Turbo K3 Le Mans 1980 Hawaiian Tropic Akin Miller Ken Spark 1 43,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Land rover discovery tsm model 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CONRAD - METALLMODELL - MAN TRANSPORT - BETONMISCHER - OVP - 1 50 -(7.BM-164),. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 24 JADA FAST & FURIOUS NISSAN SKYLINE GTR R34 blueE BRIAN OCONNOR PAUL WALKER,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 356 C Dutch Police 1965 1 43 Minichamps-B,911,RSR,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Best Model 9448 JAGUAR E SPIDER NASSAU 1961 1 43 Modellino,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.ONYX 1 43 - 172 s WILLIAMS RENAULT AU REVOIR ALAIN PROST,.

DINKY SUPERTOYS MECCANO FODEN 8-WHEEL DIESEL VAN HEE TRANSPORT 1 43,.2010 Bentley Continental Supersport Coupe whiteo 1 18 Welly 18038,.SCHUCO 1 43 02266 - MERCEDES 170V PLANE - LOWENBRAU,.TSM 1971 Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 3 Sebring 12Hr 3rd Place Autodelta. Pescarolo,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.EBBRO 25010 1 24 CITROEN H CREPE MOBILE VEICOLO,.

Brabham BT42 British F1 GP 1973 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Märklin Spur 1 - MAN Katastrophenschutz LKW - THW - Art.-Nr. 58702 P 78,.Budgie 238 British Railways Articulated Delivery Van. Red Cream. NM Boxed 1980's,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, SCHUCO 1 32 Lanz Bulldog D 9506 with carburettor red 450769800,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Opel Manta B Maaskantje New Kids Turbo Nitro Neo Scale Models 1 43,.RIO RI4462 MERCEDES 11-40 1924 WHITE 1 43,.Wonderful modelcar Saab 96 RAC-RALLYE 1962 E.Carlsson D.Stone - red - 1 43,.Wiking 709 4 E Mercedes Benz O 302 Autobus Aufbau hell red,.Norev Sauber-Mercedes C9 Winner 400 km Suzuka 1989 - Baldi Schlesser silver 1 18,.

1 18 Norev Mercedes AMG GT Red New, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Schuco 1 43 Nr 301622 Audi 50 blue in OVP,.TOYOTA 88C LE MANS 1986 SPARK S2353 1 43,. The PartridgeWonderful brandnew NEO-modelcar ADLER 2.5 AUTOBAHN 1937 - 1 43 - grey - lim.ed,.1 43 1960's GAZ-M22 Volga Station Wagon NEO,.Norev Peugeot 309 GTi16 1991 Miami blue 1 18,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1960s.Matchbox.Lesney.38 Vauxhall Victor Estate.BPW MNT IN D Type BOX.ORIGINAL, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.BMW X1 xDRIVE 28i (E84) VERMILLION RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY KYOSHO 08791,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NEW 1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Die Cast - 1 18 Scale Collectible Muscle Car,.Trofeu TF2002 TRIUMPH TR 7 9th RAC RALLY 1976 CULCHETH-DYER 1 43,PartridgeBarkas B1000 Halbbus Simson Kundendienst (1970) 1 18 MCG 18104,.Minichamps PM437101486 CORVETTE Z06R GT3 CALLAWAY N.86 2010 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, PORSCHE 356 Speedster black Steve ´ S Speedster - SCHUCO 1 43 -, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Matchbox Choppers Chop Suey New In Box,; Schuco Blech Auto  Nr. 1750  Vorkriegsmodell,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Vintage Dinky 25Y - Jeep - Red - Model Supplied In Collectabox NOT Original, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Schuco 3726 PORSCHE 908 n.21 NORISRING 68 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRegular Wheels Matchbox Lesney 73 MERCURY STATION WAGON MIB UK MINT IN BOX,.

MAISTO 30857 1 18 scale, HUMMER HARD TOP DIE CAST COLLECTION SPECIAL EDITION,.1 24 Special Edition Lamborghini Murcielago Lp640 Kit - 124 Scale Tobar Remote, Clarke's negligent act.SPARK Matra MS10 th Spain GP 1968 Jean-Pierre Beltoise S1588 1 43,.LOT 40692 Minichamps Porsche 911 Coupe Typ 993 red-metallic Modellauto 1 43 OVP,.Spark 1 43 Lotus 23 1964 Bobby Unser PP00,.

FINEWORK Chgold Q size Porsche 918 Spyder HG Resin Kit,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark 1 43 Bentley T1 Coupe James Young 1976 S3815,CORGI Eddie Stobart - CC13405 - MODERN - MAN TGA XL Step Frame - MB,. In Noska,TEKNO DANEMARK JAGUAR TYPE E CAB - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN,.TSM Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Glacier White - 1 43,.Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3L Coupe 1977 Olive Green NOREV 1 18 NV187575 Miniature,.WIKING 1 87 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ CUBE SHAPED CAB SET MERCEDES-BENZ LP 809 099079, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark 1 43 Scale US020 - Mazda Predotype 6H Of Watkins Glen 2016,.Vintage - BMW 528 Motul - 1 43 Top 43 Ref.0023 mounted Kit,.Art Model AM0160 FERRARI 857 MONZA N.116 3rd TARGA FLORIO 1955 CASTELLOTTI-MANZO,.Mint Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R (Kpgc 10),. Id., p 923.

CITROEN C4 CACTUS yellow Hello & airbump black 1 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Lotus Seven S2 1960 Green SPARK 1 43 S2222,LESNEY MATCHBOX 41 FORD GT RACING CAR WHITE - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 42168 1968 SHELBY GT-500 KR MET GREY DIECAST MODEL CAR,.Norev 185215 1 18 RENAULT 5 GT TURBO SUPERCINQ RAGNOTTI THIMONIE TOUR DE COR,.Ferrari 250 P Surtees 1963 1 43 Model 0155 ART-MODEL,.Minichamps Jeep Grand Cherokee in Red on 1 43 in Box,.LIONTOYS 1832203 GINAF 3achs Kipper green silver 1 50,.SPARK 1 43 - S0248 LOLA B05 40 AER TEAM QUIFEL-ASM LE MANS 2007,. The parties Wiking 077829 Claas Arion 430 Tractor with Front Loader 1 3 2 New,.

Matchbox b - VW 1600 TL - Metallic Purple (Superfast) - A+ B,.Ford Usa Shelby Mustang Ii Cobra Ii 1976 White bluee Greenlight 1 18 GREEN12880T,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, BITTER SC Coupe Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44266,; Volkswagen Rabbit 4-door 1975 Red 1 43 NEO 43955, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

1 43 FERRARI SF 71H KIMI RAIKKONEN - AVEC PILOTE F1 2018 ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Autoworld Chevy Chevelle SS,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 025122 - 1982 BMW 635 CSi (E24) - Red,.DRAGON 1 400 - 55133 BOEING 747-4D7 - THAI,.1 43 Sun Motor Company 1950 Humber Super Snipe Burnt orange Rust Bronze Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SCALEXTRIC SCX 60910 VINTAGE SIGMA GRAND PRIX MONOPOSTO F1 LIMITED EDITION,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.JOHNNY LIGHTNING RAGTOPS SET OF 6- Diecast Cars HOBBY,.PENNY 1 66 ALFA ROMEO 2600 PANTERA - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX - EXTREMELY RARE,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW E46 325ti Compact 2.5L 24V 2000 Red 1 43 Minichamps-GTR,.Citroen Gs Club Año Fabricación 1972 Camargue blue 1 18,.1 12 Diecast Masters 85139 Caterpillar Cat C15 ACERT Diesel Engine Core Class,. The ScottsdaleUniversal Hobbies Modellauto 1 18 Ford T Modell Party and Service,CORGI STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK 211S,.CORGI 394 DATSUN 240Z WHIZZWHEELS - EXCELLENT in original BOX,. Id.,Best Model BT9534 FERRARI 330 P2 N.60 2nd MONZA 1965 SURTEES-SCARFIOTTI 1 43 Mod,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche Cayman GT4 Clubsport 2017 Alpine White S5200 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,; CAT CATERPILLAR 613G WHEEL SCRAPER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL DIECAST MASTERS 85235,CORGI TOYS 406 MERCEDES BENZ BONNA AMBULANCE - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.RENAULT 11 Turbo Rallye Portugal 1984 Ragnotti Gr.A elf IXO Altaya 1 18,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps BMW i8 Roadster in White Pearlescent 2018 410027031 1 43 NEW Ltd 504,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Rio RI4554 VW MAGGIOLINO AMBULANCE 1 43 Modellino,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; EBRRO Johnson Skyline R33 1995 (1 43 die-cast 43,933) finished product,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1958 Studebaker golden Hawk - Road Signature 20018G - 1 18 Scale Diecast Car,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 450883100 Ford Mustang 302,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Truescale Miniatures 1 43 Honda Nsx Valencia Red Pearl Modulo Wheel Completed,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, RD MARMANDE TRIUMPH SPORT LE MANS 1961, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS FORD FOCUS ST RACE-red 410081001, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Welly NEX 1 18 2012 VW The New Beetle Red Display Mini Car,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeNew Hot Wheels FORD GT Gulf Zamac color HW Speed Graphics Limited F S,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, DDR GDR VEB PLAHO Steinach LKW Skoda 706 Kippertische PLASTIC Friction 1972-74,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMercedes L911 Postbrauerei 1 43 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.BURAGO 1 18 3029 FERRARI 348tb EVOLUZIONE 1991 RED,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 43 RL110AK Aston Martin DBR1 1957 Nurburgring 1000km KIT,Ford Mustang II Cobra Greenlight red 1 18 NEU OVP,.Art Model AM0062 FERRARI 500 TR N.58 7th 1000 KM MONZA 1956 STARRABBA-MEJER 1 43,.1 18 Norev Benz Patent-Motorwagen 1886 green green Nr. 183701 in OVP,. The HuygheFirst Gear 50-3392a KOMATSU KENWORTH T880 LOWBOY RED RED TRAILER,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNew Sealed 1977 Hot Wheels Rescue Team 11 Fire Eater no.9640,.

AUTO WORLD 1 18 MUSCLE CARS USA 2016 FORD MUSTANG GT DIECAST CAR AW242,.SIGNATURE MODELS- PM43705- MAYBACH SW38 2- Doors 1937 by Spohn,.

CORGI cc13725 BARRY HAULAGE SCANIA R CURTAINSDE i, Tekno, wsi,.ALPINE RENAULT A110 NEW 2017 PREMIERE EDITION NOREV 1 18,. Nonetheless, on the facts of SPARK MERCEDES AMG F1 W08 Winner Russian GP 2017 Valtteri Bottas S5031 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBURAGO 1 18 3039 FERRARI 348TB 1989 RED,.Norev 521200 1 43 PANHARD K173 LES CHORISTES 1949 RED MAROON,.

For example, in Partridge,JOUSTRA FRANCE EUROBUS - EUROPE CAPITAL CITY s - L39.0cm RARE - GOOD CONDITION,. In Jorgensen, supra,Trumpeter 1 3 5 05101 Mil Mi-4A Hound a Helicopter,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CITROEN ACADIANE La Poste 1 18 2CV,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Toyota IQ 2009 Bronze 1 43 Model 44698 EBBRO,. That is the same situation in this case.Anson 1 18 Scale - 60205 Cadillac Escalade EXT-2002 Red + Small version,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark Model S3640 A 112 N.37 24th MONTE CARLO 1977 Michèle Mouton-Françoise Conc,. Detroit Edison, supra.

First Gear - Ford F-800 Tractor With Trailer - 1 50 Scale,.Super Gt Lexus Sc430 1 43 Rare Limited Edition Ebro Ebbro,.Maybach Zeppelin 1932 Brown 1 43 0 Minichamps 436039406 Model,.

Circle K Sunks Kyosho 1 100 Honda Mini Model Car Collection Set of 18 Pcs,.