Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Premium ClassiXXs 18054 1 43 Zündapp Janus ADAC Limiterte Edition OVP (JS2170),.HOT WHEELS ELITE V7437 1989 89 FERRARI 348 TB 1 18 DIECAST YELLOW,.REVELL 1 32nd SCALE SPIRIT OF 76 GREENWOOD CORVETTE SLOT CAR RE 08354,.1.18 MAISTO EXCLUSIVE EDITION 2015 FORD MUSTANG GT WHITE AWESOME MODEL,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Kapitän B 2.8L I6 Auto 1970 White 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.Sunstar 1 18 American Collectible 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CONV SS6140,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mercedes L319 1957 Lindt&Sprüngli blue 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 183418,.Opel Manta 1970 limonen green metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Alfa Romeo 2600 Sprint Zagato 1967 Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45600,.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST DKW JUNIOR CAR,.Vw T2C Minibus Kombi Brazil Last Edition 1967 Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 PREM18380 M, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Jet Wheels (AMT Pups MEGO) 9105 AMX Made in Hong Kong,.Porsche 718 Cayman Gts Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7618 Miniature,.SOLIDO CITROEN DS BERLINE 1963 WHITE MIB 1 18 SCARCE,.1 24 Action 2016 Ford Mustang Fitzgerald Joey Logano,.
Noreve 1 18 Peugeot Mopet,.Porsche Boxster E - Mobility ltd. Edition 1 2000 Spark 1 43 WAP0202040F neu,.Mercedes 1969 Dodge War Horse 1 18 Simulation Modified Alloy Muscle Car Model,.Jada 1961 Chevrolet Impala w flames Road Rats 1 24 scale 2003 release HTF,.Vintage Dinky Supertoys Foden 8 Wheel Diesel Wagon,.
BMW E30 M3 no.2 Winner Macau Guia Race 1988 (Altfrid Heger ),. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Tenariv Models 1 43 1969 Matra MS80 Jean-Pierre Beltoise F1 French Grand Prix,.VINTAGE BOXED MINT NR MINT ROADMASTER LONE STAR IMPY FIRE ENGINE 30 V GOOD BOX,.SUNSTAR 1 18 AMERICAN COLLECTIBLES 1961 CHEVROLET IMPALA OPEN CONgreenIBLE SS3408,Vintage Nylent U Haul Trailer and Sports Car - Rare 1970's - Mod Mover Set,.Renault Spider Trophy • Anson • 1 18,.
MATCHBOX YESTERYEAR Y-13 1918 CROSSLEY UK MATCHBOX MEMBERS CHRISTMAS 1979,.Spark 1 43 Venturi 600 LM n.39 Le Mans 1994 S2282,.Spark 1 43 Porsche Kremer 935 K2 Nurburgring 1977 KBS051,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
MERCEDES BENZ G650 Landaulet green blue met G-Modell 4x4 SUV Pro R Schuco 1 43,.
Spark Model S4061 SUNBEAM N.107 11th MONTE CARLO 1965 P.TURVEY-A.COWAN 1 43 Mode,. We agree in part.
New Greenlight Fast and the Furious 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 1989 Japan,.Hot Wheels Redline Aqua Heavy Chevy Camaro Clean Spoilers Original,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Dinky Toys 30b Rolls Royce,.Autocar SAVIEM SC1 de 1964 Service Scolaire 1 43 NOREV,.Set of the 6 Aston Martin of James Bond 007 - DB5 DBS DB10 Diecast Model car,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Simca Aronde 1953 black 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiuellem ..,.NEO MODELS Opel GT Steinmetz Gr.4 Gerhard Schü 1 43 43589,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, MERCEDES BENZ L319 PORSCHE RENNDIENST Premium ClassiXXs red 1 43,; MINICHAMPS VALENTINO ROSSI MODEL AGV HELMET HELMET 1 8 GP 2006 RARE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
First Gear - Ford F-800 Tractor With Trailer - 1 50 Scale,.MADE REPLICA KIT SPOT-ON TRIANG 107 1 42 JAGUAR XK SS METAL CAR VINTAGE,Geminijets 1 400 A330-200 Hawaiian Airlines Reg.N380Ha Finished Goods New,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Hot Wheels Redline Double Vision Dark Green Enamel. 1973 - Near Mint ,.
Schuco Piccolo Unimog Toy Fair 2002 Age 50527000,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Delage D8 120 Letourneur 1938 bluee 1 43 Spark S2707 Model,.IXO. Fiat 619. Cirque Rancy (F) 1 43. Red Yellow. 1979. TRU 023.,.Set of 3 K-Line Trains Die Cast Busses -NOS-NIB,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Lancia Beta Berline 1600 2S 1978 Platino Metallic 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,; SCHUCO WIKING 1 87 Modellauto Konvolut Posten 1 72 Teilweise NEU,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, LAMBORGHINI MURCIELAGO orange 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Mercedes F1 Nico Rosberg Winner Japenese GP Diecast 1 43 Scale Minichamps,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Maserati 3500GT Coupe - Politoys 501 1 43 34096,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
1 43 Ebbro Nissan Gt-R,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
LAZ-695R bus white-green ,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Maisto Premiere Edition Audi R8 Diecast Vehicle,.Spark - 1 43 - Dallara F3 Macau GP 2014 - Max Verstappen,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Majorette 1 60 Nr. 235 BMW 3,0 CSI redmetallic Nr. 1,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.WIKING 513 Mercedes-Benz Sattelzug mit Koffer-Aufbau 1 87 OVP ,.
Ferrari LaFerrari Coupe Matt black Ab 2013 Signature 1 18 Bburago Modell Aut..,.JadaTOYS 1 24scale FAST & FURIOUS 7 Dom's' 70 PLYMOUTH ROADRUNNER Jada Toys,.Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 1977,.American Muscle Ertl Collectibles 1970 Chevy Nova,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Gege Celluloid - Delage D8 120 Roadster GG11,.
Nylint 'Napa Auto Parts Tractor & Trailer' Pressed Steel & Plastic,.Norev 187636 Porsche 911 2.7 RS Touring 1973 weiss green 1 18 Modellauto,.Minichamps 1 43 PORSCHE 997 GT3 RSR 24H LE MANS 2010 410106980,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Schuco 450293800 - Hanomag L28 Pritsche mit Goggomobil Goggomobil-Service ,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.CORGI 80110 FOWLER B6 SHOWMANS LOCOMOTIVE 'ONWARD' LE MONT white & CARAVAN - NEW,.Original Jaguar Modellauto XFR Italian Racing Red 1 43 50JDCAXFR red,.Fiat 600 Viotti Coupe 1959 Ed.Lim.Pcs 299 1 43 Matrix MX30602-082 Miniature,.15 auto's nex schaal 1 32,.Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS 4.0 Weiss Ab 2011 - Komplettset mit Akku - 2,4 GHz RC F..,.
BMW M535i de 1987 bluee Metallic NOREV - NO 183539 - Echelle 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Cadillac Series 62 Berline 1950 P. V. Green 1 43 Model S2923 SPARK MODEL,.Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3030 Dodge Viper GTS Coupe 1996 bluee white stripes,. The PartridgeCorgi 1 43 Scale Metal Model 96682 - Jaguar Mk2 Inspector Morse - Maroon,.CAMION ABC FREIGHT FORWARDING CORP. KOKYU JAPON 1950s,.F1 Team Lewis Hamilton Winner Brazilan GP 2016 Diecast 1 43 Scale by Minichamps,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MATRIX Cisitalia 33DF Volo Radente 1954 1 43 MX10307-011, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.DINKY toys Mini Clubman - MECCANO,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 RED 1999 PONTIAC TRANS AM CONgreenIBLE NEW IN THE BOX READ,.Volkswagen 1992 Bus VW T3 Multivan Last Edition blue metallic 1 18 KK Diecast,PartridgePORSCHE 911 Carrera 2.7 Entenbürzel Targa USA green green NEO Resine 1 43,.Spark Porsche 935 K3 n°41 Winner 24h du Mans 1979 1 43 S43LM79,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche 911 993 Turbo 1995 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 30341, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MERCEDES SLR McLAREN 722Edition TAMIYA 1 24 PLASTIC KIT,; Fiat 1500 Ambulanza 1936 White RIO 1 43 RIO4545 Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, GUILOY 1 18 67526 FERRARI GTO 1964 YELLOW, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps 540874312 1 43 LOTUS 99T AYRTON SENNA 1987, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFiat 500 Urmodell Kombi Giardiniera Hell green 1957-1977 1 18 Norev Modell Auto..,.
Autographed MATT KENSETH Team Caliber DeWALT Diecast Collector 8.5 NIB VG ,.1 50 BALLANTINE'S ALBION LORRY Corgi 26001, Clarke's negligent act.Spark Model S43PP16 NORMA M20 N.30 WINNER PIKES PEAK 2016 ROMAIN DUMAS 1 43 Mode,.Danbury Mint 1 24 Diecast 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk (MINT IN BOX) (b),.MARK43 PM4316Y 1 43 Datsun Fairlady 2000 SR311 yellow model cars,.
3x CLEAR ACRYLIC DISPLAY CASE MDF DIECAST MODEL F1 CAR BIKE TRACTOR 1 18 1 16,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DINKY TOY 510 PEUGEOT 204 NICE IN USED ORIGINAL VINTAGE SCROLL DOWN 4 THE PHOTOS,DINKY TOYS 176 AUSTIN A105 SALOON - CREAM 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,. In Noska,CORGI 1 50 - 80010 SENTINEL FLATBED WAGON - GUINNESS,.Schuco 1 32 Fendt 211 with loader Tractor 450764400,.LANCIA BETA MONTECARLO 6 HOURS WATKINS GLEN 1981 PATRESE ALBORETO 9623 Best,.Mercedes Sls Amg E-Cell 2010 Yellow 1 43 Model S1058 SPARK MODEL, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CITROEN TYPE H 1 43 LA SELECTA CHURRERIA&CHOCOLATERIA,.TEKNO SCANIA - P&C HAMILTON - FRIDGE TRAILER - LTD EDITION -1 50- NOT WSI.,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO ALFASUD 1.3 - 1972 - 180022W,.Audi R8 V10 Plus Coupe Weiss neuestes Modell 2. Generation ab 2015 1 18 Maisto..,. Id., p 923.
1937 Tatra 87 black 1 18 MC Group 18069,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CORGI TOYS DARK blueE RARE OPEL SENATOR SCALE 1 36 UNBOXED CLEAN ORIGINAL,Matchbox Regular Wheels No 70 Grit Speader Red Cab grey slide Superb,.CORGI CC13779 SCANIA R HE PAYNE 1 50,.Milestone Models The Gladiator Showmans Engine,.Jada 1 24 Scale 97375 - Brian's Toyota Supra White - Fast & Furious,.Schuco Hanomag L28 Kreidler - 1 43,.Vintage Corgi Toys Ghia Chrysler Engine L.6.4 Die-Cast Model Car 1 43,.PORSCHE 911 RS 30 TH ANNIVERSARY SET MINICHAMPS.,. The parties TAMIYA Germany Four-wheeled Military Mini Car Funkwagen Model Kit 1 35 Scale L5,.
Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 12 D.Couldhard 1997 1 18 OVP (9),.1 43 CL30K Aston Martin DB6 Volante KIT BY SMTS,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 0 TRENO FRIZIONE LOCOMOTIVA ASS. 64489,; Kyosho 1 43 Diecast Car TOYOTA 86 GT LIMITED CRYSTAL WHITE PEARL 193786, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Porsche 911 (991) GT3 - Porsche Werksabholung - racingyellow - Minichamps - 1 43,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SSM Fire Engine AC-30 (MAZ-205) SSM-1133,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Matchbox Model of yesteryear, y5-1 Bentley with green steering wheel C9 ,.AUTOTRANSPORTER SAVIEM avec Lohr construction de SOLIDO 1 43 good condition,.ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . CHRYSLER LE BARON CABRIOLET . 1994 .,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE AMERICAN HOT ROD TOY FAIR 2004 LIMITED G30-060,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Marks N - Mercedes 911 Hängerzug - Continental Art.-Nr. 1386 BB 979,.Conti Models 1 43 Scale - Porsche Turbo 935 - White,.30 Hot Wheels 2000 Diecast Cars Police Cruisers City Service Hot Rods Muscle NIB,.Chrono 1 18 Scale Metal Model Car H1003 - 1963 Aston Martin DB5 - Met Ice bluee,.LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO CESAM Norev black 1 18,. The ScottsdaleVINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.25g TRAILER (orange VERSION) TINPLATE HOOK RARE ,Dinky Toys 142 Jaguar Mark X made in England 1 43 scale Near Mint,.SHELBY COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT 350 R - SHELBY168,. Id.,Art Model AM0050 FERRARI 500 TR N.65 MONZA 1956 GENDEBIEN-DE PORTAGO 1 43 Modell,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 928 Studie H50 1987 Bordeaux NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47130 Model,; 2011 Volkswagen Bulli Studia Concept Car Granate-whiteo 1 18 Norev 7E9099302BL9,Abarth Ot 1000 Coupe Pininfarina 1965 White 1 43 Spark S1311 Model,.Vintage Matchbox Superfast Lamborghini Miura MODIFIED TO RARE VERSION NM ,. The Scottsdale1 24 JADA IMPORT RACER LEXUS IS-300 KIT FACTORY SEALED UNOPENED,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, (B) matchbox lesney superfast RACING MINI - 29,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Bitter SC Coupe - dark brown met 1979, model cars 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercedes 220 SE Coupe (W128) 1958 red, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 BMW 635 CSi Gr.A Pirro Ravaglia Minichamps Diecast Model 80 42 0 026 631,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, HOT WHEELS Car Culture Team Transport set 72 Plymouth Cuda,Duster, PORSCHE 962,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ebbro 1 43 Honda NSX JGTC 2004 Epson, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Lotus Cortina Mk1 - Corgi ‘Classic Models Range’ 1991 - Code 96760 - 1 43 Scale, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps Product No. 37 Opel Kadett A,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKit Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Ch.4385 1963 - Tron Models kit 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, VINTAGE JOAL 217 Motoniveladora LEVELLER 12G, Caterpillar Spain construction,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheVW Passat B3 Variant VR6 (1991) 1 18 KK Scale KK180072,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.RARE Miltary Sd.Ah.116 Tank Transporter and Trailer RARE,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Toyota Celica GT Four (St205) 43 TROFEU,F1 BRABHAM BT44 Ford Cosworth Watson Italian GP 1974 John goldie Spark 1.43,.1 50 DIECAST MASTERS 71005 INTERNATIONAL HX520 DAY CAB TANDEM TRACTOR LIGHT GREY,.Volga M24 1967-1992 Volkspolizei 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,. The HuygheSignature SIGN18101R STUDEBAKER AVANTI 1963 RED 1 18 Modellino,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 43 BO43K 1970 Plymouth Barracuda AAR TransAm race car kit,.
Politoys SB 1 43 - Ferrari 365 GTC 4 Green,.Minichamps 400800034 1 43 WILLIAMS FORD FW07 EMILIO DE VILLOTA SPANISH GP 1980,.
BURAGO BU16904W FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN 2014 WHITE SIGNATURE 1 18,.Lot Of 100 Plus Hot Wheels Dates From All Eras Working & Rolling 100 CAR CASE ,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Toyota 87C Le Mans 1988 N°37,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeNEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,.Sabra Gamdakoor Ford Mustang in bluee,.
For example, in Partridge,Opel Kadett D Caravan (ADAC 1979) Diecast Model Car 400044190,. In Jorgensen, supra,Tobar 1 18 Scale F50 Model Car,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.City Jeans NEW MAN MAN SD 200 GESUPERT aus WIKING Bus H0 1 87 GD4å,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,CC99155 - Scania @ Stobart Limited Edition - Corgi Classics,. That is the same situation in this case.Wonderful modelcar VW BEETLE TAXI BRAZIL 1953 - 1 43 - lim.,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.POLITOYS M 515 ISO Rivolta Coupe GT Diecast Car NM CONDITION 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.
ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1967 CHEVROLET CORVETTE COUPE 427 HOBBY EDITION 1 OF 5000 ,.Bmw 2000 Cs Coupe 2-Door 1965 Red KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180122 Model,.Simca Aronde Montlhery Special 1962 Grey Met Norev 1 18 NV185717 Model,.
WSI DAF - EUROPE FLYER - 1 50 SCALE - NOT TEKNO.,.