NEO45644 - MASERATI SEBRING SERIES II II II 1963 DARK MET.GREEN 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO 9363d8

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
NEO45644 - MASERATI SEBRING SERIES II II II 1963 DARK MET.GREEN 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO 9363d8
Hi-Story Nissan Skyline GTB-4 Grey HS012 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Mercedes-Benz Glc Coupé (C253) Año Fabricación 2016 Brillante blue 1,.Modellauto BMW M3 DTM 2013 Marko Wittmann, BMW Team MTEK M 1 18,,.Matchbox 2005 Superfast SET OF ( 6 ) NEW IN BOX LIMITED EDITION,.1 43 UNIQUE DSM 1951 MASERATI A6G SPIDER CARROZZERIA FRUA,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Provence Moulage Saab 92 92.001 - Ursaab - 1 43 - P81000,.SAAB 9000 i (1985) by NEO Scale Models,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 50 Diecast Masters Trailer Head 71001 International HX520 Day Cab Tandem,.Kyosho 05561NX 1 43 BENTLEY FLYING SPUR W12 2013 ONYX,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Citroen Id 19 Break Carro Funebre 1963 Rio 1 43 Rio4223 Model Diecast,.1970's Corgi Toys, John Woolfe Front Engine Dragster, Nice Boxed, 1 43,.SET of 4 MATCHBOX 1920s DELIVERY VANS 1 64 KELLOGG'S CEREAL MAIL ORDER SET, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Norev Porsche 911 (997) Turbo 2010 brown met. NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Renault 20 TS 1978 Algue Green Metallic 1 18 - 185265 NOREV,.Spark 1 43 Ford Fiesta Wrc Winner Rally 2017 Art.S5167,.1 43 Diecast Scale Models REPLICARS Morris oxford MI5 REP CWS05,.

Volga 1 43 Wolga UDSSR USSR CCCP Ambulance Krankenwagen OVP,.MINICHAMPS 120120 ALFA ROMEO ALFETTA GT 1976 - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.MERCEDES BENZ S Klasse 350 SEL 350SEL 1974 Bundeskanzler Schmidt Minichamps 1 43,.Opened Minicar Body Only 1 64 M2 1954 Dodge Cgoldnet,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.295 ATLANTEAN CITY BUS YELLOW PAGES ( VERSION ) MIB,.

Minichamps - Hill & Villeneuve - Williams - FW18 & 19 - 1996-97 - 1 43 - Set 5,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Vintage Matchbox Superfast Lamborghini Miura MODIFIED TO RARE VERSION NM ,.Vintage 1960's Tonka Car Carrier 1 22,.Minichamps 400723448 1 43 MERCEDES 300 SEL 6.8 AMG HANS HEYER TEST DRIVE LE MANS,Politoys 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ bluee métal 516,.Mercedes Benz Edition C C-Class Introduction Las Vegas 2000 1 43,.

1 18 Norev Renault Alpine A110 1600S Police 1971,.Aston Martin DB9 Coupe 1 18 Die-cast model.,.Starter CEC N7 Provence Résine 1 43 - Facel Vega HK 500 blacke,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 2016 black metallic 410 066021,.

TSM Rolls Royce 1971 Corniche Congreenib 1 43 TSM134345,. We agree in part.

ALFA ROMEO 75 TAXI PK e ALFA ROMEO 33 TAXI ARS 1 43 metallo,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK23 003A - 1956 Ford Fairlane 2Dr Victoria Green,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 940031 - F1 Simtek Ford S941 D.Brabham,.LION CAR OPEL REKORD RED NEAR MINT CONDITION REPAINT,.Weise Toys 1049 EICHER WOTAN I (3018) (1968 - 1972),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Jada 1 24 Bigtime Muskel Vhtf red 1956 Ford F-100 Lkw Neu in Karton B,.Fiat Ritmo Bertone 100S Supercabrio Closed 1985 Red Kess Model 1 43 KS43010041 M,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NZG - METALLMODELL - SENNEBOGEN - TELESKOPKRAN 613 M - OVP - 1 50 (4.BM-32),; Ebbro 44951 Nissan Fairlady Z 240ZR No. 9 1973 Fuji 1000km 1 43 scale,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Dodge Monaco green-met. 1978 Neo 1 43 NEO43510 Model,.Mercedes Benz Gt (C190) 2014 White 1 43 Spark S1071,CORGI MODERN 1 50 CC13214 DAF XF S SPACE CAB & CURTAINSIDE - WOODSIDE HAULAGE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Danbury Mint 1968 Plymouth Road Runner bluee 1 24 Scale Diecast Car w Orig. Box,.

Art Model AM0104 FERRARI 225 S N.615 DNF MM 1952 MARZOTTO-MARINI 1 43 Modellino,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Brumm BM0563 FERRARI 250 GTO N.1 RALLY NEIGE ET GLACE 1964 GUICHET-CLEMENT 1 43,.Hot Wheels Legends 40th Anniversary of Signature '57s Collector Four Car Set,.1 18 Renault clio cup,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, SPARK AUDI Sport Quattro Winner Pikes Peak 1985 Michele mouton 43PP85 1 43,; Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 VW T 1B Camion silverforma Persil Von 1958,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Audi 100 C1 Limousine, Rauchblue, 1 43, ZUBA5-5787,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

MODEL BUILT F.1 TYRRELL 011 FORD CHEEVER GERMAN GP 1981 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

DATSUN 260Z 2+2 1975 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43988,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Ferrari 375 MM Senigallia 1953 1 43 Marzotto Model 0241 ART-MODEL,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

NEW BRUDER TIPPING TANDEM AXLE TIPPING TRAILER FRONT LOADER REMOVABLE TOYS KIDS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Air UK British Aerospace 146 Jet by Wooster 1 100 Scale Model RARE,.Spark 1 43 Scale US004 - Nissan Deltawing th Petit LM ALMS 2012,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Hotwheels elite series 1 43 scale 1989 BATMOBILE nib,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Volkswagen VW Beetle Zoo Arhnem 1965 + Lion 1 43 Model RIO4412P RIO,.

CITROEN DS21 DS 21 Rallye Monte Carlo 1966 Toivonen IXO Altaya 1 18,.Citroën C4 Cactus 2014 Pearl White & Chocolate Airbump NOREV - NO 181651 - 1 18,.RAI'S 1 43 Toyota Crown GRS202 2011 Unmarked Police Car Limited H7431108 Sale,.Burago 1 18th Red Ferrari 488 70 anniversary edition sports Car Vehicle Model,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Minichamps Mercedes SLS AMG Roadster red 2011 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

ERTL 1 44 SCALE TEXACO - WINGS OF TEXACO MODEL BN 19813,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1058 - 2010 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG E-CELL - Yellow,.Budgie 238 British Railways Articulated Delivery Van. Red Cream. NM Boxed 1980's,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, DeAgostini CHEVROLET CORVAIR - DINKY TOYS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin 43SE83 - Porsche 934 Winner Sebring 1983,.REVELL 1 32nd SCALE AUDI QUATRO SLOT CAR RE 08399,.Tekno - Metal Model - DAF - Tractor with Plane - Ovp - 1 50 - (7.bm-212),.Fiat 500 yellow Champagne con Tetto Apribile - Solido 1 18 - COMPRO FUMETTI SHOP,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale Operucette Mini Car 3 Set,.

Mercedes Benz Sl-Class 300Sl Cabriolet (R107) 1986 Inca Red NOREV 1 18 NV183467, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Sun Star SCCA Trans-AM 1967 Burien Mercury Cougar 18 Diecast Car EXC,.RARE BOITE D'ORIGINE DS19 CITROEN MINIALUXE BON ETAT CIJ DINKY TOYS JRD NOREV,. The PartridgeMga Twin Cam Soft Roof 1958 bluee 1 43 Bizarre Bz380 Modellino Auto,.VW Volkswagen T2b Open Air Bus Green Green 1 43 Premium Classixxs,.VW Karmann Ghia Siku V248 fast mint,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Porsche 911 930 Turbo Cabriolet 1987 Ivory 1 18 Norev 187661 New, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Wiking 773 45 Fendt Vario 828 (2014) 077345 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Norev 181494 - Citroen 2CV Dolly Ente Baujahr 1985 in white-grey 1 18 NEU ,.MATRIX Binz MB W186 300C Kombi 1 43 MX51302-022,PartridgeSPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT2 RS 2018 - S7624,.BMW M4 GTS 2016 SAPHIRblack orange FELGEN 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410025222 NEU,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps Bentley Continental Gt Minicar, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 188053 Nissan GTR R-35 2008 dark grey metallic 1 18 Neu OVP,; Matchbox Yesteryear Y21 Ford Woody Wagon Preproduction Incomplete base Brown,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 43 Kyosho Shelby Cobra 427, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 2013 Aston Martin DB9 6.0 V12 Coupé black Mate 1 18 Welly 18045, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSpark 1 43 McLaren MP4-12C Open GT Tour 2013 SF066,.

Diapet 1 30 Scale Diecast SV-17 - Toyota Celsior 4000 - Pearlescent White,.1979 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 California Highway Patrol Hardtop(CHP) 1 18 Model Car, Clarke's negligent act.Mercedes SLS Amg Gt3 2012 45 Years Of Driving Performance 1 43 410133200,.BRIO World - App Enabled Remote Control Engine,.1 18 Ford Fiesta 2011 Diecast Model 1 18 scale,.

SPARK CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7.R Le Mans 2016 Magnussen, Garcia, Taylor S5131 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Schuco 2178 BMW 507 blueE 1 43,CHEVROLET Corvair Corsa Neo scale models 1 43 BOS43095,. In Noska,1 18 Hot Wheels Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 in yellow Yellow, RAR RARE ,.Spark 1 43 Porsche Cayenne - World Expedition 2018,.SUN STAR 1 18 SCALE 1963 ASTON MARTIN UNBOXED USED CONDITION PLEASE STUDY PICS,.Lone Star Militaire Armée 1 43 - Bren Gun Carrier, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mercedes-Benz 500 K Specialroadster (1936) Premiere Edition,.BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT RED MINICHAMPS 1 18 139620 2008,.Bentley Turbo S 1995 Green Metallic 1 43 SPARK S3803,.MODELLINO FORD KA 2009 ROSSA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Id., p 923.

PORSCHE 908 02 908 2 Spider Le Mans 1974 Poired Rondeau C Laure Spark 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hi-Story HS146RE 1 43 Nissan SUNNY 1500 SUPER SALOON (1987) Super Red,1 43-TRON BEE BOP-1990 LANCIA HYENA LUSSO-RED-NEW MIB,.Diecast Car Model Honda GREIZ Greiz 1 18 (bluee Purple) + GIFT ,.Rastar Bentley Mulsanne 1 18 Scale Diecast Car 43800 Champagne color,.CCCF No 3 kit 5 hand built Ford Fairlane 1955 very near mint in box 1 43,.Ferrari 375 MM Carrera Panamericana 43 Model 0109 ART-MODEL,.Rio RI4097-1 CITROEN DS 19 LIMOUSINE 1963 blueE CREAM 1 43 Modellino,.STELCO Mini Cooper Rally orange Modellauto Kunstoff ca.17cm (K42) B,. The parties VW Volkswagen Sharan II 2 Ab 2010 brown 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder o..,.

SCANIA 143 TOPLINE TRACTEUR SOLO TEKNO 1 50 REF 941210,.Matrix MX50108-021 Aston Martin DB2-4 Supersonic Ghia 1956 Green Metallic,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Norev NV183419 MERCEDES L319 VAN 1957 FRUBA 1 18 Modellino,; Subaru 360 1958 1 24 Big Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast Vol 5, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Neo Dodge Horton - Ambulance - 1973 - 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, AUTOWORLD AWSS118 GHOSTBUSTERS 1 MOVIE 1959 CADILLAC AMBULANCE ECTO 1 1 18 WHITE,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ385 - WM P76 Peugeot Le Mans 1978,.NEO Opel Ascona B Gr.2 Simon 1 43 45242,.Schuco 1 43 Scale Model Van 03351 - Mercedes Benz L319 - Feuerwehr,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1971 Saab 96 V4 black 1 18 MC Group 18063,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.AUDI Quattro Rallye Gr.B WM A2 1000 Lakes 1983 Eklund Clarion Sesa Sunstar 1 18,.LANCIA 037 Rally 1000 Lakes Rallye 1983 Airikkala Finnland HPI Highend 1 43,.True Scale McLaren 650S White 2015 1 43 TSM144359,.VW Käfer 1303 - red - NOREV - 1 18,.BARKAS Bus Van B 1000 B1000 Halbbus Polizei Volkspolizei DDR 1970 NEU MCG 1 18,. The Scottsdale007 James Bond Car Collection Ford Dodge Range Rover Bondola X 5 LARGE SETS,Porsche 911 (964) 30 Jahre years purple-metallic Minichamps 436 069171 - 1 43,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING FRIGHTNING LIGHTNING SERIES Complete Set 70 Shipped,. Id.,Simba toys GmbH & Co Mini Metalls Concept-Car Set of 4 Cars New in the box,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Model S1362 PORSCHE 356B CARRERA ABARTH GTL N.37 DNF LM 1961 BUCHET-MONNER,; 1971 Saab 96 V4 black 1 18 MC Group 18063,Minichamps BMW 1600-2 1 43 Ovp,.1 18 Ertl Auto World Ford Mustang Congreenible 1965 grey red,. The ScottsdaleAutoart 1 43 Scale Diecast 50931 - 1999 Bugatti EB 218 Genf - Dark bluee,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, VW Schult Käfer Cabrio red metallic, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Matchbox Moko No 14 is the Bedford Lomas Ambulance VNMB,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Greenlight Collectibles 12996 1 18 1973 Ford Falcon XB Last of the V8,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Grey 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Matchbox SF Nr. 29B Racing Mini redorange 29 top in Box,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Americana 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit - 13 Chevrolet Styleline 1950, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CLASSIC 1 43 2008 BATHURST 1-2-3 FINISH WHINCUP LOWNDES MURPHY COURTNEY SET, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Vintage 1 43 CORGI TOYS - GIFT SET GS 24 - COMMER CONSTRUCTOR SET complete - 60s,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMINI VAN RAC SERVICE 1975 SPARK 1 43 SP1510 Model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Fiat 238 Simca Service 1970 Rio 1 43 Rio4333 Model Diecast,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBburago 1 18 Ferrari 70th Anniversary 488 GTB The Schumacher,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.NOREV 183558 2011 11 MERCEDES BENZ B 180 CLASS 1 18 DIECAST WHITE,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Used Hot Wheels HOTROD Set Mattel Diecast Toy Cars F S,Carrera Digital 132 - Porsche 911 Carrera S Cabriolet Exclusive Model, 20030762,.1 50 Scale Diecast Masters International Day Cab Tandem Tractor Cab Only HX520,.KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 365 CALIFORNIA 1966 ROSSA MODELLINO,. The HuygheBest Model BT9727 PORSCHE 550 RS N.22 WINNER 10 H MESSINA 1958 F.HEINZ-P.E.STRAH,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCitroen Dyane 6 1970 Erable Beige 1 18 Norev 181620,.

AUTOWORLD 1 18 AW234 WALLY BOOTH 1969 DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE DIECAST CAR GREEN,.1 43 RL45K ASTON MARTIN PROJECT 212 KIT BY SMTS,.

Neo Dodge Sportsman - metallic-green weiss - 1973 - 1 43,.NOREV - 1 18 - RENAULT R12 TS - 1973 - 185211,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Corgi Classics FAB 1 - Pink - A+ A+,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeModellauto - Matchbox - Lesney Greyhound - Bus Nr. 66 - OVP,.Polistil 1 18 Scale Diecast - 058373 Lamborghini Diablo Yellow,.

For example, in Partridge,Mercedes E-Klasse 250 T (S123) red 1 18 - KK-Scale 180092,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ride on pedal car London Routemaster bus. Sit on and ride.,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MATCHBOX LESNEY NO.10 'TATE & LYLE' SUGAR CONTAINER LORRY ORIGINAL & BOXED,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,NOREV181660 - Voiture CITROEN Cactus color bluee de 2018 - 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Norev 155329 1 43 CITROEN C3 & C3 AIRCROSS 2017 RED (SET OF 2 MODELS),. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Ford GT 2017 Coupe blue mit whiteen Streifen 1 18 Maisto Modell Auto mit oder o..,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Vintage Matchbox Horse Bus y-12,.Spark 1 43 Monza Road Atalanta 1976 S0860,.Spark 1 43 Abarth 1300 Sibona S1346,.

MAZDA-767B N 201 7th LE MANS 1989 C.HODGETTS-D.KENNEDY-P.DIEUDONNE S0644 Spark,.