Ebbro 1 43 Calsonic Impul Impul Impul GT-R Fuji 300km Winner Super GT500 2008 from Japan 1f680d

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Ebbro 1 43 Calsonic Impul Impul Impul GT-R Fuji 300km Winner Super GT500 2008 from Japan 1f680d
Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK41 002 - 1959 Chrysler 300E Congreenible Metallic gold,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals SUNSTAR 1 18 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN & COUNTRY American Collectibles Diecast Car 6141,.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ SLS AMG GT3 2011 black OPACO IN PLASTICA MINICHAMPS,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3041 Lamborghini Diablo 1990 yellow,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3027 - F1 Lotus T128 Germany GP 2011,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.MATCHBOX COLLECTIBLES 1999 Ford F-350 Super Duty Coca-Cola Die Cast 1 24 scale,.Norev 187770 Fiat 500 L blueE Scale 1 18 Model Car New °,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Mitsubishi Lancer EvoIX ver2.0 HG Resin Kit,.1 43 AUTOart Lamborghini Aventador J orange 54652,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Hot Wheels Elite Starwars Episodio V The Empire Strikes Corbata Luchador Cmc92,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 32 - Delage 1.5 Litre 1951 - bluee,.Lote de 3 camiones 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Alpine A210 N.57 9 le Mans 1968 Resina Vettura in 1 43 Scala da Spark,.Siku Plastik V 172 Ford M 17 Badewanne green hellyellow V-Serie 2,.CHEVROLET NOMAD STATION WAGON 1 NEO SCALE MODELS,.Opel Olympia A LS red black 1970 Neoscale 1 43 NEO43755 Model,.


KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN T1 SAMBA 1959 blue CREMA MODELLINO,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Nissan Gt-R Lm Nismo Lmp1 Manchester City Fc 2015 Light bluee Spark 1 43 S4561 Mo,.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 504 COUPE - 1969 - 184825,.NOREV 3X VW VOLKSWAGEN FOX COFFRET GIFT SET MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,1957 Porsche 356A 1500 GS Carrera GT black red 1 18 Sunstar,.March 85 G , Nissan Test 1985 , Spark models,.

Dinky toys France SB 1 43 - Peugeot 204 White 510,.Porsche 911 991-2 Gt3 Coupe 2017 bluee Met SPARK 1 43 WAX02020063,.Triple 9 1 43 Scale - T9-43021 Volkswagen Type 2 Kombi bus 1976 yellow,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Espewe échelle H0 1 87 Ikarus 55 BUS de voyage IKARUS 66 des 1960 er ANS , RARE,.

AC Ace 1959 modelcar 45007 Neo 1 43,. We agree in part.


A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NEO MODELS Hamann Volcano 2011 1 43 45710 1 43 1 43,. SIKU WERBEMODELL - MERCEDES AUTOKRAN - UPAT ULTRA - 3723 - (9.SI-20),.1 50 Scale Diecast Masters International Day Cab Tandem Tractor Cab Only HX520,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; MINICHAMPS 430 055112 Volkswagen 1303 VW 1303 1973 Ltd Ed 1344 pieces 1 43,.Mazda RX7 Apex FD3S Hotworks Racing D1 Grand Prix Imamura Unopened,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 2672 Claas Crop Tiger 30 1 32,; Russian soviet Uaz 469 4x4 Czech Military Police IST 1 43 IST047,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1998 Corvette - The Franklin Mint,.Matchbox Superfast Nr.02A Mercedes Trailer goldmetallic top in H Box,SPARK MERCEDES BENZ GE 230 PAPAMOBILE 1980 POPE PAPA 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 30 31,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12201 - Scania Curtainside - A.Wishart & Sons Ltd.,.

Hot Wheels 2018 Car Culture Cargo Carriers Volkswagen T1 Panel Bus (Lot of 6),.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.PEUGEOT 202 DÉCOUVRABLE Crème PARADCAR 132 1 43,.Bentley S1 Continental Park Ward DHC 1956 - Matrix 1 43 - MX10201-041,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 950M WHEEL LOADER MODEL BN 85914,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Minichamps 431028030 BMW E46 2000 323i Cabriolet Siena Red Metallic 1 43,; Alfa Romeo Alfa 6 2.5I V6 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 1 43 Kess Model Ks43000150 Min.,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MEIB66960291 by MERCEDES SMART FOURTWO 2014 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

FERRARI F12 BERLINETTA GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS BCJ74,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Fiat 500 L con espositore da negozio prodotta dalla POLITOYS vedi foto,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Triumph Spitfire, Cabrio, offen, black, Bj. 1970, 1 18, Chrono, OVP,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Matchbox Leyland Cub Fire Engine FK-7 1936 1 49 OVP ,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.NOREV Military Vehicle US Army 1942 (green) 1 18 in OVP ,.Schuco SH4725 AUDI TT ROADSTER IMOLA YELLOW 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Be9314 1 43 Model Car Diecast,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC006 - Porsche 956K 1st 200 Meilen Norisring 1983 - S.Bellof,.

Neo Chrysler Imperial C-15 Le Baron Town Car - black - 1937 - 1 43,.Rio 4413 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA T.I. 1963 1 43 Modellino,.TOYOTA Yaris WRC 2017 Rallye Finnland 1000 Seen 2017 Lappi Win Spark 1 43,.Norev 181660 Citroen C4 Cactus blue 2018 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto NEU °,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Brumm BM0564 FERRARI 250 GTO N.8 3rd GP.ANGOLA 1962 DAVID PIPER 1 43 Modellino,.

Hot Wheels Classics Drag Race Action Set 1968-2005,.MNC400098946 - Voiture de rallye FORD Focus RS WRC rallye Monza de 2009 équipage,.Corgi Scammell Crusader 3 Axle Low Loader CC12610 Eddy Stobart Ltd Boxed Ex Con,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Maisto 1 18 Premiere Edition Porsche Carrera GT, Red Diecast Metal Car,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Miniatur,.Dinky Toys Diecast 256 Humber Hawk Police Car with Original Box - 1960's,. BROOKLIN BRK 31A 31 A 1953 PONTIAC SEDAN DELIVERY SECONY VACUUM OIL MINT BOXED,.EMEK 82099 1 25 DHL LKW MAN TG - A BOX VAN Deutsche Post Express Logistic OVP,.Laurel & Hardy Vintage 1923 Ford Speedster 1 24 Danbury Mint,.

Renault 20 TS Limousine green Metallic 1975-1984 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit ode.., the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.2013 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari black 1 43 Hot Wheels Elite BCT84,.VTG Lancia Alitalia Toy Car Electric 23 Universal Associated Co 1978,. The Partridge1969 DODGE CHARGER R T HAWAIIAN LTD 1002 PCS 1 18 DIECAST MODEL AUTOWORLD AW231,.FRANKLIN MINT NO DANBURY MINT 1 24 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk coupe,.Barkas B 1000 Halbbus 1970 Simson Kundendienst - 1 18 MCG Frei Haus,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes W05 , Winner GP Abu Dhabi S3142 , Spark models, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1980.- PONTIAC FIREBIRD TRANS AM GTA whiteo 1 18 Greenlight 50831,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MG A TwinCam bluee 1958 (Bizarre 1 43 BZ380),.Corgi Daf 105 & Reefer Trailer- Fresh Linc Raf Holbeach,PartridgeNorev Renault Caravelle 1964 - Finlande blue Metallic 1 18 - 185151,.Norev Renault 16 40 Anniversary Set 1 43 OVP,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 1 18 scale Diecast model 2011-2016 Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 Cpe Burago, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ferrari 308 Gts 1978 bluee Metallic 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,; Spark Model S5421 PORSCHE 906 LH N.55 5th 24 H DAYTONA 1967 D.SPOERRY-R.STEINEMA,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Toy Old 1 43 Norev Renault 16 Years 60 Bel Condition No. 3, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DINKY TOYS JOUET CITROEN 2CV DYANE 1413 - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMINICHAMPS MERCEDES-BENZ VIANO CARBONblack METALLIC 400032210,.

Art Model AM0385 FERRARI 860 MONZA N.551 2nd MM 1956 P.COLLINS-L.KLEMENTASKI 1 4,.KIT MAQUETA CAMION BERLIET 356CH RENAULT R360 LE CENTAURE 1 24 ITALERI 3913, Clarke's negligent act.1963 FORD GALAXIE 500 XL TOUR DE FRANCE H.GREDER M.FOULGOC 1 18 SUNSTAR 1473,.AUDI Quattro Rallye WM GB RAC 1985 Eklund Clarion Sonderpreis Sunstar 1 18,.Mercury Art. 39 Ferrari 250 LE Mans in box,.


The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, bruder Bruder Lamborghini R8.270 DCR tractor BR03084,Scale model 1 43 Studebaker Champion Starlight Coupe, red, 1951,. In Noska,REVELL® METAL 08971 1 18 MESSERSCHMITT KR 200 JUST MARRIED NEU OVP,.1 18 Shelby Collectibles - 1966 Shelby GT 350R red Limited Edition Neu OVP,.Spark Model Mercedes Benz 300 SL H. Lang 1 43 43LM52,.Auto World Dodge Charger RT Magnum 440 White 1 18 Limited Edition, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark 1 43 Porsche 935 Winner Daytona 1983 43DA83,.MERCEDES BIONIC 2007 GREEN MET.1 43 SPARK SP1019,.1966 BMW 2000 TI Typ 120 Policia 1 18 MC Group 18042,.Citroen 2CV A grey 1. Generation 1950 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne ind..,. Id., p 923.

1 43 RL81K LOTUS 18 21 Stirling Moss Goodwood KIT BY SMTS,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, METAL KIT (built) EAGLE T2G 1966 No 10 - DARK blueE F1 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,DINKY - 263 - AIRPORT FIRE RESCUE TENDER - MINT & BOXED - 1978 - 1981 VINTAGE,.INFINITI FX50S 2010 blueE MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO44542,.1 18 Audi A4 STW Abt Sportline Nissen UT Model,.KK-Scale BMW 2000 CS - dunkelred - 1965 - 1 18,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 LORRAINE-DIETRICH TYPE B3-6 SPORTS ROADSTER 1928,.HPI Racing 1 43 Scale Model Car 8080 - Alfa Romeo 155V6 TI - Red,.CORGI TOYS PORSCHE 911 TARGA POLIZEI 1 43 CODE 3 UNIKAT,. The parties Norev NV184856 PEUGEOT 205 GTi 1.9 1992 MIAMI blueE 1 18 Modellino,.

Neo 45100 Fiat 1100 ES Pininfarina 1950,.(Go) 1 18 Burago Signature Series Ferrari California T Cabriolet NIP,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Jamais Content Jenatzy 1St Electric Car Torino Museum 1899 Rio 1 43 RIO4504 Mode,; RENAULT 4 1965 COPENHAGHE blueE NOREV 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Reitze 74310 Rietze Mercedes-Benz O 305 Gbb Stuttgart-Sparkasse Scale 1 87 H0,,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 25 POLISTIL Serie S Porsche 959 Gr.B Red - MIB No Burago Majorette Schuco,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Sublime Vraie Dinky toys France Citroen 2CV 25D pompier état neuf+ boite origine,.Gate 1 18 Scale Diecast - 01044 Porsche 911 996 Coupe Yellow,.1 43 Mercedes-Benz E-320 Elegance HERPA USED see photos,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Dinky Toys GB n° 991 AEC Thompson Monarch SHELL repeint,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.NOREV HENSCHEL HS3-180 TAS 6X6 SEMI REMORQUE PLATEAU BEIGE 1956 au 1 43°,.Norev 188523 Volkswagen VW Käfer 1303 1972 green metallic 1 18 Modellauto,.Norscot 55205 Cat 836h Landfill Compactor; 1 50,.Autocult Commer Dormobile Coaster 1972 Light bluee White 1 43 ATC09002,.Ford Mustang Shelby GT500 Coupe 2010 black Mit red Streifen 1 18 Greenlight ..,. The ScottsdaleSpark Model SA121 DALLARA MERCEDES F3 P.PIQUET 2016 N.22 MACAU GP 1 43 Modellino,1 18 Road Signature - 1958 Pontiac Bonneville Red White - Rarity ,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 972633 - BMW 321 STW 1997 Marc Gindon,. Id.,KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN T1 SAMBA 1959 red black MODELLINO,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Trofeu 1804 FORD ESCORT RS 2000 KWS MONTECARLO,; Fiat 238 Assistenza Corse Lancia 1971 1 43 RIO 4454,Hot Wheels Aston Martin Lot Of 21. One-77, DB5, DB10, DB7. Short Card, 007.,.Toyota 2000 GT 1967 red, Modellauto 1 18 Triple9,. The Scottsdale1 18 LS Collectibles Triumph TR6 1974 - blue - LS002B,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 540854312 1 43 LOTUS 97T AYRTON SENNA 1985,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Brabus 700 Biturbo SLS (White),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels Gran Tgolds Mattel Porsche 911 Rally MebeToys 1 43 Rare,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wonderful resin-modelcar Chevrolet Impala Congreenible 1959 - bluee - scale 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps 431 027001 BMW 7 Series 2008 FO2 in Metallic bluee 1 43rd Scale,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, LLEDO THE goldEN DAYS OF FILM MODEL SET 24K gold PLATED OVP, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, VERY RARE 80's GREEK KiBi WIND UP CITROEN DS 21 POLICE SLJ COPY VGC w BOX, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Corgi 230 Mercedes Benz 220SE coupe 1 43 Oldtimer old Box,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMERCEDES 300 SEL 6.3 (W109) 1968-72 1 43 MINICHAMPS,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Porsche 718 Boxster Gts 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7619 Model,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheGUILOY 1 18 - ASTON MARTIN DB7,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.NOREV 1 18 1991 Renault Clio 16S Racing Diecast Model Car Red (185233),independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Mercedes-Benz 300 SL - inca red - Norev - 1 18 - 183467,1 43 RL86K Jaguar E-type lightweight Samir Klat low drag coupe KIT BY SMTS,.Corgi Toys 316 NSU PRINZ UK GT BRITAIN CAR EXCELLENT CONDITION,.BURAGO 1 18 3040 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA CABRIOLET 1994 PALE YELLOW,. The HuygheMODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3-RS HINDERY BARON 24H LE MANS 2002 IN METALLO MINICHAMP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe(B) matchbox lesney superfast TRAILER CARAVAN - 57,.

Lexus LFA Nurburgring VLN Race 2011 1 43 Model RIO4385 RIO,.Minichamps 400 103304 Lamborghini 400 GT 2+2 1964 1 43,.

1 43 RL33 ASTON MARTIN PROJECT 215 KIT BY SMTS,.[First18 1 18] Mazda Cosmo Sport L10B Late Ver. Red F18-009,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Honda N360 1967 1 24 Big Scale Box Mini Car Display Diecast 3CA54,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeUNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 5265 New Holland T7 .165S 1 32,.Dinky Toys France Renault 4 L aber Felgen der spanischen Version Zustand TOP,.

For example, in Partridge,Spark Porsche 911 R 2017 Yellow 1 43 S4957,. In Jorgensen, supra,MODELLINO FORD FOCUS ST 2011 ROSSA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 Audi R8 TEAM VELOQX año 2004 Spark 1804 5th LE MANS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Fiat 238 Assistenza Fiat 1971 1 43 Model RIO,. That is the same situation in this case.Bentley Mark Vi Standard Steel Sports Saloon 1952 1 43 Spark S3802 Model,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Porsche 924S Coupe 1988 White SPARK 1 43 S4460,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Tekno 70721 Scania S Series 6x2 Tractor Unit Plain White 1 50 Scale,.Revell 1 32 Maßstab Slotcar Drm 1977 BMW 320 Jorg Obermoser,.VW Volkswagen T4 Multivan Allstar Transporter Personen green 1990-2003 1 43 Pre..,.