Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Very Rare Creaks of Camberley Peel Collection PC1 Police Motor Cycle & Sidecar,.1 18 Norev Fire Department Vehicle 1988 Nr. 189012 OVP,.BRABHAM BT44B GP GERMANIA 1975 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.Alfa Romeo 8C Le Mans 1934 E. Howe - T. pink Richards Spark S3887 1 43,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Steyer Puch Pinzgauer 710M Autohife Zurich 1 43 Neoscale NEO44593 Miniature,.Norev Serie Luxe Peugeot 504 made in France 1 43 NMIB vintage rare,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CORGI RED SCANIA R620 V8 6x2 & TRAILER C.J.HAYNES & SONS LTD 1 50 SCALE CC13739,.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4704 1011 AC COBRA 1965 - blueE - C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 404 COUPE - 1967 - 184831,.1 18 Ford Escort Mk1 WRC Colibri Lighters model car Minichamps,.New Greenlight Fast and the Furious 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT-R R32 1989 Japan, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1 18 Hot Wheels Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 in yellow Yellow, RAR RARE ,.Corgi n°453 Commer Refrigerator Van Wall's Ice Cream ancien,.BERLIET GAK VAN WAGON PASTA DELIGHTS PERFEX 1 43,.FORD Sierra Cosworth Rallye Corte Ingles 1988 Ducados Satana 1 250 Scala43 1 43,.
Peugeot 504 Coupe 1969 NEW Norev 1 18,.H0 Roco 66069 Rungenwagen-Set der öBB Güterwagen RS 1 87,.Scale model 1 43 Studebaker Champion Starlight Coupe, red, 1951,.Novoexport A11 Lada 2102 wagon made in USSR CCCP 1 43 scale Near Mint,.SPARK ALPINE M64 Le Mans 1964 P. Vidal - H. Grandsire S5682 1 43,.
1 18 Norev Simca Aronde Monthlery Speciale greymetallic 185717,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.RC 1 10th scale model New Bright Range Rover and controller - fully working,.NO NY SALES Nacoral Inter-Cars 1 25 Seat Fiat 850 sport near mint w box Spain,.1 18 Sun Star Chevrolet Nova Laurel Green green 1963 Nr. 3968 in OVP,Corgi MERCEDES BENZ 220SE COUPE - 253,.Mercedes-Benz 220 8 Strich-Acht Limousine green Weiss Polizei W114 1967-1976 1..,.
Minichamps 530764332 1 43 MCLAREN FORD M23 JOCHEN MASS SOUTH AFRICAN GP 1976,.Hot Wheels Redline Demon White Interior Hong Kong Vintage,.Matcbox Lesney Superfast Sleet N Snow Preproduction Bare metal casting,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Brumm BMAS53 FIAT 600 50,.
SUBARU IMPREZA RALLY SPORTS TOY CAR DIE CAST REAL LOOK MODEL boy dad gift NEW,. We agree in part.
Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 T Practice 1000km Spa 1974 1 18 Norev 187426,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 Matt White Diecast Model 54601,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NOREV 188521 1973 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE 1303 CABRIOLET 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR orange,.Porsche 911 Cabriolet Type 996 (1998) Diecast Model Car 400061092,.Modellauto 1 43 AMR Ferrari 365 GT4 BB N.A.R.T 1975,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 Lancia 037 Rally Tour de Corse 1983 1er Markku ALEN Ixo Altaya Neuf Boite,.NOREV 1 18 1976 SIMCA 1000 RALLYE 2 DIECAST CAR MODEL 185708 YELLOW,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, [KYOSHO ORIGINAL 1 43] Lamborghini Veneno Red Peal White Line Red KS05571RPW,; DANBURY MINT IN BOX BEAUTIFUL PONTIAC TRANS AM HOT ROD WHITE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
1 18 RANGE ROVER EVOQUE HSE DYNAMIC LUX KY9549BK KYOSHO DIECAST MODEL BOX DAM,.CIJ - 1 43 - FORD COFFRET POISSY - STUDEBAKER - C80900,AC 378 Gt Zagato 2012 Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144342 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.
Trofeu TF1428 FIAT 131 ABARTH N.7 10th SAFARI 1979 MUNARI-MAIGA 1 43 Modellino,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.DCP 1 64 SCALE PETERBILT 379 60 BUNK WHITE RED TOP, FENDERS, AND STRIPE,.Rare White Metal Brooklin BRK 30A, 1954 Dodge Royal Congreenible in 1 43 Scale.,.Mint Mini Champ 1 43 Car Opel Vectra Gtsv 8 Dtm World Limited 1728,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, DIAPET T-22 ISUZU TRAILER TRANSPORTER 1 55 VINTAGE 80,s N M BOX RARE SALE ,; Neo US Dreamcar - bronze - 1954 - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Rio 1 43 Scale Model Car 4199 - 1930 Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo - Red,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Ertl American Muscle (1968) Chevelle SS396 dunkelred-brown 1 18 OVP ,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Minichamps 1 43 - Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2.8 1973 Tiefblack red 911 360 0855,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Mclaren F1 1995 Papaya orange High Mirrors True Scale 1 43 TSM134326 Model,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Spark Model S5315 GORDINI T32 R.MANZON 1956 N.10 DNF ITALY GP 1 43 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari red-red 1 18 Bburago 16001,.MERCEDES LKW LP608 Renn Service Porsche Renndienst Racing Premium Classixx 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Matrix Scale Models Innocenti 950-S Spider 1962 Yellow - 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Lamborghini Silhouette 1976 White Museum Series 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.
Caterpillar 85266 930K Wheel Loader 1 50 Metal Diecast Engineering Vehicles Car,.CREATIVE MASTERS 1966 SHELBY COBRA 427,.KESS MODEL KS43023001 NSU PRINZ 4 POLIZEI STREIFENWAGEN 1964 ED.LIM.PCS 156 1 43,.Ebro 1 43 COSTIN NATHAN 44906London racingcar show1969 finished product,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR n.45 12H SEBRING 2008 MINICHAMPS,.
VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MAJOR BEDFORD CARRIMORE CAR TRANSPORTER,.Premium ClassiXXs Tatra 128 KUNG - oliv - 1951 - 1 43,.DINKY TOYS 36F BRITISH SALMSON FOUR SEATER SPORTRS CAR - RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Replica Dinky 1 43 - Peugeot 402 Grey,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1930's Barclay AMBULANCE with LARGE RED CROSS dime store lead soldier slush mold,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 NEW YORK CITY PATROL Ford Police Interceptor,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 2050 - BMW M3 Team Isert - V.Bayern,.Spark 1 43 Scale - S3087 Mercedes F1 W05 Winner Australian GP 2014 Nico Rosberg,.MODELLINO FORD FOCUS RS WRC GARDEMEISTER HONKANEN RALLY MONTE CARLO 2005 IN META,.
Wonderful SCHUCO-modelcar MERCEDES-BENZ 200 (W123) HEARSE VOGT 1980 - 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.LOT of 2 VOLKSWAGEN T1 RENNTRANSPORTER BUNKER & PORSCHE T5 BUB 1 87,.ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 1600S blue 1 18 1971,. The PartridgeNew 2015 Ford Mustang GT Dark bluee Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by,.Norev Citröen 2CV Fourgonnette Baujahr 1956 Assistance Berliet yellow, 1 18,.Spark 1 43 - Gumpert Apollo 2005,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 hellyellow blacke Schrift 1 43 Minichamps WAP, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ebbro 1 43 Zanavi Nismo Z Super GT 2005 05 from Japan,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.HOT WHEELS 2017 MEXICO CONVENTION ‘71 DATSUN blueEBIRD 510 WAGON REAL RIDERS NIB,.Spark Model SG334 SCG SCG003C N.704 NURBURGRING 2017 WESTPHAL-MAILLEUX-SIMONSEN-,PartridgeBURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3013 MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL 1954 - RED,. Matchbox Lesney 1969 Yellow Lamborghini Miura ,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Willeme LD610 Fardier Holztransport (wood transport), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO44750 - Dodge Charger - Brown,; Ferrari F458 Italia GT2 Luxury Racing , 24H LeMans 2011 , Fujimi,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 50 Viperngreen 1 43 OVP, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, FERRARI SF70H S.VETTEL RAIKKONEN 2017 KIT MOUNTING 1 20 (20068) TAMIYA, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 991 Carrera White 2012 (Spark 1 43 S3393),.
Guiloy Ferrari 250 GTO 1964 1 18 purple metallic Mint in BOX RARE ,.Porsche 911 Club Sport - Garage Workshop 2009 2010 1 43 Norev Porsche Museum, Clarke's negligent act.Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet 1961 blue Royal bluee chapron 1 18 Norev 181564 NEU,.Honda Civic Type R (RHD) - Aegean blue met. - TSM-Model 1 43 - TSM430276,.Hobby Master 1 48 Scale HA8004 - Hawker Fury Mk. I K5674 43 Sq. RAF 1930s,.
1 43 Schuco Mini Cooper Morris Die Cast Model,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Century Models 1 43 Scale White Metal - 8 Mercedes Benz 300 CE Coupe 1987 gold,Porsche 911 (991II) Gt3 Rs Paquete de Weissach 2018 yellow black 1 43 Spark,. In Noska,1995 Racing Champions Sprint Car Sammy Swindell -- 1 24th scale Series 2,.MOTEUR V8 FORD 427 FE AC COBRA SHELBY 1 6,.BMW 1 SERIE M COUPE 2011 JAVA green METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410020024 NEU,.Norev 181564, Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet, 1961, royalblue, 1 18, NEU&OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Bus SAVIEM SC1 de 1964 Service School 1 43 NOREV,.1 24 Japanese Cars Collection Vol.51 Suzuki Cappuccino  Die-cast Hachette,.Renault SuperCinq GT Turbo PH II Alain Oreille 1 18 Norev,.Bentley Continental S1 Flying Spur 1 43 Minichamps,. Id., p 923.
Plásticos of Albacete PA Vercor 1 24 - Seat 127 Pink,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE 1969 WALLY BOOTH DRAG RACING 1 18 AUTOWORLD,Herpa 121682 H0 LKW DAF XF Euro 6 SSC Sattelzug Harz,.SCHUCO Audi A5 Coupe 3.2 (Garnet Pearl) 1 43 Scale Diecast Model NEW, RARE ,.Porsche 917K Kyalami Adamowicz Casoni 1 18 187580C,.Opel Manta B i200 1984 silver, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Schuco 1 43 03338 VW T2a Westfalia-Pritsche mit 2 Seifenkisten,.Pagani Huayra - 1 43 - AUTOart,.CMR 1 43 Scale SBC006 - Porsche 956K 1st 200 Meilen Norisring 1983 - S.Bellof,. The parties Schuco 1 43 Mercedes-Maybach G650, blue 450900400,.
Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio gold 1984 grey Neutro 1 43 Kess KS43000190 Mode,.1 43 CL27 ASTON MARTIN DB4 CONgreenIBLE KIT BY SMTS,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, PORSCHE 911 GT3 (991.2) 2017 PURPLE METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410066027 NEU,; Lincoln Town Car 2011 - 1 43 - Luxury Collectibles, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
1 43 Hi Story Model NISSAN Prince Skyline Deluxe Brown 1957,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI CC20302 GARRETT 4CD TRACTOR & TRAILER - WAR DEPARTMENT - NEW,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)430082104 MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE FORD ESCORT COSWORTH RED,.Minichamps 437123120 1 43 MASERATI INDY 1970 LIMITED EDITION 432 PCS. RED,.Porsche 997 GT3 Cup , Vainqueur Carrera Cup Paul Ricard 2013 , Sparkmodels,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Spark 1 43 Scale S3786 - VW Polo R WRC th Monte Carlo 2014,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Mclaren P1 2013 orange AutoArt 1 43 AA56012 Model,.Ed El Segundo Education Foundation School Busted Hot Wheels HF104,.IXO Models CLC088 1 43 scale GAZ M21 VOLGA sedan pink white CCCP USSR DDR,.FERRARI F50 Barchetta cabriolet 1995 black 1 18 MIRA 6207 voiture miniature coll.,.GT SPIRIT - 1 18 - AUDI RS5 CABRIOLET - 2014 - ZM053,. The ScottsdaleFERRARI 275 N.A.R.T.SPIDER KIT 1 24 SCALE,MCLAREN F1 GTR LEMANS UT orange 1 18,.Trofeu TF0826 ALPINE RENAULT A110 N.60 10th MONTE CARLO 1972 MOSS-CRELLIN 1 43 M,. Id.,AUTOWORLD 1 18 AW234 WALLY BOOTH 1969 DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE DIECAST CAR GREEN,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MATCHBOX LESNEY 47 TROJAN VAN BROOKE BOND TEA,; Best Model BT9732 PORSCHE 550 RS N.86 GOVERNATOR'S TROPHY 1958 F.CAMPELL 1 43 Mo,ERTL 1 18 32519 1969 CAMARO SS blueE,.Porsche 911 Carrera Targa Usa 1985 Green 1 43 Neoscale NEO43248,. The ScottsdaleBN83-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 LKW Scania IPEC+Sarrasani+ceti+Pracht+Siemens NEUW,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Schuco 1 43 Mercedes-Maybach G650, white 450900500,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Grey 1 50 Trailer Head 71005,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Rare vintage Mobius Mercedes Benz W125 silverpfeil 1936 diecast 1 43 Rennwagen,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 519 Croce Rossa Italiana 1932 1 43 Model RIO4563 RIO,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Siku Plastik V 172 Ford M 17 Badewanne green hellyellow V-Serie 2,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Cabrio Diamant Weiss W212 Ab Facelift 2013 1 43 Kyosho .., (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1970 HOT WHEELS REDLINE HEAVY CHEVY CAMARO COPPER VHTF, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NOREV 1 18 1955 PEUGEOT D4A POMPIERS WITH LADDERS DIECAST CAR 184707RD,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMitsubishi Pajero Lang 3,5 V6 1998 red 1 18 Sun Star neu & OVP,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, KIT FORD VEDETTE CCC CLASSIQUES 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE MONTAGE USINE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSPOT ON TRIANG DIECAST, VAUXHALL CRESTA. 1963. @LOGBOOK RESTORATIONS.,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Herpa 306232 Mercedes Benz Arocs Container LKW mit TU3 Gabelstapler Scholpp 1 87,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Matchbox Moko Lesney No74 Refreshments Mobile Canteen Very Rare Light bluee Base.,Best Box 2511 Ford Taunus - Rare Colour bluee,.Mint 1 43 Spark Ford Mustang Boss 429,.IScale 1 18 Mercedes-Benz GLC Coupe (C253) 2016 bluew nieuw in Mercedes-Benz dea,. The HuygheVW Beetle Beetle 1303 Volkswagen 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 Norev New 188523,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNorev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270061 - 1964 Jaguar E-Type Coupe - Gunmetal,.
RENAULT CLIO 16V 16S 1 18 NOREV (TUNGSTENE GREY),.Rover SD1 №7 BSSC ICS (Andy Rouse) 1 43 NEO 45585,.
1 43 Diecast REXTOYS Rolls Royce Limousine S.M. LA REINE DANGLETERERE 36,.Spark 1 43 Lancia Beta Monte Carlo Daytona 1980 Facetti Finotto Ricci,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Lamborghini Veneno 2013 black red, Modellauto 1 43 Kyosho,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBIANTE 43306B HOLDEN HSV W427 2008 - WHITE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 12,.HERPA 1 500 - NA1 BOEING 747-400 - NAA NARITA,.
For example, in Partridge,VINTAGE MATCHBOX LESNEY SUPERFAST NO.25 AUDI QUATTRO MINT NR MINT BOXED,. In Jorgensen, supra,Diecast Car Model 1 18 Hongqi H5 (bluee) + GIFT ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Valtra N123 Tractor with Front Loader 1 3 2,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VW T2 b Bus 1971 Lost blue white, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,. That is the same situation in this case.Vintage Diecast Corgi Batmobile C267 w Batman Driver Working Blade and Launcher,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 Goliath GD 750 silverforma Sinalco Von 1950 Raro,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Porsche 911 991 Turbo S Exclusive Series - Spark 1 43 in Box 34686,.Franklin Mint 1938 Ford Fire Engine,.Brumm BM0566 FERRARI 250 GTO N.165 WINNER TOUR DE FRANCE 1963 J.GUICHET-J.BEHRA,.
Citroen Gt Salon De Paris 2008 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV181610 Model,.