Lincoln Continental Continental Continental Mark Vii Lsc Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45501 Model be1eef

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Lincoln Continental Continental Continental Mark Vii Lsc Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45501 Model be1eef
Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina (red),
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Bizarre 1 43 Scale Model Car B1000 - DeltaWing Presentation 2011 - Red,.Porsche 908 2 - No.67 Le Mans 1972 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Ferrari 512Bb Shilhouette Prova 1978 Be9275 1 43 Modellino Auto Diecast,.Soviet russian tractor T 150 1985 USSR TSM 1 43 SSM8015,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 Mercedes R 2006 1 18 • Minichamps 150034600,.Danbury Mint 1 24th Scale 1952 JAGUAR XK120,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Bburago 1 18 Scale Diecast Dodge Viper GTS Coupe Red & White Plus Display Case,.Matchbox regular wheels No 67 is the model of the Volkswagen 1600 TL VNMB,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Set of (9) Johnny Lightning 1955 – 1957 TRI-CHEVY Nomad & Bel Air BRAND NEW,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC20209 - 1922 Foden Steam Wagon - Whitbread's,.Steyer Puch Pinzgauer 710M Autohife Zurich 1 43 Neoscale NEO44593 Model, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Abarth 1000 - Solido 124 France 1 43 34509,.Nissan Dong Feng Sylphy blueebird Sentra Pulsar bluee 1 18 model car,.RARE TONKA STABLES 52620 -Steel Trailer, 2 Horses & Clear Dome Cover VINTAGE,.CC15806 Corgi Mercedes-Benz Actros MP4 Curtainside Trailer Mulgrew 1 50 HGV UK,.

Spark 1 43 Peugeot 2008 DKR n.321 7th Rallye DAKIar 2016 S4950,.DINKY TOYS 105 MAXIMUM SECURITY VEHICLE CAPTAIN SCARLET VINTAGE GERRY ANDERSON,.KIT FORD VEDETTE CCC CLASSIQUES 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE MONTAGE USINE,.Majorette Globe Toys 1 60 Nr. 117 Ford Capri Coupe red black OVP,.1 18 Norev Citroen Mehari 1981 Atacama yellow NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

NOREV 185280 Renault Fregate Capri blue 1959 1 18 OVP,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Peugeot 205 GTI 1992 MIAMI blueE 1 18 Norev 184856,.1963 Studebaker Avanti Dorado 1 18 Signature Models 18101,.Schuco Patent Wende-Limousine 1010 green Replica Car Western Germany Box Key,Auto Replicas kit Renault Record 1 43 (JO),.Spark 1 43 Scale S3303 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Mexico Rally 2011,.

Corgi 1 50 Scale CC15301 - Scania 111 Tandom Axle Box Van - Montgomery N.Ireland,.VTG MATCHBOX PONTIAC GP SPORTS COUPE in RED Excellent Condition VN MIB,.MEGA RARE GAZ 22 B Variant Kherson Model Hand Made 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Snap-On Tools 75th anniversary Double Trailers NIB 1 of 600 RARE,.

NEO NEO46236 1 43 MORGAN 4 4 FLAT RADIATOR S1 1936 GREEN,. We agree in part.

Wiking H0 Alter Tankwagen Magirus 3500 (AB124),.Maisto 1 18 - Citroen 2CV 1952 Open,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Suzuki Sx4 Winner Pikes Peak 2010 Nobubiro Tajima 1 43 Spark S43PP10 Model,.Wonderful modelcar PORSCHE WAIBEL SPEZIAL SPORT CABRIO 1948 - blueemet. - 1 43,.SSM LKW 1 43 KRAZ-255B1 Tanklöschfahrzeug Feuerwehr,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; ERTL American Muscle 1969 Yenko 427 Camaro Issue 18 Scale Yellow,.Mitsubishi Pajero Lang 3,5 V6 1998 blue 1 18 Sun Star neu & OVP,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Spark Tyrrell 010 Ricardo Zunino 1 43 S4318,; 1 43 FERRARI SF 71H KIMI RAIKKONEN - AVEC PILOTE F1 2018 ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5320 1 32 NEW HOLLAND T6.175 blueE POWER WITH FRONT LOADER,.SUBARU Impreza WRC Rallye WRC 1999 Thiry Winner Madeira 99 Trofeu 1 250 1 43,1 43 NEO GAZ M22 Volga,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.RARE DINKY TOYS MECCANO FRANCE B-H PUEGEOT D.3.A. LAMPES MAZDA RESTORED MINTY,.

1 18 Sunstar 1956 Mercury MontClair Hard Top Racing Car [5145],.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.SCHUCO PICCOLO Jahres Set 2001 VEDES AGE 01719 VW , DKW , Mercedes Benz,.PORSCHE CARRERA GT black 1 18,.DUB City Big Time Muscle 1970 Ford Mustang Boss 429 Green FREE SHIPPING,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Norev NV183419 MERCEDES L319 VAN 1957 FRUBA 1 18 Modellino,; Porsche 356C Hard-Top Cabriolet Closed 1963 Red White SPARK 1 43 S4922 Model,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mercedes Benz Gt-S Amg 2018 NOREV 1 18 NV183497,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Lincoln Continental Continental Continental Mark Vii Lsc Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45501 Model be1eefLincoln Continental Continental Continental Mark Vii Lsc Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45501 Model be1eef

1968 Mattel Hot Wheels Red Classic '31 Ford Woody Redline,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

GAMA MINI 9670 - NSU RO 80 - 1 43 - green - NEU in OVP - Modellauto - Model Car,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Trolleybus YATB 1 Soviet Bus 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye RAC GB 1978 Saby RREdition Trofeu 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.GT-SPIRIT 1 18 Aston Martin V8 Vantage Volante 1977 groen nieuw in doos,.Spark 1 43 Mini Cooper Rally De France 2012 SF039,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.RENAULT ALPINE A 110 1600 S white NOREV 1 18 185303,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Best Model 9050 2 PORSCHE 908 3 TARGA FLORIO 1970 1 43 Modellino,.

Mclaren F1 1 43 Michelin,.RIO RI414101 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA C.R.I. ITALIANA 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3310 - Citroen DS3 WRC Winner Acropolis Rally 2011,.Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Cup , 24H LeMans 1993 , Spark models,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 43 Brabham Alfa Romeo BT46 , N. Piquet, Canadian GP 1978 , Minichamps,.

Minichamps 437123120 1 43 MASERATI INDY 1970 LIMITED EDITION 432 PCS. RED,.BEST MODEL BT9275 FERRARI 512 BB PROVA 1978 1 43,.Rio RI4220 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, INTERNATIONAL HX615 CONCRETE MIXER WHITE 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 71014,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Scottoy 27AI AUTOBOTTE VIBERTI AQUILA ITALIANA Modellino,.FERRARI 512 BB 1976 CHRONO 1 18,.Universal Hobbies UH5263 NEW HOLLAND T6.165 1 32 Modellino,.Spark 1 43 Venturi 260 SPC 1989 S2244,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 29230 - FERRARI 333 SP Race Car,.

Spark Model SG302 AUDI R8 LMS N.18 NURBURGRING 2017 ABT-FREY-HUISMAN-TERTING 1 4, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Lancia Delta Integrale 18 Solido,.MERCEDES 230 SL PAGODE RALLY SPA - SOFIA - LIEGE ANSON 1 18 RED,. The PartridgeFUJ090498 by FUJIMI KIT DI MONTAGGIO FERRARI F1 87 88C ITALIAN GP 1988,.Porsche 911 991-2 Turbo S Coupe 2015 Uni White HERPA 1 43 WAP0201360G Miniature,.Mercedes Benz Gt (C190) 2014 White 1 43 Spark S1071 Model,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Corgi Toys Vintage Box 50 Massey Ferguson Tractor MF50B, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.CATERPILLAR DM CAT 85508 Wheeled Excavator M318F 1 50 Scale Diecast Vehicles Toy,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2018 - 181660,.Norev PM0003 LEXUS LS460 blackE 2007 1 43 Modellino,PartridgeLotus 19 - green 1960 1 43 Spark S0260,.Vintage TONKA TOY JEEP Military US Army 1970s G-452-8 Pressed Metal Plastic,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MINI COOPER green Sun Roof 1 18, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ferrari 308 Gts 1978 bluee Metallic 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,; 1 50 DM Caterpillar Cat M318F Wheeled Excavator Diecast Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Spark 1 43 Lotus 23 1964 Bobby Unser PP00, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale US6C - Ford V 8 Sedan Delivery Van - Indian Hill Dairy, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRare Minichamps 180 000073 BAR Honda 2000 Showcar Ricardo Zonta Scale 1 18,.

Porsche 911 930 turbo Cabriolet 1987 elfenbein 1 18 Norev 187661 NEU,.Spark Model S5682 ALPINE M64 N.54 DNF LM 1964 P.VIDAL-H.GRANDSIRE 1 43 Modellino, Clarke's negligent act.Auto World 1 18 American Muscle 1957 Chrysler 300C 60th Anniversary Car AMM1110,.Maisto Elite Transport Cadillac Escalade EXT w 1987 Chevrolet Caprice,.Jada Toys Hot Rigz 76 w Pro Power Double Tanker Peterbilt 379 1 32 2000 MISB,.

Ferrari 750 Monza Le Mans 1955 1 43 Model 0187 ART-MODEL,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Bburago Peugeot205Safari 456Gt 1 43,AUTO D'EPOCA IN LATTA PER COLLEZIONISTI MODELLINO GIA' MONTATO,. In Noska,Minichamps Suomy helmet Ruben Xaus 2001 1 2 Ducati SBK WSB,.Corgi Toys 217 Fiat 1800 with original box,.Trofeu TF1704 BMW 2002 TI N.8 WINNER AUSTRIAN ALPINE RALLY 1973 A.WARMBOLD-J.TOD,.Speccast 26077 FORD COUPE'CLASSIC AUTO 1932 1 25 Modellino, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 046 - 1935 Dodge Van PCTS 1989 1 Of 200 White,.NOT TAMEO BUILT F1 PR SHADOW DN3 FORD WILDS BRITISH GP 1976 43,.Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder red (Stahlfelgen) 1964 -1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.S5153 SPARK 1 43 VW Volkswagen Polo WRC test car 2017,. Id., p 923.

1 18 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RSR LeMans 2006,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, ALPINE RENAULT A110 vainqueur Rallye Tour de CORSE 1973 1 18,Renault Alpine A 110 1973 - 1 18 - IXO Models,.Schuco 7561 AUDI Q5 2012 BROWN 1 43 Modellino,.Neo Mercedes 500 SEC Koenig Specials - metallic-dunkelred - 1 43,.Matchbox SuperKings K-89 Keilder Forest set - vintage,.Mercedes Sprinter Long Base UK Police 1 43,.1995 Racing Champions Sprint Car Sammy Swindell -- 1 24th scale Series 2,.BoS MODELS 1 43 MERCURY COUGAR LS 1991,. The parties Alter DINKY TOYS - Nr.828 Jeep mit Fahrer und Raketenwerfer SS10 - mit OVP,.

Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 Light bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4912 Model,.FERRARI 488 GTB 1 18,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MINICHAMPS FORD FOCUS ST RACE-red 410081001,; Century 1 43 Scale White metal 2701 Mercedes 500 SL 1975 dark bluee, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Hot Wheels 1969 Redline Snake Cuda Funny Car Original white w decals,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 400788409 1 43 FORD ESCORT II RS1800 ESSO CLARK WILSON RAC RALLY 1978,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Diecast Car Model BMW All New 7 Series 750 Li 2017 1 18 (Dark bluee) + GIFT ,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3362 - Mini JCW WRC th Monte Carlo 2013,.Brumm BM0272CH FERRARI 126 C 2 G.VILLENEUVE 1982 N.27 LONG BEACH GP W PILOTE 1 4,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,VIntage Tonka Road SIgn Set Complete in the Box,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 18 Die Cast American Muscle 1968 Chevelle SS396,.Porsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.3 - oakgreen met. - Minichamps - 1 of 200 - CA04316035,.NOREV - 1 18 - BMW M535I (E28) - 1986 - 183261,.Ford 5000 Tractor Carlos Alberto reutemann Brands Hatch 1972 1 43 rare,.1981 Renault R5 Turbo 1 Metallic bluee 1 18 IXO Models 18CMC005,. The ScottsdaleMatchbox London Omnibus 1886 YSH2 Heritage Horse Drawn Carriage Special Edition,Ebrro Honda Civic Type R Fd2 purple (1 43 Die-Cast 44295) New F S,.LESNEY MATCHBOX NO. 38 VAUXHALL VICTOR WAGON - 300 WHEEL VARIATION ,. Id.,Fiat 18BL Croce Rossa Esercito Italiano 1915 4320 1 43 Rio Made in ,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wonderful modelcar Saab 96 RAC-RALLYE 1962 E.Carlsson D.Stone - red - 1 43,; VW Bus T3 Multivan Bulli White Star 1993 - white - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,Herpa 1 87 Scania 144 TL Zingg Kühlsattelzug Schweiz Rarität,.1 43 Spark Porsche 911 (991) GT3RS lightbluee,. The ScottsdaleCAT CATERPILLAR 623G ELEVATING SCRAPER W OPERATOR 1 50 DIECAST MASTERS 85097 C,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, GUILOY 'G.gold' 1 18 McClaren F1 Predotype orange ref 675610, highly detailed,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Rio 4317 FIAT 501S SAETTA DEL RE 1915 18 1 43 Modellino,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Barkas B 1000 Autobus Medio Volkspolizei 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NOREV - 1 18 - RENAULT 5 GT TURBO PHASE 1 - 1985 - 185209,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, ERTL Semi with 3 Trailers Kool-Aid, Mustang Mover, Car Transporter -Rare,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Matchbox Lesney No. 45 Vauxhall Victor, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, BoS BOS43505 Mercedes 600 Pullman Bestattungswagen, black Massstab 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Racing Champions 1999 Matco Tools Skuza Nitro Funny Car 1 24 DIECAST,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBugatti EB118 Paris 1998 blue Concept 1 43 Auto Art Modellauto 50921,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Bburago BU16001R FERRARI LA FERRARI 2013 RED 1 18 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe2006 RCCA Tony Stewart Home Depot Martinsville Raced Win 1 24 1 of 150,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Porsche 917K 4th Place Watkins Glen 6h 1970 Elford Hulme 1 18 Norev 187583 917 K,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 18 Welly Porsche 911 GT3 Diecast Metal Car Model Toy Gift,Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC062 - Lancia D24 - Mille Miglia 1954,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE BMW 2002 cabriolet E10 1971 K. Red 1 43 Minichamps-E6 E9 E24,.Siku 4057 John Deere 7400 Flail Mower Chopper 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,. The Huyghe1972 Surtees TS14, No.7, Italian Grand Prix in 1 43 Scale by Spark S4000,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMercedes-Benz L 315 Pritsche 1950 Pma 1 43 439034420 Model,.

Norev Citroën 2CV Dolly 1985 1 18 white green,.ROUND 2 1 44 SCALE TEXACO - FUEL MODEL BN CP7490,.

Bruder Massey Ferguson 7480 with Frontloader,.Ferrari 375 MM 1953 Red 1 43 Model 0079 ART-MODEL,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Wonderful SCHUCO-modelcar MERCEDES-BENZ 200 (W123) HEARSE VOGT 1980 - 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFranklin Mint 1936 Bugatti Type 57SC ATALANTE 1 24 Diecast Red B11RP48 W Box,.Rio RI4540 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 BIANCO 1 43 Modellino,.

For example, in Partridge,GMP Konstant HOT Spl. Limited Edition 1 43 Scale 3 Car Set,. In Jorgensen, supra,Danbury Mint - 195 Ford Fairlane Crown Victoria - Never on Display - Box, Papers,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CAT CATERPILLAR 980K WHEEL MATERIAL HANDLING 1 50 BY DIECAST MASTERS 85289 C,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,EUROBRUN JUDD EG189 OSCAR LARRAURI F1 1989 GP AUSTRALIA 1 43 RESIN,. That is the same situation in this case.Norev 185205, Renault SuperCinq GT Turbo Ph II, Alain Oreille, 1 18, NEU&OVP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Nissan R89 C N°85 Le Mans 1990,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Rio RI4179 FIAT 128 4 PORTE TAXI MILANO 1971 1 43 Modellino,.Peugeot 402 Eclipse 1937 - Dark Green - green - 1 18 Norev NEW,.NOREV Volkswagen Bulli (white red) 1 18 OVP ,.

Premium ClassiXXs 1 18 Mercedes-Benz Unimog U 406,.