Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326ba

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326ba
Universal Hobbies 1 50 DOOSAN DX160W Wheeled Excavator Diecast Model UH8134,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Matchbox Choppers Chop Suey New In Box,.VINTAGE BOXED MINT NR MINT ROADMASTER LONE STAR IMPY FIRE ENGINE 30 V GOOD BOX,.Spark S3389 Porsche 911 (997) GT3 R Hybrid 2.0 Präsentation 2011 1 43 OVP,.ULTRA RARE BASE VARIATION 1986 HOT WHEELS HOT BIRD RAINBOW ROAD THE HOT ONES,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Spark 1 43 Porsche Panamera Sport Turismo S E-Hybrid WAP0207630J,.Corgi CC99111 - 1 36 Only Fools and Horses Ford Capri & Reliant Regal Super Van,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1960 DC COMIC BATMOBILE AND BATMARINE,.Audi S1 2014 Yellow 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 11 1978 TYRRELL 008 DEPALLIER,.MODELLINO PORSCHE PANAMERA 4S 2011 blue METALLIZZATO IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Premium Classixxs 13350 VW LT28 BUS YELLOW 1 43 Modellino, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

NOREV LIGNE blackE 1 43 CITROËN DS 19 CHAPRON COUPÉ BORDEAUX 1958 LE DANDY,.Ertl Peachstate 1969 Shelby Cobra GT-500 1 18 Scale Diecast '69 Mustang Car,.Israel RESCUE AMBULANCE Jewish MAGEN DAVID ADOM MDA First AID Diecast TOY CAR,.NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 282 Mercedes Benz 500 SEC Dark Grey,.

SOLIDO 1 43 - 4578 TRIUMPH TR6 1969 GREEN,.Matchbox 40A Bedford Dk Tipper GPW 1957,.White Metal Brooklin Models, BRK 26 1955 Chevrolet Nomad in 1 43 Scale.,.1962 OLDSMOBILE STARFIRE GARNET RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY ROAD SIGNATURE 20208,.McLaren M14A th French GP 1970 Dan Gurney Spark S4844 1 43,.

Matchbox Superking K-149 Ferrari Testarossa red top in Box,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Hot Wheels 1 64 Scale Minifigure Display Case Wall Cabinet, HW11-BL,.2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002,.WEISE-TOYS 2021 MB-Trac 1000 Family 1 32,SUZUKI Vitara 1.6 JLX 4x4 Congreenible Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44980,.FORD MUSTANG GT500 CABRIOLET blue 1 18,.

Citroen DS 19 1959 hellblue weiss 1 18 Norev 181591 diecast Neu,.HOGAN WINGS HO4050GR 1 200 747-8 BOEING HOUSE RED ROLLOUT,.CC99155 - Scania @ Stobart Limited Edition - Corgi Classics,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

DeAgostini F50 1995 1 24 Scale Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.6 Japan F S,.


Volkswagen VW 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 Model 188523 NOREV,.Hot Wheels Redline Red Classic '57 T Bird ,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Schuco 1 43 Scale 450339600 Mercedes Benz Unimog 404S TLF8 DLRG diecast model,.Ltd Edn Corgi 1 50 CC13615 DAF CF Curtainside Skeldons Transport Untouched,.Matchbox Lesney No. 19 MGA Gpw Mint unboxed,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; KK-Scale BMW 733i (E23) - metallic-dunkelgreen - 1977 - 1 18,.NOREV184821 - Voiture de color blue Métallisé - PEUGEOT 302 Darl'Mat 1937 - 1 ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Herpa 1 87 Scania 144 TL Zingg Kühlsattelzug Schweiz Rarität,; Spark Model Cadillac Series 61 Congreenible 1 43 S2922,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

SHELBY Cobra Daytona Ford Coupe Harper Sutcliffe 1965 Le Mans Scud. CMR 1 18,.1 18 AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo LP570 Supertrofeo Stradale 2011,SPARK BMW 635 CSi Winner 24H SPA 1983 Tassin - Hahne - Heyer SB064 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Corgi 314 Ferrari Le Mans. Good Condition in Very Good Original Box,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Autoart 1 18 Scale 70035 Toyota Harrier Met Red (Lexus RX) diecast Model Car,.SCALEXTRIC REVELL 8318 MCLAREN M6A BRUCE MCLAREN N°4 LIMITED EDITION,.KK-Scale 1 18 BMW 2000 CS Coupe darkred - Baujahr 1965 - Neu OVP 1 18,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Best Model BT9549 FERRARI P2 N.19 LE MANS TEST 1966 BERLYS-DUMAY 1 43 Modellino,; Mclaren M6B Gt 1969 orange, Model Car 1 43 Premium x Models,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Viessmann 1141 Feuerwehr Kranwagen mit 3 bluelichtern, Funktionsmodell,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326baMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast Diecast Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett 7326ba

1977 Renault Alpine A310 yellow 1 18 Norev 185147,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

SIKU 3286 Steyr 6240 CVT Municipal Diecast Model Toy,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Krupp SF 380 Tiefladesattelzug Schwertransport Albert Regel 503 nur 2008,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 24 Action 2016 Ford Mustang Discount Tire B. Keselowski,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Porsche 911 991 Carrera Coupe - Spark Porsche Museum 1 43 in Box 30303,.Ford Mustang II Stallion 1976 - 1 18 - Greenlight,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Dinky Toys 261 Telephone Service Van made in England Excellent condition,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.PORSCHE 935 MORETTI SCHON WINNER GIRO D' ITALIA 1979 SPARK SI002 1 43,.

CHEVROLET CORVETTE Z06 POLICE 1 18 C5,.HOT WHEELS 50TH ANNIVERSARY FAVORITES MIX B LOT,No Soft Corners,.RK-Modelle® 46210 L60m mit Ponton-Auflieger,.Mebetoys A78 - Porsche 912 rally - Scala 1 43 Die cast,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ford Escort Rs 2000 Mki Red W White Stripes 1 18 Model TRIPLE 9,.

SPARK PORSCHE 962 C Le Mans 1992 Alméras - - Cohen Olive grove S4439 1 43,.1997 Action 1 24th Diecast Nascar Jeff Gordon Jurassic Park,.CITROEN DS 19 1958 1 18 NOREV (brown GLACE white CARRARE),.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, MB 560 SEL 1990 pearl - bluemet. NOREV 1 18 183464,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Old Fire Brigade Model Car Sheet Metal - 40 cm,.Citroen C4 Cactus 2014 White Pearl NOREV 1 18 NV181651 Model,.Mercedes Brabus 700 Biturbo - Red, Schuco 1 43,.Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 VW T 1 B Camioncini con Cassone Persil Von 1958 In,.1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Cream White-High End Diecast,.

Kado 14 1 43 1959 Toyota Toyopet Crown RS 1500 Handmade White Metal Model Car, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.S4997 SPARK 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera 2.7 1974,.Bohemia TCHECOSLOVAQUIE n° 60A TATRA 75 Cabriolet fermé résine 1 43 rare,. The PartridgeVintage Gay Toys Plastic General Lee Toy Car Dukes Of Hazzard Race Car,.GAZ 47 GT-S All-terrain khaki 1954 SSM 3003 1 43,.Schuco Piccolo Pop Art Edition I MB 1936,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vintage Corgi Toys 267 Batman Batmobile Car - Made In Gt Britain, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Matchbox No. 23 blueebird Dauphine 1960 Lesney,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Autoart McLaren P1 2013 blacke 1 43 56014,.Wiking 099078 Ligero & Robusto hanomag-dienst NUEVO,PartridgeSchuco Piccolo 3er-Set 1999 Jaguar E Isetta Opel Kapitän alle red (65039),.Mercedes AMG Gt C Roadster 2017 Yellow Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Rallye Audi Quattro 1981 M.Mouton, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Best Model 9466 LANCIA BETA GIRO D'ITALIA 1980 1 43 Modellino,; KYOSHO MERCEDES BENZ DEALER VERISON SEALED CLK DTM AMG COUPE ART. B6 696 2271,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Paradcar Peugeot 406 Coupe in bluee on 1 43 in Box, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, POLITOYS M 502 Fiat Siata 1500 Diecast Car NM 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBurago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3015 Mercedes Benz 300 SL1954 Red Model Car,.

Mercedes Benz Cla-Class 45 Amg Shooting Brake 2015 SPARK 1 43 S4980 Model,.CORGI TOYS BEDFORD TRACTOR UNIT W MILK TANKER ORIGINAL, Clarke's negligent act.AMPHICAR blueE NEO 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,.Motormax 1 18 Scale diecast - 73543 2015 Ford Interceptor Utility Police Car,.Vintage 70s METOSUL REF 36 Leyland Atlantean Autocarro 2 PISOS BOITE Portugal,.

Neo 1 43 Rometsch Beeskow Congreenible - 46175,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari 275 GTB n°15 Test 24 Heures du Mans - 1968 Best 1 43,Toy Old 1 43 Norev Renault R 12 Years 60 Bel Condition No. 140,. In Noska,2013 McLaren MP4-12C Spider Volcano Red RHDin 1 43 Scale by TSM TSM134338,.Peugeot 308 SW mokka-grey-metallic, 1 43 and Keychain,.Norev 181598 Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet 1961 pearl grey 1 18 Neu OVP,.1 18 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe año 1953 Welly 12525r red black, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Spark Porsche 956 n°7 Winner 24h du Mans 1984 1 43 S43LM84,.PEUGEOT 202 DÉCOUVRABLE Crème PARADCAR 132 1 43,.Force MVI Kit Monté Résine 1 43 - Jeep GPA Ford Amphibie USA 1940 Militaire,.Norev 188521 Volkswagen VW 1303 Cabriolet Baujahr 1972 orange Scale 1 18,. Id., p 923.

Florian Isuzu 1 43 Minicar,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spark Model S5618 PEUGEOT 2008 DKR N.319 6th DAKAR 2017 K.AL QASSIMI-P.MAIMON 1 ,BY370-2x Matchbox Modell Y-5 + Y-1 + Y-16 + Y-8 + Y-7 + YY18 + Ford Model T,.1 43 MG MGGT alloy car model limited gift box,.Trofeu TF1428 FIAT 131 ABARTH N.7 10th SAFARI 1979 MUNARI-MAIGA 1 43 Modellino,.Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Safety Car Goodwood Revival 2013 Yellow BEST 1 43 BE9718 Model,.Mercedes-Benz 250 D Lang (V124) brown grey metallic 1 43 NEO,.Spark SB 1 43 - LOTUS 19 N°6 Nassau 1962 Winner,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO ALFASUD 1.3 - 1972 - 180022W,. The parties SPARK RENAULT 5 Turbo Winner Tour de France 1984 J. Ragnotti S3863 1 43,.

Mercedes-Benz Modellauto Oldtimer AMG 300 SEL 6.8 Rennwagen 1 43 red retro 1971,.Ebbro 44202 Lotus Europa S2 Yellow (Resin) 1 43 scale,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 04985 SCHUCO 1 43 VW Tiguan NOTARZT Nürnberg Arzt RTW,; Kyosho Original Mini Car KS03658T Lexus IS 350 F Sports 1 43 Sonic titanium NEW, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor White 1 50 Trailer Head 71001,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Matchbox Superfast MB 35 Merry Weather Fire Engine-redmetal - Made in England,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 052432 - BMW 320i WTCC 2005 - M.Hennerici,.KK-Scale 1 18 BMW 733i E23 silver Baujahr 1977 - Neu OVP 1 18,.Norev 185241 1 18 RENAULT 4 1965 COPENHAGUE blueE,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SPARK McLaren F1 GTR J.D. Deletraz M.S. Sala F. Giroix Le Mans 1996 S4732,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Speedracer Shooting Star Yellow 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33261,.1 32 Weise Toys Deutz D 13006 Special tractor Green 2015 Diecast Toy,.Johnny Lightning Holiday WHITE LIGHTNING lot of 6 IMPALA BEETLE NASH C-300 More,.Bizarre 1 43 Scale Model Car B1000 - DeltaWing Presentation 2011 - Red,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Roadcar 2011 orange Autoart 1 43 AA56006 Miniature,. The ScottsdaleWorld Cup 32023 Deutz 11 Ps Tractor 1 3 2 New Boxed,Land rover discovery tsm model 1 43,.(V) triang spot on AUSTIN HEALEY 100 6 - 105,. Id.,Porsche 911 (993) Cup 3.8 (White),.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels Leo Mattel India Chevy Monza in Purple, loose,; Kyosho Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 03073R - Lotus Europa Special - Red,Ebbro 44675 ISUZU VehiCROSS 1997 RED 1 43 scale,.Porsche 936 , Winner 24H LeMans 1976 , Spark models,. The ScottsdaleBest Model BT9001 FERRARI 275 GTB 4 COUPE' 1966 RED 1 43 Modellino,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, DIAPET YONEZAWA G-58 G58 G 58 BMW 3.5 CSL RED MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Minichamps Horch 855 Special-Roadster 1938 1 43 Copper Metallic (JS),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bburago B18-11042Y 1 18 Lamborghini Urus Grey,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Models 1 43 Scale PP002 - Norma M20 - Pikes Peak 2013,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, NEO MODELS Fiat 1100 ES Pininfarina 1950 1 43 45100,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Rio RI4574 CITROEN DS 21 TAXI PARIS 1969 1 43 Modellino, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Aston Martin Rapide Ginevra 2010 Pma 1 43 437137904 Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 LOT VOITURES MINIATURES X 5,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeUniversal hobbies 1 43 Renault 21 Turbo red,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, VINTAGE LLEDO AND OXFORD DIECAST CARS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheAudi 100 Coupe S • 1970 • NEU • KK-Scale • 1 18,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1962 Porsche 718,No.32 Allemand Gp ,Heini Walter Voiture Modélisme en 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,CORGI MODEL MINI COOPER '1990 ' LIMITED EDITION MIB,Original Solido (France) Dark Green Cooper 1500 Formula 2 Diecast 1 43,.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 32 B Jaguar XKE met. red BPT w. Spoke Lesney 1,.Minichamps - Ford Focus RS Le Mans Edition Ford GT40 Tribute - 1 of 504,. The HuygheMagirus 290 D grey red Pritsche - 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs NEW,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheOld school Redline BMX Full Chromoly Stamed Handlebars Great Survivor Condition,.


Corgi Classics Bedford O Series Van Collection (9 items),.Mercedes Benz E class E320 W210 Limousine Elegance 1 43 Herpa Limited Metallic,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Rio 1 43 Scale Model Car 4199 - 1930 Alfa Romeo 1750 Torpedo - Red,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 18 Anson Audi 100 Coupe S orange NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.2015 Hot Wheels Fast & Furious Complete Set 2018 F & F Complete Set ++++ NISSAN,.

For example, in Partridge,Herpa, 309110 Liebherr Mobilkran LTM 1045 1 Scholpp Kinderkran ,. In Jorgensen, supra,1 18 Rover 3500 V8 año 1974 MC Group 18046 Beige,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.GEMBALLA AVALANCHE GTR 2007 RED 1 43 SPARK SP0729,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Opened Minicar Body Only 1 64 Gl 2017 Ford Gt,. That is the same situation in this case.1 43 Copy models Ford escort,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.FALLER AMS 4855 FIAT 1800 MINT GREEN NEAR MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,. Detroit Edison, supra.

NEO MODELS Saab 99 4door (dark green) 1 43 43677,.Lamborghini Murcielago Lp640 Green Met. Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431032 Model,.IXO 18CMC001 TOYOTA CELICA GT FOUR ST165 diecast model road car red 1990 1 18th,.

JOLLY MODEL JL0263 - Porsche 550 James Dean version accident 1 43,.