Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 87 Herpa Mercedes-Benz Arocs Bigspace Schwerlast SZ Cadzow GB 308588,.Bentley, Continental, Congreenible, 1984, - Red, 1 43, Model Car, Neo.,.UT models 1 18 BMW Z3 roadster rossa red boxed,.MG A TwinCam bluee 1958 (Bizarre 1 43 BZ380),.
The essential facts are not in dispute.PORSCHE 924 Carrera GTS 1980 weiss white NEU Minichamps PMA 1 43,.Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Coupè Anno di Costruzione 1993 black 1 18 Norev,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 18 RARITÄT Norev Peugeot 908 Le Mans 2008 NEU §,.Hot Wheels HWX5498 FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 N.89 LM 2011 FAMBACHER-SIMONSEN-KEEN 1,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.BBURAGO - METALLMODELL - OPEL KADETT GT E RALLY - 1 24 - (5.DIV-25),.Norev Renault R.S. 01 - INTERCEPTOR - Jean Ragnotti Modell 2016, 1 18,.Premium Classixxs 13350 VW LT28 BUS YELLOW 1 43 Modellino, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
JOLLY MODEL JL0753 - ALFA ROMEO 1150 CONRERO AMARANTO 1960 1 43,.892G Norev 157036 Citroën ID 19 The Caddy (H). Chapron 1 43,.FORD P7A 20M 1968 Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44350,.IXO 1 43 Ferrari 250P Le Mans 24h 1963 from Japan,.
1 43 Spark Ford Fiesta RS WRC Rally Monte Carlo 2018 Evans S5952,.Art Model AM0248 FERRARI 195 S N.56 2nd BRIDGEHAMPTON 1951 P.WALTERS 1 43 Modell,.Spark Model Lotus 109 Alessandro Zanardi 1 43 S1671,.Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Mazda 737 C Le Mans 1985,.Minichamps 410170033 1 43 RED BULL RACING TAG-HEUER RB13 MAX VERSTAPPEN AUSTRALI,.
Tonka Rescue Vehicle Vintage 1970’s very rare with figurines,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.V & V model Pkw Galion 1000kgs Van Post,.Miniminiera ISI013 DIORAMA CON F.500F2 G.P.MODENA 1 43,.Ebro 1 43 Unisia Jecs Skyline JGTC 1998 [R33] high downforce white orange,Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR Uhlenhaut Coupe Coche de juguete, año 2011, Escala 1 18,.Hot Wheels LIBERTY PROMOTIONS COLLECTION BUILDER (VW DRAG BUS),.
Fast & Furious Set 12 Modellautos Dom Dodge Ford Plymouth 1 55 Mattel FCF60,.McLaren MP4-12C Spider 2012 0range metallic 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 530133030,.SPARK TRIUMPH TR3 LE MANS 1959 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
1 18 Ixo 18RMC008 Porsche 911 SC SC WALDEGARD RALLY MONTE CARLO 1982,.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 052432 - BMW 320i WTCC 2005 - M.Hennerici,. We agree in part.
CORGI 158 LOTUS CLIMAX F1 RACING CAR IN ORIGINAL BOX,.NOREV - 1 18 - AC COBRA 289 - 1963 - 182754,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Nippon's Working Car Kit 2 Fire Engine 2 10pcs Complete BOX (All 9) Candy Toy,.Playwell (Hong Kong) Red Porsche 917K Martini Racing Team Plastic Electric 1 16,.Mercury Monterey hard top coupe White over Red 1954 NEO 44055 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK28 002A - 1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser - Tan Metallic,.Western Minichamps Kit Monté Métal 1 43 - Porsche 936 Martini N°6 Le Mans 1978,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 069100 - 1990 Porsche 911 Turbo 964 Met Purple,; KK-Scale Alfa Romeo Spider 3 Serie 2 - silver - 1986 - 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Vintage Danbury Mint 1 24 1931 Ford Model A Deluxe Roadster, 1 24 scale,.Corgi Classics CC13747 - Scania R Facelift Curtainside - Stobart - A+ A+,Porsche Cayman S, green Welly 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Art Model AM0171 FERRARI 225 S N.28 3rd GP PORTUGAL 1953 M.VALENTIM 1 43 Modelli,.
Pirana Bertone - Politoys 588 1 43 in Box 36702,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 033101 - 1955 Mercedes Benz 180 - Red,.Corgi original series No 1127 Bedford Simon snorkel Fire engine Excellent boxed,.Buddy L JEEP pressed steel Japan bluee white stars and stripes vintage 6 metal,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Dodge Challenger R T 426 HEMI 1970 red S3612 Spark Modellauto 1 43,; Brooklin models BRK 25, 1958 Pontiac Bonneville congreenible.. Boxed,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, ..MODEL CAR GROUP, MCG 18045, ROVER 3500 V8 1974, POLICE CAR 1 18 SCALE,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Vintage Polish RUCH FSO Polski Fiat 125p PLASTIC 1 72 ZC-28 good condition RARE,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Matchbox Superfast Nr. 8A Ford Mustang orangered whitee Einrichtung,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Emek 83804 Scania R with Rolling Garbage Press 1 25,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Art Model AM0268 FERRARI 500 TRC N.16 WINNER VIRGINIA 1957 W.HELBURN 1 43 Modell,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps - 1 43- McLaren M23 , 1976, James Hunt,.M1057 Polistil 1 66 - Fiat 127 RJ11 - con Scatola Box - Azzurro Light bluee,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark Models 1 43 Scale - S0169 Corvette C5-R Luc Alphand Adventures LM 2007,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ferrari 250 California 1957 Red 1 43 Model 0069 ART-MODEL,.
Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Modellino Diecast,.DINKY 109 FORD MODEL T `GABRIEL` CAR,.1970 Ford Mustang Boss 302 Racing yellow 1 18 Welly 12527,.Honda Civic Ef-9 Sir Anno di Costruzione 1990 red 1 18 Tripla 9,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Matchbox VW lot promised to one buyer,.
MERCURY ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SPRINT GT ,.Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Cabriolet Hebmueller 1949 KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180112,.RARE, DY-30 Austin Healey Austin Healey Club 1997 , Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, QUARTZO 18274 LOTUS 72C JOCHEN RINDT 1970 DUTCH GP WINNER 1 18 DIECAST RED,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.NEO MG RV8 Dark Red 1 43 44271,.Wiking 1 87 620 14 Leiterwagen Magirus S 3500 von 1955-56 TOP,.NEO Ford Taunus (P7b) Turnier Green 1 43 44345,.Matchbox SF Nr. 45A Ford Group 6 purpurmetallic top in Box,.1 43 DACIA DUSTER VERSION CRS FRANCIA SECOURS GENDARMERIE ALARME,.
Original Audi S1 8X Modellauto A1 1 43 Misangoldt Misano red 5011411013, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Renault 16 Baujahr 1968 grey metallic 1 18 Norev,.1950 Studebaker Champion 1 18 Road Signature metalico alto detalle,. The PartridgeLION CAR - LION TOYS DAF B Delivery Van Red + box,.Sunstar 1 18 Ford FOCUS WRC WINNER Rally WALES GB HIRVONEN,.1 43 Diecast Spark Radical SR9 Judd Race Performance Le Mans 2010 S2553,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MERCEDES BENZ C Klasse AMG DTM ITC 1996 Thiim UPS UT Exclusive Cars 1 18, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Schuco Piccolo 3er-Set 1999 Porsche 356 bg Ferrari Beretta sw Jaguar120 65046,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.VOITURE MINIATURE BMW Z4 N° 66 24H DE SPA 2012 SPARK 1 43 ETAT NEUF,.MICRO RACER JET SUPER SABRE BAUSATZ 01782,PartridgeSpeccast 35508 JOHN DEERE FREIGHTLINER M2 1 64 Modellino,.Miniature IXO Echelle 1 24 Fourgon CITROEN Type H Van Heuliez 1958 Diecast Metal,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, EFE RT LONDON TRANSPORT AUSTRIAN AIRLINES ROUTE 81B 1 76 10104C, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, EAGLE RACE 1 18 212001 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 1973 BAZAR,; Lamborghini LM002 (1984) Diecast Model Car 436103375,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Hanomag Garant Feuerwehr m. Bachert Drehleiter red 1 43 Schuco neu + OVP 3241, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 24 Racing Champions 2002 Intrepid R T Muppets 25th Ann. Limited Edition, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePremium ClassiXXs 1 43 Tatra 111 - flatbet tarp - bluee,.
1 18 Model Car Group BMW 2000 1966 lightgrey,.SPARK MODEL S2222 LOTUS SEVEN S2 1960 GREEN 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.Spark 1 43 Scale S3354 - Citroen DS3 WRC th Monte Carlo 2013,.Cararama Diecast 1 50 Scale CR035 Stobart Rail Scania R560 & Nooteboom Lowloader,.Norev 185215 1 18 RENAULT 5 GT TURBO SUPERCINQ RAGNOTTI THIMONIE TOUR DE COR,.
Best Model BT9104 ALFA ROMEO TZ2 N.130 10th TARGA FLORIO 1966 R.BUSSINELLO-L.BIA,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AutoArt Porsche 911 GT3R Asian Carrera Cup '04 Marsh Vi508-18,Britains LOT OF 3 MOTORCYCLES NORTON HONDA BMW - 9696 9671 9693,. In Noska,Chgold Q Toyota rally history set,.1974 Rover 3500 V8 Beige 1 18 MC Group 18046,.RARE MINICHAMPS TYRRELL FORD 012 BRUNDLE 1984 USA GRAND PRIX GP DETROIT 1 43 BOX,.Alfa Romeo Guilia 1300 1966 limited 504 pcs. in 1 18 MEGARAR AUSVERKAUFT, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Herpa 310062 - 1 87 - Man Tgx Xlx Teletrailer Semitrailer M.Windmill Wings New,.Trofeu TF1813 FORD ESCORT N.43 12th RS 2000 R.A.C. RALLY 1977 M.WILSON-R.PALMER,.Hobby Japan MARK 43 1 43 Toyota Altezza RS 200 Super Bright Yel Japan,.Porsche 911 GT3 R n.912 2nd Macau GT World Cup 2016 1 43 Scale by Spark,. Id., p 923.
Wiking 1 43 043197 LKW MAN TGM Feuerwehr pinknbauer AT LF - NEU OVP,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Nissan GTR R-35 2008 blue 1 18 Norev 188052 neu & OVP,Opel Kapitän P2,5 grey blue 1 43 Neo neu & OVP 43943,.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN C4 CACTUS - 2014 - 181650,.NOREV 1 18 1937 PEUGEOT 302 DARL'MAT ROADSTER DIECAST CAR 184821,.SHELBY COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT 350 - SHELBY160,.Corgi Juniors Job Lot Of 14 TV - Film Models,.Mercedes-Benz GLK in white GTA Modellauto Maßstab 1 18 OVP NEU,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 052432 - BMW 320i WTCC 2005 - M.Hennerici,. The parties Jaguar XK Cabrio 2005 Yellow 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.
MERCEDES E KLASSE RALLYE PARIS PEKIN 2007 TEAM DIE WELT,.GAMA MINI 9670 - NSU RO 80 - 1 43 - green - NEU in OVP - Modellauto - Model Car,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 43 PEUGEOT 403 MINIVERHICLES INSENDIES RESIN AMBULANCIA RARE ,; Matchbox Series Lesney Police Patrol Car no 55 Vintage Old, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
CORGI 1 50 - 29201 GUY WARRIOR PLATFORM TRAILER - BRS,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Studebaker Hawk 1958, blue bluee 1 18 Yat Ming Leather Series,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)DATSUN DATSUN 260Z 2 PLUS 2 1975 LIGHT blueE MET Neoscale 1 43 NEO43986 Model,.Norev Mercedes SLS AMG Roadster White Metallic 2011 1 18 - 183491 New,.Spark Model S2433 ASTON MARTIN DB3 SPYDER N.26 DNF LM 1952 D.POORE-P.GRIFFITH 1 ,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DUKES OF HAZZARD---COOTERS FORD MUSTANG-----JOHNNY LIGHTNING------1 18,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Coupe - Century Dragon-Racing Green-High End Diecast,.1969 Dodge Charger General Lee Birthday Dukes Of Hazzard Auto World 1 18 AWSS110,.1 43 Ixo Maserati Quattroporte,.PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 2 4 964 1992 yellow MINICHAMPS 1 43,.1 43 Spark - 43LM92 Peugeot 905, No.1, Winner Le Mans 1992,. The ScottsdaleCorgi, CC 12206 Scania tractor unit, MacFarlane transport ltd, boxed,LESNEY MATCHBOX 25 FORD CORTINA MINT IN BOX UK REGULAR WHEELS CAR MIB,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari M.Schumacher 2003 World Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Id.,MAN TG-A heavy flat bed trailer Liebherr excavator HO siku 1847 free ship,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, International 1 50 scale HX520 bluee Tandem Tractor - Diecast Masters 71004,; Mercedes C107 450 SLC 1974 green modelcar 940033420 Maxichamps 1 43,Turntable Ladder Vehicle Lp329 Dl30 Metz Lauenburg Heico Hc2028 Nip Μ,.1 50 Scale Diecast Masters International Day Cab Tandem Tractor Cab Only HX520,. The ScottsdaleLexus LFA no. 88 24h ADAC Nürburgring 2011,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MCLAREN F1 GTR LEMANS UT orange 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Citroen 2CV 1976 - Basket - NOREV - 1 18,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox a - Ford Thames Estate Car - No Windows GPW - A+ A,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, BROOKLIN BRK 17X 17 X STUDEBAKER COMMANDER INDIANAPOLIS PACE CAR MINT BOXED,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Polistil 1 16 Scale Diecast - 016991 Porsche 911 Cabriolet C Capote Red,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Western Models WP 120 Jaguar XJRS 1990 red 1 43 Mint in box all original, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 410 120082 - Force India F1 Team Showcar 2012, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR Y5-4 1927 TALBOT VAN DUNLOP ISSUE 2,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBEST MODEL BT9398 FERRARI 512 BB green black 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1968 DINKY MINI DINKY INTERNATIONAL SKID SHOVEL MINT W MINT BOX,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1999 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R (R34) FALKEN TIRES 1 18 DIECAST CAR GREENLIGHT 19050,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Porsche 918 RSR 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Soviet Bus 1 43. LAZ-695R USSR City Bus,1 50 AEC Ergo Willmotts 1 50 • CORGI CC10301,.1 43 MG MGGT alloy car model limited gift box,.1 18 SUNSTAR 1982 CAMARO Z28 , NAVY blueE WITH T-TOPS , NEW ,,. The HuygheTakara Chgold Q From Japan Mini Car Ford 4 Set,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSCHUCO HANOMAG L 28 + KREIDLER 02929 1 43,.
Hot Wheels Newsletter 4th Annual Convention 40 Ford Coupe Collectors Car Green,.DTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Lucas Auer 1 43 Nip,.
Mercedes GLK (X204) 2013 red metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Welly - GTA Serie,.METAL BUILT KIT SQUIRE - 2 SEATER - PALE blueE 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Willeme LD610 Fardier 1 43 Norev 879996,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVINTAGE PRESSED STEEL--1960's--BATTERY OPERATED POLICE PATROL JEEP--TIN--JAPAN,.Siku Super 3119 MAN mit Kofferauflieger, GRAND PRIX, ca. 1 55,.
For example, in Partridge,VOITURE TINTIN CAR ATLAS LA CAMIONNETTE COMBI VW,. In Jorgensen, supra,Elecon Russie 1 43 - Kamaz 43105 Plateau Militaire Russian Army,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.CONRAD - METALLMODELL - IVECO - EURO TRAKKER - MULDENKIPPER - 1 50 - (9.BM-15),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,AMG CLS63 Shooting Brake S-Model in weiss metallic GLM 1 43 OVP NEU,. That is the same situation in this case.1 32 AUTOart 13081 Ford GT 2004 Slot Racing Car G40-110,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 5 Türer red 1972-1983 1 18 KK-Scale Modell Auto mit ode..,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Corgi Oldsmobile Super 88 235 near mint,.Tobar 1 18 Scale F50 Model Car,.Bentley Continental Supersport 2009 Top Gear with The 1 43 MINICHAMPS 519431390,.
Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 dunkelblue Speichenräder KK Scale 1 18,.