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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Porsche 911 911 911 Carrera GTS Cabriolet 2017 Dark bluee 1 43 SPARK S7622 de6581
Spark Toyota Yaris WRC Microsoft Tea 1 43 S5169,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals AUTOart 1 18 80421 Dodge Viper Competition Car Plain Body Vers. in OVP (NL8053),.1974 DODGE MONACO PURSUIT MASSACHUSETTS STATE POLICE 1 18 AUTOWORLD AMM1023,.Minichamps 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 Winter 2008 Academy of Ice 103800A,.Mercedes camion Atego de course Jordi Gene Hasserhöder diecast 1 15 Carson,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.FB Models 1 43 Scale Resin FB01 - Alfa Romeo 6C 2300 Touring St - Amarante Beige,.HOT WHEELS 1 18 B3243 BMW 645CI GREY gold,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.TSM Models 1 43 2013 Mini Countryman, Dakar Rally, Novitsky,.Hot Wheels 71 DATSON  blueE 510 WAGON. 2018 COLLECTION EDITION  TH SPEED HUNTER 0,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark Model S5231 SUNBEAM TIGER N.9 36th LM 1964 J.blueMER-P.PROCTER 1 43 Modelli,.Porsche 911 GT3 Cup , Monaco Porsche Supercup 2013 , Spark models,.Citroen Cx Taxi Paris 1975 Car Miniature 1 43 Collection Passionauto09, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Mississauga Transit New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701093 Standard,.MÄRKLIN Digital - 3665 Diesellokomotive BR 260 Modelleisenbahn Spur H0 (MF11),.Spark Model S5465 HONDA CIVIC EF9 N.14 3rd GRP3 AIDA GP 1992 N.HATTORI-K.KANEISH,.1969 Holden Monaro HT GTS 350 Bathurst 32 Scale Classic Diecast Model Car,.

1965 1970 BMW 2000 CS Coupe Karmann creme weiss 1 18 KK Scale Diecast,.Neo Models Aston Martin DB4 GT Bertone 'Jet' in Grey 1961 44575 1 43 NEW,.Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 Gun Grey Metallic 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Pesaro Volontari Del Soccorso 1969 1 43 Model RIO,.Minichamps 1 43 Audi A4 Quattro STW 1997 Vidali,.

Porsche 911 991-2 Carrera 4 Gts Spider 2016 Red HERPA 1 43 WAP0201450H Miniature,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Welly Porsche Cayenne Turbo Die Cast Metal 1 18 ovp,.SPARK PORSCHE 911 RSR Winner 12 St. Sebring 1976 Holbert Keyser 43SE76 1 43,.NEO NEO45220 1 43 AUDI 80 GR.II W.BERGMEISTER H-J.NOWAK ETCC MONZA 1980,KK-Scale Ferrari 400 Superamerica - red - 1962 - 1 18,.Vintage Matchbox Lesney NO.19 Lotus Open Wheel Race Car Green - Mint Condition ,.

UNIVERSAL-HOBBIES 68110 La Campagne 1 32,.1 87 Artitec Mähdrescher MF 830 387.337,.Art Model 1 43 Scale ART164 - Ferrari 750 Monza - Lucas-Schell,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

DINKY TOYS Lincon Zephyr brown brown Metall Modellauto England 1 43 (K36),.

NOREV 185300 1971 RENAULT ALPINE A110 1600S 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR METALLIC blueE,. We agree in part.

TYPE 10 TANK JAPAN G.S.D. FORCE TAMIYA 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.Fiat Panda 2 Car Set Model Car Set 402121430,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET - 1961 - 181598,.NZG Bus 1 50, RVS Südwestbus (DB Stadtverkehr) Karlsruhe MB O 405 OVP,.Corgi 1 50 CC12907 Scania Topline Curtainside D Curran & Sons Ltd 214 2500 MIB,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Solido, Abarth 1000, Made in France,1 43, No. 124, 9 1962,.Volkswagen 1992 Bus VW T3 Multivan Last Edition blue metallic 1 18 KK Diecast,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Best Model BT9246 FERRARI 250 LM N.7 DNS 9 H KIALAMI 1966 HAILWOOD-ANDERSON 1 43,; Cadillac Fleetwood Series 60 Sedan 1941 bluee Met MCG 1 18 MCG18072 Model,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Dinky Toys no. 226 Ferrari 312 B2 ovp,.Herpa 1 87 Liebherr LTM 1045 1 Mobilkran Feuerwehr Leipzig OVP (RB9268),1 18 Norev MB 280 SL Cabrio 1969 red 183520,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.AUDI Quattro Rallye Gr.B 555 Hongkong Peking 1985 Mikkola S-PRE Sunstar 1 18,.

Various 1 18 - Box Showcase,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Lexus RC F - lava orange crystal shine 1 43 Kyosho 03653P,.Corgi Original series No 460 Neville Cement tipper on the E RV F Chassis VNMB,.1 18 Dongfeng Nissan 2019 Altima Red Dealer Edition,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Schuco 1 32 Traktor Fendt 211 Vario, green 450781500,; Mint Bike 1 18 Scale Model Real Motor Cycle,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels BCJ72 1 18 FERRARI F12 BERLINETTA 2012 RED,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

AUTO ART SPECIAL DISPLAY CASE 1 18 FOR ONE SCALE WANGAN MIDNIGHT RED,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Mercedes 220S 1956 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34887,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Spark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Herpa 121491 Scania R Silo-Sattelzug Koch Baustoffe PC-Modell,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Spark Model S5411 MATRA MS5 G.HILL 1966 N.28 GRAND PRIX DE REIMS F2 1 43 Modelli,.MODELLINO PORSCHE PANAMERA 4 2011 blueE METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.2014 BMW 6 SERIES F06 Grand Coupe Frozen Bronze 1 18th Factory BMW Diecast,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.CEC VEREM & SOLIDO 1 43 réf VL001 DIORAMA CITROEN TRACTION Hé TAXI,.

Spark 1 43 Mercedes AMG C 63S 2016 S4913,.Dinky Toy MG Record Car 23P 1946-47,.ALFA ROMEO 6C 2500 FRECCIA goldEN 1947 RED Minichamps 403120484,.Dodge Charger Daytona 1969 black, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Shell Special Model - Ferrari 1972 312 P & Racing Fuel Pump - Rarity §,.

Spark F1 Mercedes FW07 Hybrid n°6 WC N. Rosberg 2016 1 43 S5025,.Renault 4 GTL 1984 Clan blue Ardoise 1 18,.MEBETOYS A-38 MATRA 530 VIGNALE (Year 1969) SCALE 1 43 MC2298,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Vintage Nylint Red Pressed Steel Hough Payloader Front End Loader Tractor Toy,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Hamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Neo Scale Neo45695 Modellino,.1958 MERCEDES 220SE CABRIOLET OPEN CONgreenIBLE LIGHT GREEN 1 18 BY SUNSTAR 3557,.DRAG DAIRY w RR (1 64) '13 Hot Wheels 27th Collectors Convention Dinner (1 2000),.AutoWorld 1 18 1969 Pontiac GTO Hard Top Diecast Model Car gold AMM1081,.Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider (1955) Resin Model Car S2440,.

Replicagri REPLI072 TRATTORE IH 845 S CAB.1 32 Modellino, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 43 PREMIUM CLASSIXXs (Germany) VW LT 31 Florida limited 1 of 500,.Mac Due MCG18091 VW 1500 S (TIPO 3) LIGHT blueE 1 18 Modellino,. The PartridgeBURAGO 1 18 - COD.3349 BMW M ROADSTER 1996 - METALLIC blueE,.MIRA PEGASO SAFARI avec éléphant + remorque MADE IN SPAIN,.SSM LKW 1 43 KRAZ-255B1 Tanklöschfahrzeug Feuerwehr,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lancia Delta Hf Integrale 16v 1989 Red 1 18 Model TRIPLE 9, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Bentley Continental R 1996 Red Metallic 1 43 MINICHAMPS 436139920,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 73-1 R.A.F. PRESSURE REFUELLER W KGPW BOXED,.DINKY TOYS - 1 43 - NO= 550 CHRYSLER SARATOGA - VERY GOOD CONDITION,PartridgeAudi R8 No. 7 3rd Lemans 2000 (M.Alboreto - R. Capello - C. Abt ),.1992 McLaren F1 XP-1 First Predotype McLaren F1 in 1 43 Scale by TSM,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DIECAST - HOTWHEELS - MATHBOX - GENERIC - NUMBERED RACERS (23) - LOT J, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BMW V12 LMR Lehto Muller Kyosho 1 18 opening hood 80 43 0 018 218,; RENAULT FREGATE blue Capri 1 18,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, BMW 502 Congreenible Autenrieth 1 43 46385 Neo Models, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Citroen 2CV A Baujahr 1950 matt gold 1 18 Norev, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMatchbox Lesney 31c Lincoln Continental Green Original boxed VNM,.

Peugeot D4b 1963 Ambulance 1 18 Model NOREV,.Diecast Car Model Old Ford Fiesta 1 18 (Red Dark Purple) + GIFT , Clarke's negligent act.DINKY TOYS ATLAS BUS ISOBLOC GREEN BICOLOUR REF 29E IN BOX,.MINICHAMPS Mc Laren MP4-12C GT3 Street 2012 (m 1 43 437121398,.Dinky 410 Bedford Van whitebread Promotional very near mint in near mint box,.

RARE BROOKLIN FORD FAIRLANE 2 DOOR VICTORIA 1956 green CLAIR REF 23 IN BOX,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 24 Domestic Specialties Collection (31) 11 14 2017Mazda R360 coupe (1960),Spot On Triang Jaguar E Type Rare,. In Noska,Hot Wheels 69 Ford Mustang Convention 2017. RARE 10 ,.1 18 Model Cars NOREY cars + water scooter,.GAMA MODELLAUTO LKW - ZUGWAGEN MIT ANHÄNGER INTERSPE ALT ,.BBURAGO - 1 18 - FERRARI CALIFORNIA T CLOSED TOP - 2014 - 16902S, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.MGB 50th Anniversary Set 1962 - 2012, Vanguards 1 43 OVP,.EFE 1 76 - 'A' 5X SET OF RT RTL BUSES LONDON TRANSPORT ETC,.TEKNO DAF 85 TANKER WITH DAF LOGO 1 50,.Nissan Deltawing Petit LeMans 2012, spark models,. Id., p 923.

JADA 99734 1 24 CADILLAC 1963 SCARFACE WITH TONY MONTANA FIGURE,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ferrari 488 GTB The Green Jewel 1 18 18-76101,Dinky 1 43 Scale DY028 B - 1969 Triumph Stag Green,.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 ( 993 ) CARRERA CABRIOLET OVP 1 43 RAR,.Wiking H0 1 87 VW Volkswagen T1 Bus in kieselgrey,.1 18 diecast 1969 Chevy Yenko Camaro Issue,.Best Model BT9390 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.180 RETIRED TARGA FLORIO 1968 GOSSELIN-TROSC,.Schuco 26-5634 Audi 80 GL POLIZEI, Modell 1972-1976, 1 43,.Spark Model S5073 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 N.1 ACCIDENT LM 1970 J.BOURDON-J.C.AUBRI,. The parties EBBRO 44322 1 43 Honda CR-Z Gangure From japan,.

ABARTH 2000 SPORT SPIDER 1968 RED 1 43 Spark S1329,.Spark Model S5960 CITROEN C3 WRC N.10 4th MONTE CARLO 2018 K.MEEKE-P.NAGLE 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Aston Martin DB3 S Le Mans 1955 T. Brooks - J. Riseley Spark S2422 1 43,; BMW Alpina B7 Turbo Coupe (E24), white, 1985, Spark 1 43, OVP, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

VINTAGE FRENCH DINKY TOYS 535 CITROEN 2CV FRANCE CAR EXCELLENT 558,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK HILL GH1 th Sweden GP 1975 - Tony Brise S5673 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1969 Baldwin-Motion Nova American Muscle 1 18,.KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE CABRIO HEBMUELLER 1949 black red SCURO MODELLIN,.Norev 184821 1 18 PEUGEOT 302 DARLMAT ROADSTER 1937 blueE METALLIC,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Maserati Granturismo Mc Gt4 'Maserati' 2010 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CORGI 1 50 - CC12209 SCANIA CURTAINSIDE - PETE OSBORNE LOGISTICS LTD,.1 18 WELLY HOLIDAY EDITION 1941 CHEVROLET SPECIAL DELUXE,. THE DARK KNIGHT RISES BATMOBILE TUMBLER CAMOUFLAGE 1 18 HOTWHEELS BCJ76,.SPARK Scuderia Tgold red STR8 No.19 2013 Daniel Ricciardo S3062 1 43,.1 43 Minichamps MB 300 Cabriolet 1952 black 437 032130,. The ScottsdaleMercedes 170 V (W136) Bestattungswagen, Modellauto 1 43 Schuco,Burago 1 18 Scale diecast - 3064 Ferrari 550 Maranello 1996 red,.Porsche 356 C Cabriolet Hardtop (Red White) 1963,. Id.,Dinky Toys Supertoys no. 651 Centurion Tank Militairy ovp,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LESNEY Matchbox 1-75 COLLECTION 16 CARS lot 2,; PORSCHE 911 TURBO S 3.6 964 30 YEARS 911 1993 MINICHAMPS 1 43,NIB 1962 SEAGRAVE 70th ANIVERSARY FIRE ENGINE NATIONAL MOTOR MUSEUM MINT CORGI,.BMW 520i Touring (E39) metallic-darkred 2002 1 43 NEO 43301,. The ScottsdaleBENTLEY DIE CAST MODEL SI CONTINENTAL FLYING SPUR MiniChamps,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Escort II RS 1975 White 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ferrari 308 GTS Rosberg Car 1982 200303 1 43 Best Model Made ,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Vitesse 04542 FORD FALCON HARD TOP 1963 1 18 Modellino,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CITROEN 2CV BREIZH 1 18 Bretagne,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Citroen 2CV 6 Coca Cola 1 18 Solido 421184060 neu & OVP,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Model S5513 PORSCHE 911 GT2 N.55 DNF LM 1996 J.P.JARIER-J.PAREJA-D.CHAPPEL, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Hot Wheels Mattel 22690 Nascar (Kellogg`s Racing ) 24 OVP , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NEO MODELS Porsche Panamericana Closed 1 43 44585,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeTSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144345 - 2013 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Schuco Mercedes-Benz O 319 1 43 Varta (JS),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMatchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 57 A Wolseley 1500 pale yellow-green GPW Lesney,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Porsche 911 (991) Carrera S Red 1 18 Model 18047R WELLY,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Mercedes-Benz amg gla 45 (bluee) 2015,ART MODEL AM0325 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 red SCURO 1 43,.Onyx 1 24 Scale Model Car 5016A - F1 Williams Renault FW16 - Ayrton Senna,.MERCEDES BENZ 300 SEL 6.8 AMG TEST DRIVE LE MANS 1972 1 43 MINICHAMPS NEU,. The HuygheCitroen DS19 Ambulanza Municipale 1962 1 43 RIO 4447,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMist Harley Davidson Sportster Iron 883,.

Mercedes Sec BB Magic Top Open 1979 Metallic White 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Dinky Toys no. 522 Big Bedford Lorry,.

WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 10 1978 McLAREN M26 JAMES HUNT,.60s.LESNEY.MATCHBOX 72 Yellow Standard Jeep.Mint in box.ALL Orriginal,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 no. 30 24h Nürnburgring 2011,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Ks43010011 Model,.Corgi Modern Heavy CC13725 Scania R Curtainside Barry Haulage 1 50,.

For example, in Partridge,RARE Factory ERROR 2019 Hot Wheels Nissan Skyline GT-R ZAMAC NO SIDE TAMPOO,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.23 ROWE Racing SG189,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.HOTWHEELS 1 18 TWO TEAM JORDAN F1 MODELS FISICHELLA(BRASIL 03) AND DAMON HILL,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,ERTL 1969 CHEVROLET NOVA SS 427 BALDWIN MOTION FROST GREEN 1 18 DIECAST CAR,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps AMG Mercedes C-Class DTM 1994 1 43 Klaus Ludwig 1994 (JS),. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 18 Otto Renault Super 5 Bacara brownmetallic,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1969 Hot Wheels Redline Grand Prix Chaparral 2G PRETTY OLIVE REAL WING KEEPER SC,.Mercury 1 43 - Ferrari 330 P Nurburgring,.Siku V211 212 VW Bus Polizei Lautsprecher Wagen,.

Tekno 1 50 - Scania 142H Semi Remorque Bâché Scania,.