2000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d52

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
2000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d52
Dinky Supertoys 521 - Bedford Articulated Lorry - Yellow,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ebbro 1 43 FK Massimo Cerumo Supra 2000 JGTC from Japan,.Matchbox RW 51B Tipping Trailer Fässer am Giesast in E1 Box,.Ferrari 500 Mondial Spider 1953 Red Jolly Model 1 43 JL6009 Model,.Coffret Renault Sport 2017 Clio RS 16 + Megane RS Norev,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Opel Kadett City C Berlina gold 1978 NEO43074 1 43,.Citroen Ami6 1964 Jade green1 18 Norev,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MJ7 Matchbox - 1981 ROW 1-75 - MB38 Ford Model 'A' - James Neale - Case Lot (36),.Triple 9 1 43 Scale - T9-43021 Volkswagen Type 2 Kombi bus 1976 yellow,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Corgi Toys 231 Triumph Herald 1500 Coupé in bluee and white,.1 32 AUTOart 13081 Ford GT 2004 Slot Racing Car G40-110,.1 18 Norev Mercedes Benz Patent Motorwagen 1886 green, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Goggomobil TS 250 Cabrio ( elfenbein ),.NEO47150 - CITROEN SM OPERA BY HENRY CHAPRON DARK RED 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO AUT,.Spark Model S5513 PORSCHE 911 GT2 N.55 DNF LM 1996 J.P.JARIER-J.PAREJA-D.CHAPPEL,.RARE, DY-28 Triumph Motorshow 1992 - creme, Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.

Jada - 1 24 Scale - 97036 - Fast & Furious 7 Brian's Nissan GT-R (R35),.Bentley Continental R 1996 Red Metallic 1 43 MINICHAMPS 436139920,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK11 - 1956 Lincoln Continental MkII,.Schuco Fendt 211 mit Frontlader (07644) - 1 32,.Minichamps 1 43 Audi A4 Quattro STW 1997 Vidali,.

Ltd Edn Corgi 1 50 CC13615 DAF CF Curtainside Skeldons Transport Untouched,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Spark Model SG344 AUDI RS5 N.51 12th DTM 2017 N.MULLER 1 43 Modellino,.Display Cases 1 18 Suitable Suitable Minichamps,Autoart,CMC, Maisto,.Norev 181730 Citroën SM 1971 - golden Leaf,Corgi 1 50 scale CC20513 Burrell Showmans - Quo Vadis,.Lagonda 3-Litre Dhc Dark Green 1 43 NeoScale NEO46370,.

Bentley Continental T 1996 Light bluee 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Penjoy Rare 2003 Bulldog Swimsuit Limited Edition 1 64 Scale Diecast,.PEUGEOT 405 T16 GRAND RAID PARIS DAKAR 1988 A. VATANEN 1 43 SPARK,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Taunus P3 17m Saloon 1960 Red Cream 1 43 Minichamps-GT,.

Borgward B 2500 Sanella - Limited Edition - 1 43 - Schuco (03451),. We agree in part.

Citroën C35 phase 2 VSAB Auxerre ELIGOR,.Herpa 930765 - MAN TGS LX E6 Bayern Modell 2017 - Schmankerl 1 87 PC-Box ,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Esval Pierce Arrow Model B Roadster Closed Roof 1930 Beige 1 43 EMUS43006B,.OLD CIJ RENAULT DAUPHINOISE BREAK 1956 grey CLAIR ROUES whiteHES,.Volkswagen Baja Bug 1969 Yellow 1 43 NEO 45896,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; PM4310BL MARK43 1 43 Honda S2000 (AP1) 2003 Royal Navy bluee Pearl,.Model_kits Minichamps DP 1 12 Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 (Green Yellow) SB,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Cabrio 1993 black Norev 1 18 Nuevo de Fábrica,; Matchbox Moko Lesney Ford Zodiac Congreenible with MW made in England NM,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Ferrari 166 Spider E. Peron 1949 1 43 Model 0224 ART-MODEL,.Schuco Piccolo Set ADAC Trentino Classic 2008 50171064,1995 TONY STEWART TRIPLE CROWN CHAMPION FORD MIDGET 1 24 RACING ACTION R&R GMP,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Renault 30 Tx 1981 Bronze 1 18 Model NOREV,.

Camion Berliet VSA à Plateau et Ridelles green Foncé Rétro 87 SAI 4817 Ech 1 87,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale V204B - Leyland Victory II Bus - Hong Kong R110,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12223 - Scania Dropside Crane Trailer - A.E. Hawkins,.1 18 Anson Dodge RAM 3500 - OVP (K47),. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 Peugeot RCZ Spielwarenmesse-Modell Nürnberg 2010 NOREV RAR ,; KK-Scale 1 18 Volkswagen Bulli T1 Samba 1962 bluew crèmewit nieuw in doos,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 - 1991 - 184881,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

2000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d522000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d522000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d522000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d522000 Hot Wheels 14th 14th 14th Annual Convention 1 18 Scale '50s Ford Merc Woodie ce3d52

Corgi 234 Consul Classic, Good Condition in Original Box,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 Porsche 911 (991) R Coupè 2016 Grey {no Spark Bbr Tsm },


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Kyosho Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R 1971 Hakosuka Novelty,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.05 Subaru 360 1958,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.LANCIA BETA MONTECARLO 6 HOURS WATKINS GLEN 1981 PATRESE ALBORETO 9623 Best,.GreenLight 1 18 2018 Schmidt Peterson Motorsports, Arrow 11029,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1970 FORD TORINO COBRA 429 4V gold LTD TO 1250 1 18 BY AUTOWORLD AMM1039,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VINTAGE FRENCH DINKY TOYS MECCANO.F MERCEDES UNIMOG W CANOPY EXCELLENT,.

VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.238 JAGUAR MARK X SALOON ,.+ POLITOYS M 22 M22 LAMBORGHINI URRACO METALLIC GREEN MINT BOXED,.Franklin Mint 1963 Corvette Z06 Split Window Fiberglass Edition 1 24,.New American Graffiti 1983 Plymouth Reliant 1 64 MOTOR MAX 73640AG Series III,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Hot Wheels 10' Mexico Convention 2017 Christmas Purple Passion 7 10 MOC ,.

Corgi Scania Tcab & C S & Moffet Mounty,- A S Taylor,.Norev 184856 Peugeot 205 Gti 1,9 bluee 1992 Scale 1 18 Model Car New °,.Ferrari California T geschlossen 2015 dunkelred, Modellauto 1 18 Burago,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CORGI 241 GHIA L.6.4 - VERY GOOD in original BOX,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.VW 1303 red, 1 18 NOREV,.KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - silver - 1 18,.CORGI - 603 VOLKSWAGEN POLO TURBO - GREEN,.Dinky Toys Bentley S2 Congreenible Coupe. All Original. Missing windshield,.Renault Clio Williams 1993 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 185230,.

EBBRO 1 43 Yellow Hat YMS GT-R LDF Fuji Super GT 2008 yellow Japan Import, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.ARENA LANCIA STRATOS MARLBgold SILOUETTE GR5 WINNER GIRO ITALIA 76 HANDBUILT 1 43,.TOOTSIETOY (USA) Autocar Bus GREYHOUND blue scenicruiser 17 cm,. The PartridgeSpark 1 43 Resin 1936 Lancia Asturia Tyhpe 233C Pininfarna, Met. bluee S2724,.Daf 2000 Bulkwagen - Lion Car 47 Holland 1 50 35382,.WIKING Magirus SIRIUS Pritsche mit Plane blue siehe Fotos,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 R N.911 Spa 2017 SB167, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 43 Minichamps F1 Formula 1 Red Bull Renualt RB5 Red Bull 2009 M.Webber,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark Model S5346 LOTUS 72D DAVE CHARLTON 1972 N.29 RETIRED BRITISH GP 1 43 Mode,.Schuco MB LP 608 Jägermeister Racing Team ,PartridgeCORGI TOYS TY99158 EDDIE STOBART INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS SUPER HAULER SET,.Renault 16 1968 Grey Metallic NOREV - NO 185133 - Echelle 1 18,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, FRENCH DINKY TOYS 821 MERCEDES UNIMOG ORIGINAL BOX VERY NICE L@@K, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DINKY Meccano England original TALBOT LAGO F1 RACE CAR RN4 1960 spun hubs,; 1 50 71011 International HX620 Tridem Tractor Diecast Masters Trailer Head,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, MODELLINO BMW M COUPE’ 1999 yellow METALLIZZATO IN METALLO MINICHAMPS, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Solido 37 Renault 17 TS Rallye Du Maroc 1 43 scale made in France MIB Superb, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVery Rare Collectible Model Car Simca Ariane 24ZT Dinky Toys 1960s,.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 PMA - BMW Z4 2002 FULDA Paul's Model Art 1 43 NEW & BOX UNOPENED,.Brooklin Models BRK23 1956 Ford Fairlane 2 Door Victoria in Light Green, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi toys no. 213S 2.4 Litre Jaguar Fire Service Car,.Minichamps 1 43 scale diecast - 430 131044 MGB 1968 Basilica bluee,.PlayStation Gran Turismo Sortiment Set 13 Modellautos Retro PS 1 64 Hot Wheels,.

Vintage - MERCEDES-BENZ 230 SL Hard top 2300cc. - 1 43 Politoys-M503,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky toys 192 Range Rover in Bronze With Speedwheels Light bluee Interior,NOREV ANCIEN RENAULT 4 FOURGONNETTE PUB CALOR + BOITE,. In Noska,1 43 RL31DK ROB WALKER LOTUS 49C GRAHAM HILL KIT BY SMTS,.1 43 Spark Porsche 911 RSR Ebimotors Le Mans 2018 Nielsen Babini Maris S7040,.BMW 733i (E23) 1977 - metallic-black - 1 18 KK-Scale,.Ktm X-Bow Gt 2016 bluee SPARK 1 43 S5663, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.SSM LKW 1 43 Magirus 290D 26L Pritschen-LKW orange green,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR , 24H LeMans 1994 , Spark models,.JOLLY MODEL JL0786 - Aston Martin DB3 LE MANS 1952 N°26 Poore - Griffith 1 43,.CAMION RENAULT MAGNUM AE 420 Ti 1 43,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, ACME 1 18 1968 JERRY TITUS SHELBY GT-350 RED COLOR 12988,1 43 THE DARK KNIGHT - BAT POD Hot Wheels Elite X5496,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Ferrari Dino 246 GT HG Resin Kit,.DCP STAR TRANSPORTATION NIB,.Transitional Matchbox Superfast No 51 8 Wheel Light Yellow Dk Gr Pointer Holl Wh,.Herpa 1 87 918367 MAN TGX Betonmischer Geiger OVP (RB4036),.MINICHAMPS VW PASSAT VARIANT SENEGALred 400054210,.Die Cast Model 1 24 F60 AMERICA 2014 Ferrari Collection No.42 New from JP,. The parties Spark Model SG341 AUDI RS5 N.33 DTM CHAMPION 2017 R.RAST 1 43 Modellino,.

ERTL 1 32 SCALE NEW HOLLAND FR850 SELF-PROPELLED FORAGE HARVESTER MODEL 13875,.TSM124317 1 43 Scale Chaparral 2F, 1967 Targa Florio, Hill & Sharp, Boxed,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Sun Star The Platinum Collection 1956 Yellow Lincoln Premiere 1 18 Diecast Car,; Spark 1 43 Porsche 997 Mentos 2013 SA039, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Corgi Toys Mercedes 350 SL white original ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco Modellauto Neu Merc.-Maybach G650, white 1 43 - 450900500,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Scale model 1 43 Bentley Continental SuperSports Cabriolet - grey met 2010,.Corgi Classics CC12802 - Scania T Cab Bulk Tipper - Eddie Stobart - A+ A,.LOTUS 72C FITTIPALDI 1970 USA GRAND PRIX LTD ED 1500PCS 1 18 QUARTZO 18270,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Modellino BMW 318 I quattroruote collection 1 24 car toys,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hot Wheels Pop Culture KISS Lot of 4 - A-OK, Dream Van, '56 Nomad, '59 Chevy,.TTC (Tgoldnto) New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701069 Modern Standard,.Johnny Lightning 1 64 Scale Ghostbusters And Christine Dioramas 2018 Release Set,.MÄRKLIN 8035 Made in Germany Fuchs 301 Hochlöffel-Bagger blue ca. 50 Jahre alt,.Spark Model S5291 COOPER T81J.RINDT 1966 N.8 3rd GERMAN GP 1 43 Modellino,. The ScottsdaleOPEL Manta A Coupe Breitbau R6 TE 2800 TE2800 green black 1975 NEO Resine 1 43,Rio RI4495 FIAT 1100 103 E 1956 AZZURRO 1 43 Modellino,.PORSCHE 917 PA Spyder Laguna Seca 1969 Jo Siffert Audi Resin Muse Spark 1 43,. Id.,TSM 430148 - Jaguar F-Type Coupe Baujahr 2014 in red - black 1 43 Neuheit,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DRAGON WINGS 1 400 - JX048 BOEING 747 - EVA AIR CARGO,; Ford Capri Rs 3100 Etc. Zandvoort 1974 Mass 1 43 Minichamps 400748005 Nuevo,Jada 1 24 Scale 99574 - Brian's Ford F-150 SVT Lightning - Fast & Furious,.Solido Ferrari Type 500 TRC 100 serie near mint condition,. The ScottsdaleVintage - BMW 528 Motul - 1 43 Top 43 Ref.0023 mounted Kit,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Jeep Wrangler Sahara (Champaigne) Burago 18-12014,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Mint Mini Champ 1 43 Car Bmw 320I Limited World 1920,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SCANIA S730 V8 tracteur camion ref 116203 1 43 eligor,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Porsche 911 991-2 Carrera 4 Gts Coupe 2016 HERPA 1 43 WAP0201060H,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, SPARK MATRA MS10 th South African GP 1969 Jean-Pierre Beltoise S5382 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, BMW M3 E30 EVO 24h Spa Winner 1992 Bastos Fina Danner Soper Marti Spark 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MATRIX AUSTIN A135 PRINCESS 2 V D PLUS 1950 - blueE MET 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 38 37, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Seat Arona SUV Nevada Weiss Ab 2017 1 43 Seat Modell Auto mit oder ohne indivi..,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFRANKLIN MINT 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG..1 24..NOS..UNDISPLAYED..DOCS..MINT,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, PAULS MODEL ART MINICHAMPS MERCEDES 190E EVO 1 STREET SIGNAL RED Best-Nr 3000 R,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheJamara 410023 1 16 Scale 2.4 GHz 'Mercedes E350 Coupe Polizei' Car,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MINICHAMPS 1 43 431 028030 BMW 3 SERIES CABRIOLET 2000 RED,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Dinky 226 ferrari 312 b2 boxed 1973,Alfa Romeo Guilia 1300 1966 limited 504 pcs. in 1 18 MEGARAR AUSVERKAUFT,.1 43-LUX B-1959 ABARTH 850 SPIDER RIVIERA CABRIOLET CLOSED-RED-NEW MIB,.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 ( 964 ) TARGA 1990 OVP 1 43 LIMITIERT & RAR,. The Huyghe1986 Wartburg 353S brown 1 18 MC Group 18078,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNorev 1 18 2010 Fiat 500C Cabrio Pink Diecast Model Car Pink 187752,.

Minichamps 1 43 - BMW 318 IS 4 Portes E36 red 1994,.MINICHAMPS - 1 18 - MC-LAREN MP4 5B - 1990 - GERHARD BERGER NO BOX,.

1960’s Bentley S2 Cabriolet HJ Mulliner 1 18 Diecast Car Classic Concours Show,.Vintage Racer Toy Car,. Nonetheless, on the facts of SCHUCO PICCOLO Jahres Set 2001 VEDES AGE 01719 VW , DKW , Mercedes Benz,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 Paradcar Citroen AX lightbluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Politoys 1 43 - Lamborghini Marzal Bertone White,.

For example, in Partridge,Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1978 black, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,. In Jorgensen, supra,Pilen 200 Peugeot 304 made in Spain 1 43 scale very rare near mint condition,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 orange-whiteo 1 18 Road Signature 9232,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,GreenLight 1 18 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona orange 19004,. That is the same situation in this case.Spark 1 43 Red Bull RB10 2014 Sebastian Vettel S3085,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Rare White Metal Brooklin BRK 30A, 1954 Dodge Royal Congreenible in 1 43 Scale.,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Neo Tatra 87 - black - 1940 - 1 43,.Spark Model S4693 MERCEDES AMG G 500 4x4 (2) 2015 WHITE 1 43,.Made In France 1 43 Model Car Renault 4 Postal,.

Gearbox 1 12 Scale Diecast 17902 White 1958 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible White,.