Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 43 NEO Model Saab 9000i Dark bluee 1992,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Jadi 1 18 Scale - FOX5 Mini Cooper Foxton Mayfair,.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 504 COUPE - 1969 - 184825,.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Limousine Obsidian black W212 Vor Facelift 2009-2013 ..,.Kit pour miniature auto CCC Peugeot 203 cochonière référence 132,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS 2000 Red 1 18 Model 1987 SUN STAR,.Volga M24 1967-1992 Volkspolizei 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Siku 8612 Man with Low Loader Militärtransporter with Tank 1 50 New Boxed,.MEGA RARE GAZ 22 B Variant Kherson Model Hand Made 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.HSR (Hamilton) New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701089 Standard,.Norev Citroen Ami 6 Modell 1964 green green, 1 18 Artikel 181536,.Danbury Mint 1965 GTO IRIS MIST COUPE MINT CONDITION, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Lot of 6 Hallmark Kiddie Car Classics. New in boxes. Please read description.,.VW Volkswagen Käfer 1303 Cabrio orange 1972-1975 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit od..,.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 68 CHEVROLET VAN - COLLECTORS CLUB - RARE - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3328 - Citroen DS3 WRC Monte Carlo 2012,.

NOREV Renault Break 300 kg Juvaquatre 1951 - Echelle 1 18 - Ivoire,.AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC14 - THE WAYNE ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP - SHELL,.Giocher P06 FIAT PUNTO VIGILI DEL FUOCO,.KINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE RED NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,.Puma Gtv 033 1985 With Alfa Romeo Chassis And Engine Red Kess 1 43 KS43016002 Mo,.

Leyat 1923 2 Toni grey 1 43 Model RIO,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Skoda 110 R 1972 Green 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.SSM ZIL-130V1 with Semitrailer ODAZ-794 SSM-7016,.MATCHBOX King Size No. 12 Kranwagen green BP Foden Breakdown Tractor Scale 1 43,TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 507 FORD ESCORT MEXICO 1971 WHITE,.NOREV 1 18 Peugeot 309 Gti 1987 Red Art.184880,.

1995 Hot Wheels '31 Doozie Treasure Hunt In Predector Case,.Burago 1 18 Scale 18-11041 - Lamborghini Huracan LP 610-4 - Polizia,.1 18SCALE DIECAST 1960 CHYSLER 300F CABRIOLET IN WHITE BY ROAD SIGNATURE.,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 18 Ferrari 333 SP 1994 1 18 • Hot Wheels L2975,.

LES ROUTIERS FRANCE n° 11 RENAULT 1400 Kg CHALAUD BYRRH Tour de France Rare,. We agree in part.

Autoworld 1 18 Scale AW209 1964.5 Ford Mustang Indianapolis 500 Pace Car Model,.1 43 Starter (France) Renault 5 turbo Rally Monte Carlo 1981 Resin Car,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Neo Scale Models, NEO47025 Audi 90 Quattro,.Corgi Diecast Metal Models CC87502 The A Team Van with BA Painted Figure,.Brumm BM0535 FERRARI 250 GTO N.86 4th T.FLORIO 1962 SCARLATTI-FERRARO 1 43 Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Neo 1 43 - Borgward Hansa 2400 1955 black,.RENAULT ALPINE A210 ANDRUET NICOLAS 14TH LE MANS 1968 SPARK S4375 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Matchbox BOXED No 75 Ferrari Berlinetta,; Johnny Lightning Muscle Cars Collectors Edition 10 Car Set (BH000),; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Miniature CITROËN DS 21 Break de 1970 Bordeaux NOREV 1 18,.1 43 Spark Model Porsche 991 GTS 2015 (bluee) S4938,Corgi AU1003 Austin A35 Motorsport Set Top Hat Racing Ltd Edit. No. 0001 of 2020,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.New Hot Wheels FORD GT Gulf Zamac color HW Speed Graphics Limited F S,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.TSM Porsche 917K Team Gunston Coca 1 43 TSM114311,.Schuco 1 43 BMW 850i congreenible red 450902400,.PORSCHE 550 RS SPYDER 1 18 550RS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Danbury Mint 1 24 Diecast 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk (MINT IN BOX) (b),; Fiat 238 Abarth Servizio Corse 1970 Rio 1 43 RIO4391,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Ferrari 500 Mondial Prova 1954 Red 1 43 Model 0320 ART-MODEL,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Model Ferrari 1 43 Ferrari F1 1977 312 T2 num 12 Reutemann,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1972 Surtees TS14, No.7, Italian Grand Prix in 1 43 Scale by Spark S4000,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

MCT 1 18 Scale Plastic - MCT01 Porsche 911 GT2 Red Race Car,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Polistil Yellow Citroen Mehari EL. 27 Sc 1 43 Diecast Metal Toy Car 1970's,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 . MECEDES-BENZ 300 CE de 1987 CENTURY,.1 43 Toyota Supra 2.5GT Twin Turbo R 1990 Made by Ebbro,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1995 Ferrari F355 Spider Congreenible red 1 18 Hot Wheels 25733,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Bentley Continental 1984 Red 1 43 Model S3824 SPARK MODEL,.

1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F1-2000 King of Rain Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELC,.Vector M12 1999 gold Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47135 Model,.Morgan - Nissan no. 29 LMP2 LeMans 2015 (L.Roussel - Ho-Pin Tung - D. Cheng ),.DINKY TOYS DY CODE 3 MODEL PROMO - AUSTIN A40 GV4 10-CWT VAN MATRAPAS CIGARETTEN,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Anson Metal Series Mercedes-Benz CLK-Class AMG Sport Edition Die-cast Rare,.

Ford LTL 9000 1978 brown Dekor - 1 64 NEO 64035,.New Mercedes AMG GT Metallic bluee Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by M,.Schabak 1 25 Scale Diecast 1511 - Ford Sierra Sapphire 2.0i Ghia - Metallic bluee,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Trofeu TF0518 FORD ESCORT RS 1600 N.20 4th MONTE CARLO 1973 H.MIKKOLA-J.PORTER 1,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.CHRYSLER 300E CONgreenIBLE 1959 - HANDMADE BROOKLIN BRK 41,.Wiking vintage early 4 VW vans busses police fire post,.Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC052 - Aston Martin DB35 - LM 1955,.1936 Pontiac Deluxe Highway Patrol Car 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Signature Model,.1 18 GAC Mitsubishi 2019 Eclipse Cross Octane bluee Metallic Dealer Edition,.

Porsche 911 993 Turbo Classic Series Project gold 2018 Spark 1 43 WAX02020993, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 991 Carrera White 2012 (Spark 1 43 S3393),.MOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,. The PartridgeDodge Aries K-Car 1983 Green Metallic 1 43 Neo Scale Neo44895 Model,.DIECAST MASTERS 85266 1 50 SCALE CAT 930K WHEELED LOADER,.MINICHAMPS- 400137224- ASTON MARTIN Vanquish 2002,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, CMNL UKBUS8004 Dennis Enviro 200 Dart Travel London C1 Victoria MIMB, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Minichamps Lotus Ford 72D Dave 1 43 400720029,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RARE VW T5 7H TDI 2003 MULTIVAN OFF ROAD GREY 1 43 MINICHAMPS (DEALER MODEL),.Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - S1800505 VW Beetle Race Herbie White Model Car,PartridgeSpark Models 1 43 Scale - S1305 Abarth Simca 1300 Le Mans 1962,.12 Modellautos BMW Z4 E85 Sterlinggrey M 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BMW 700 Sport Coupe Spanish red 1959-1965 70652 1 18 AutoArt Modell Auto mit o.., (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI ATKINSON VENTURER LOW LOADER & PROP LOAD J B RAWCLIFFE 1 50 CC12513,; Models of Yesteryear Y-10 Mercedes 36-220 Cabriolet 1928, in Originalbox Typ D1,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, JUVA 4 300 kgs LA POSTE par CIJ etat neuf 1 43e, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DINKY TOYS No. 437 MUIR-HILL 2 WL LOADER TAYLOR WOODROW n mint, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBrooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 002 - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery WMTC 1 Of 500,.

Schuco Varianto Lastro 3042 a cuerda AÑOS 40 Made in US-Zone Germany tin toy,.Corgi Toys 307 - E type Jaguar - Metallic Grey, Clarke's negligent act.LAST ONE Hot Wheels RLC HWC Factory Sealed 50th Anniversary Camaro Collection,.Nissan Datsun 240 Z Corgi 1 43,.VW Carman Ghia Coupè 1954 - Porsche 911 Turbo 2010 1 43 20 Years Pure Passion,.

Vintage - McLaren M80 Gran tgolds - 1 43 Joal 122,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Spark 1 43 McLaren MP4-12C n.15 24H SPA 2014 Boutsen Ginion SB100,Vitesse Peugeot 205 T16 Tour de Corse 1985 Darniche in bluee on 1 43 in Box,. In Noska,Peugeot 405 T16 DAKAR 1988 num 204 Vatanen 1 43 spark,.MINICHAMPS Renault 2-Car Set Red Bull Racing 1 43 412110102,.Tekno 60591 Meiller Tipping Trailer 3-achs 1 50 NEW BOXED,.MAISTO 1 18 31878 AUDI TT ROADSTER RED, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Wolga M24 Policía Popular green whiteo 1 18 Modelo Car Grupo,.Best Model 9435 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 LUNGA SPA '68 1 43 Modellino,.Renault Break Juvaquatre 300 Kg 1951 Ivory 1 18 Model 185260 NOREV,.Renault R5 Maxi Turbo (weiss),. Id., p 923.

Lledo Days Gone LAD1002 AEC Regent Bus 15th Anniversary Commemorative Display,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 410 120114 - F1 Sauber C31-Ferrari,Porsche 356 Congreenible D 1959 Spark S4461 1 43,.NEW IXO FERRARI 550 BARCHETTA 2000 RED 1 43 From Japan F S,.Alpine A110 - 2017, Test Version, NOREV 1 43,.Minichamps Ferrari 312T 1975 Lauda World Champion 1 43,.Opel Kadett C Limousine 1973 blue Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 US COAST GUARD PORT SECURITY Ford Police Interceptor,.1 43 PEUGEOT 403 MINIVERHICLES INSENDIES RESIN AMBULANCIA RARE ,. The parties Mattel Elite High Detail 1 18 Ferrari 250-LM Le Mans 1965 Dumay Gosselin,.

J-collection 1 43 Toyota Crown Hybrid 2008 Die Cast Model,.Lamborghini Countach LP500S - Diapet Yonezawa Toys G-72 Japan 1 40 in Box 34456,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, DINKY TOYS 207 TRIUMPH TR7 RALLY No 8 - WHITE - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,; VOLKSWAGEN T1 MICROBUS 1962 AUTOHAUS GREENLIGHT 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Renault 5 Turbo 1 1981 bluee 1 18 Model IXO MODEL,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford GT 2017 Modellauto in 1 18 von Maisto,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Dinky Toys Triumph TR7 no 211. Red with grey trim and bumpers,.1 18 Norev Citroen Dyane 6 1975 Tuileries Green green Nr. 181621 OVP,.Citroen CX 2500D Super Break Kombi Beige Serie I 1974-1985 1 18 Model Car Grou..,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ford GT 2017 blue white, Modellauto 1 18 Maisto Exclusive,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.RED LINE 1 87 SPARK FERRARI F430 SCUDERIA VERY RARE,.1 43 RL36K BRABHAM BT26 Piers Courage KIT BY SMTS,.DINKY TOYS ATLAS AUTOCAR CAR ISOBLOC BIcolor red grey silver 1 72 REF 29E BOX,.Kk-Scale 1 18 BMW 2000 Cs Coupé silver - Año Fabricación 1965 - Nuevo ,.PEUGEOT 504 cabriolet yellow Capucine 1970 1 18,. The ScottsdaleFORD Taunus P7 Coupe metallic Green 1971 1 43 NEO 43135,NOREV185138 - Voiture sportive ALPINE A 110 Première Edition de 2017 - 1 18,.Aoshima bunka kyouzaisya 1 24 Prepainted Model Series No.41 Toyota GRS214 Crown,. Id.,Mint Qualified Maisto 1 18 Bentley Continental Supersports Congreenible Isr White,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Model S5347 LOTUS 72F J.CRAWFORD 1975 N.6 13th ITALIAN GP 1 43 Modellino,; Cadillac Fleetwood Sixty Special Sedan 1959 White 1 43 Spark S2914 Modellino,4x4 LADA NIVA 1600 green 1 18,.Vintage 1977 Dinky Die Cast Toys No. 442 Land Rover Breakdown Vehicle Recovery,. The ScottsdaleFerrari 330 P nd Le Mans 1964 Hill Bonnier 1 43 Model 0200 ART-MODEL,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Instruktionsbuch Ford Model T 9000325 auf englisch,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Lote de 8 coches 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Model Car Group MCG18006 1 18 LADA NIVA VAZ 1600 FIRE ENGINE 1978,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LION TOYS 1 50 GINAF 4-Axle Tipper BOXED,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MINICHAMPS 1 43 HISPANO-SUIZA (15-45CV) 1911 TYPE ALPHONSO XIII VOITURETTE,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mercedes 190 SL 1955 Light Yellow 1 43 RIO 4370, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Bburago 1 18 gold Jaguar E Cabriolet (1961), (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, LES MINIATURES DE NOREV MERCÉDES-BENZ COMPÉTITION REF 12 1956 BON ÉTAT,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeLESNEY MATCHBOX NO. 42 BEDFORD EVENING NEWS VAN - NR. MINT & RARE L2,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CORGI- YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SET Model T,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDinky Toys 276 Airport Fire Engine with Original Box,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Norev 183441 Sauber Mercedes C9 Winner 400km Suzuka 1989 Baldi Schlesser 1 18 61,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 18 KK Model Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 Yellow KKDC180232,CJM PANHARD DYNA X86 CABRIOLET KIT METAL PLOMB monté BON ETAT D'ORIGINE 1 43,.MMP Ebbro 45063 Mini Car 1 43 D Station Advan GT-R 2014 Finished product NEW,.PORSCHE CAYMAN GT4 2016 ACID green 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410066122 NEU,. The HuygheA Franklin mint scale model car of a 1935 Mercedes Benz 500k Roadster. boxed,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHerpa 121743 Man Tgx Xlx Silo Semitrailer the Melmer Starkenberger Beer -1 87,.


SPARK Lotus 79 No.2 2nd GP silverina 1979 Carlos Reutemann S1850 1 43,.1 18 HOT WHEELS FOUNDATION CAR DIE CAST FERRARI 458 ITALY GT2 BCJ77,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Norev Porsche 911 E Targa 1969 orange 1 18 187633,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBMW 2000 CS 1965 - silver - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.Cars - Mega Micro Circuito W7171 - NUEVO,.

For example, in Partridge,Peugeot 504 Cabrio 1970 orange, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,. In Jorgensen, supra,LOTUS 72E RONNIE PETERSON WINNER FRENCH GP 1973 SPARK S7128 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.BEST MODEL BT9682 FERRARI 208 GTB TURBO 1980 grey MET.1 43,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 18 Norev Mercedes 300 Bj. 1955 green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. That is the same situation in this case.Gaz 66 SSM 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark 1 43 Matra Simca MS 670 B, 3rd '74 LeMans GITANES DECALS APPLIED S3554,. Detroit Edison, supra.

International Harvester Fleestar F2000-D Tractor 1963 Neoscale 1 64 NEO64005 Min,.Minichamps - 1 43 - McLaren Mercedes MP4-21 Garry Paffet, testcar 2006,.JEEP WILLYS 1 18 US Army WW2,.

Redline Hotwheels Yellow 1973 Hiway Robber oc11706,.