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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
GMTS - goldEN OLDIES OLDIES OLDIES LINIE 50 2741 2achs Kippanhänger zwillingsbereift 1 50 56a086
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark 1 43 Scale S3030 - F1 McLaren MP4-26 Winner German GP 2011,.1 18 Norev Opel Kadett E GSi 1987 silver 183613,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MECCANO d PETROL TANK WAGON RESTORED NM ,.NOREV 187630 1969 PORSCHE 911 T 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR DARK RED,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Roco Minitanks 232 Herpa 740425 US ARMY Bergepanzer M88, H0 1 87 getarnt,.BVG BUS mit Schultheiss Werbung M 1 87,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 N°18 rallye MONTE CARLO 1973 1 18,.CORGI 1 50 CC13915 FODEN ALPHA FRIDGE TRAILER J.A. KILLOH TRANSPORT (D29),. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Spark Model S4061 SUNBEAM N.107 11th MONTE CARLO 1965 P.TURVEY-A.COWAN 1 43 Mode,.Corgi Toys 204 Morris Mini Minor mid bluee,.Trumpeter American LaFrance Eagle Fire Pumper Model Kit Ref 02506 Escala 1 25; N, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Original boxed and condition TRI-ANG WIZARD STOP.ON CAR,.Dodge Neon Chrysler Neon,.Best Model 9518 PORSCHE ABARTH TARGA FLORIO 61 1 43,.KK-SCALE 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN PASSAT B3 VR6 VARIANT 1988 blue SCURO METALLIZZATO MODEL,.

VINTAGE TRIANG Delivery Lorry TRANSPORT VAN L200 RARE LARGE TOY LORRY C470,.Limited Edition M Tech 1 43 Skyline Gt- R R34,.PROVENCE MOULAGE - ALPINE RENAUT A 110 CARIOLET - 1 43E,.Renault Juvaquatre Van 1951 Beige NOREV 1 18 NV185260 Model,.Nissan GT-R (2008) dark grey 1 18 Norev 188053,.

JAGUAR XJ 220 TWR 1993 GREEN 1 43 SPARK SP0769,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.FIAT 500 L pink 1 18,.Herpa 83SSM1309 Tatra 111C Tanklöschfahrzeug Feuerwehr Scale 1 43 NEU OVP,.Spark Model STF05 PORSCHE 908 2 N.266 1 43 Modellino,NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44266 BITTER SC COUPE' RED 1 43,.Norev PM0011 RENAULT KANGOO COMPACT CONCEPT 2007 Modellino,.

Corgi Toys 227 Morris Mini Cooper primpink and white roof only,.Kess Fiat Ritmo 100S Cabriolet in Red 1985 KE43010041 Ltd Ed 250 Fiat Strada,.Super Car No 1 Lamborghini Miura - White (Original 1970's Boxed),.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

VOLKSWAGEN 1500 S (Typ 3) 1963 Light bluee - 1 18 - MCG,.

1 43 Alfa Romeo B.A.T. 7 Glendale 1955,. We agree in part.

1969 DODGE CHARGER R T 1 18 Maisto Car Model Charger Vehicle Toy,.PORSCHE 919 Hybrid HY Le Mans Winner 2016 Dumas Lieb Jani Resin Spark 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Minichamps 1 43 scale Porsche 911 R 991 2016 Gulf bluee Limited Edition,.1 18 Road Signature 1962 VOLKSWAGEN VW Bus MICROBUS bluee+Sliding Sunroof Neu OVP,.Red Line Kit Monté 1 43 - FERRARI F 550 Maranello- 24 Heures du Mans 2003,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Politoys 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ bluee métal 516,.1 50 Caterpillar PM822 Cold Planer Diecast Engineering Vehicles Model Collection,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, COLUMBO CODE 3 GREY PEUGEOT 403 PETER FALK WITH CODE 3 COLUMBO DISPLAY BOX,; Porsche 356 A 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 hellblue, Modellauto 1 18 Sun Star,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Tobar 1 18 Scale Mercedes-Benz Amg Gt Vehicle,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Ferrari 512BB HG Resin Kit,Matchbox cars (40) from around the year 1960,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev 185205, Renault SuperCinq GT Turbo Ph II, Alain Oreille, 1 18, NEU&OVP,.

Redstar T3 Multivan Bus VW Volkswagen red 1 18 KK Diecast,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.V 1 18 ANSON FERRARI DINO 246GT 246 GT RALLY RED MINT BOXED,.Hot Wheels HWX5527 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER 2009 RED FOUNDATION 1 18 Modellino,.Bentley R-type Continental 1955 Red 1 43 Model 436139422 MINICHAMPS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Minicar GT R R35 Liberty Walk Nissan,; HOT WHEELS MAD MAGAZINE '66 DODGE A100 SPY VS SPY, HAULIN’ GAS, 55 CHEVY. 8 CARS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mercedes Benz Sls Coupe 6.3 Amg (C197) 2010 Red Met Welly 1 18 WE11002R Model,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2553 - Radical SR9 Judd Race Performance LM 2010,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

PAUL'S MODEL ART MINICHAMPS Mercedes 350 SL Cabriolet 1970-80 Dark bluee 1 43 MIB,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Best Model BT9277 FERRARI 250 LM N.57 10th LM 1966 NOBLET-DERNIER 1 43 Modellino,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

BMW M6 GT3 No.35 24h Spa 2017 (M.Palttala - C.Krognes - N.Menzel M,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Opel Kadett C 40 Jahre Red Prasentation Iaa 1973 Minichamps 1 43 436045620 Model,.Corgi Jeep FC-150 working conveyor forward control with Figure 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.CMNL UKBUS8004 Dennis Enviro 200 Dart Travel London C1 Victoria MIMB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VINTAGE DINKY TOY ARMY WATER TANKER MINT CONDITION ORIGINAL BOX,.

MINICHAMPS OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE FEUERWEHR COESFELD 400045890,.1 43 Nissan Gt-R 2007 Ebro Kyosho,.Bmw 3-Series 318 (E21) 2-Door 1975 Red KK Scale 1 18 KK180041 Miniature,.KYOSHO AUDI R8 SPYDER RED (SECRET VERSION) AUDI COLLECTION 2 SCALE 1 64,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Spark 1 43 Porsche 935 LM 1979 S4166,.

Hot Wheel Liberty 68 Chevy Camaro Rs SS,.1953 CORVETTE PRO STREET MODIFIED WHITE HOT WHEELS W DISPLAY CASE 1 18 SCALE,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 069201 - 1993 Porsche 911 Turbo 993 - Metallic bluee,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ L319 PORSCHE - 1960 - 183416,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.EMEK 30795 MAN TGS LX Tieflader mit Bagger 1 25,.RENAULT CLIO 16S 16V TUNGSTENE GREY NOREV 1 18,.MEGA RARE GAZ 22 B Ambulance Kherson Model Hand Made 1 43,.Bitter SC Coupe - dark brown met 1979, model cars 1 43,.PEUGEOT 302 DARL´MAT ROADSTER 1937 NOREV 1 18,.

EBBRO 45231 1 43 Honda S660 Tokyo Motor Show 2013 Pearl white, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Mini-Champs 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 190E 2.3-16,.1 43 TSM Fujimi, 2012 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta, Red,. The PartridgeAUTO WORLD 1 18 1969 YENKO CHEVROLET NOVA DIE-CAST blueE AMM1135,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 052100 - Volkswagen Kafer - Green,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 12030 - BMW M3 Sport Evo Team Unitron Zakowski,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vintage - VOLKSWAGEN 1500 Karman Ghia - 1 43 Corgi Toys 239, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP N. D. O’YOUNG CARRERA CUP ASIA MACAU 2007 IN METAL,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Solido Citroen DS19,.Revell 1 18 69 Corvette Congreenible In Baby bluee boxed,PartridgeMinichamps AMG Mercedes 190E DTM 1992 1 43 Bernd Schneider 1992 (JS),.1 76 Hong Kong Model bus 3M Scotch ADL Enviro500MMC - Double side tape (yellow),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, HOT WHEELS 2010 SUPER TREASURE HUNT OLD NUMBER 5.5 FACTORY SEALED W+, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Danbury Mint 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk Coupe 1 24 Scale Diecast OHNE OVP,; 1 18 Novelty Norev - Renault Alpine A110-50 Year 2012 in bluee orange,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, DINKY TOYS MECCANO LTD ENGLAND - CAMION TERRA BEDFORD - SCALA 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, EBBRO MM P 1 43 TOYOTA 86 Nurburgring24-hour Race 2012No.165, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1967 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z 28 blueE 50TH ANNIV LTD 1002PCS 1 18 BY AUTOWORLD AMM1101,.

MATTEL MEBETOYS SERIE EUROPA CITROËN DIANE SCALE 1 43 MADE IN ITALY,.Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270062 - 1961 Jaguar E-Type - Carmin Red, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi Classic James Bond gold Aston Martin,.Hpi 1 43 FET SPORTS GT-R No.8 1993 JTC 8048 Die-cast model Japan Japan new .,.MINICHAMPS 400 057000 Volkswagen Caddy Maxi Shuttle lmtd 1008 pcs 1 43,.

FIRE BRIGADE MODELS - DENNIS METROPOLITAN FIRE BRIGADE 1 50 SCALE,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, KAVZ 651 Soviet Russian brown white bus USSR 1 43 Classicbus,Lexus LFA Test Car Nürburgring 2011,. In Noska,Renault 16 1969 Beige Grey Metallic 1 18 - 185133 NOREV,.Norev 183567 Mercedes-Benz 300 CE Cabriolet 1990 - Bornite metallic,.MODELLINO FORD FOCUS RS WRC GARDEMEISTER HONKANEN RALLY MONTE CARLO 2005 IN META,.VINTAGE FRENCH DINKY TOYS MECCANO.F MERCEDES UNIMOG W CANOPY EXCELLENT, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser 2003,.MODELLINO AUDI A4 ETHOS ORGANICS A. CARROLL DTM 2007 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Norev 1 43 - Citroen C4 Cactus greene,.Schuco 04084 BMW 328i Touring Taxi,. Id., p 923.

Greenlight 1 43 Scale 86431 - 1968 Ford Mustang GT Bullitt - Green Green Tyres,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Price Includes Mini-Champs 1 43 Scale Bmw E30 M3 Street,HOT WHEELS 1 18 ELITE FERRARI 599 GTB FIORANO DIE-CAST RED L7117,.Signature 1 18 Scale - 92658 1975 Jaguar XJS Metallic gold diecast Model car,.Vintage Corgi Toys Diecast 484 Dodge Kew Fargo Animal Transporter vn mint,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.43b R.A.C. MOTORCYCLE PATROL,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Porsche 996 911 2001 Carrera 2 Cabrio Green m 1 43 Minichamps,.RENAULT Alpine A110 Rallye Tour de Corse Marteil 1979 1 150 Trofeu 1 43,.SPARK BRM P153 N°4 GP silverina 1972 - Reine Wisell S5272 1 43,. The parties Renault Clio 16S 1991 Tungstene Grey 1 18 - 185234 NOREV,.

Spark 1 43 Lotus 69 n.18 Winner Pau GP 1971 Reine Wisell S2147,.1 87 Herpa MAN TGX XXL Trio-Trans Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug 121705,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 18 Norev BMW 535i Limousine 1980 gold NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; FERRARI 330 P3 SPIDER 1966 RED RL191 Red Line 1 43 New In a box OVP, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

GT Spirit 1 18 Porsche RUF 911 (993) Turbo rood nieuw in doos,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, FERRARI 500 MONDIAL, RHD, H Torrey PINI, P.HILL 1956 Art Model 1 43 NUOVO,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Bentley Continental Gt Speed Cabrio St.James Red 2012 Minichamps 1 43 436139061,.Rio 4304 THOMAS FLYER 1908 1 43 RALLY NEWYORK Modellino,.Paradcar Résine 1 43 - Renault 19 1993 bluee,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Hot Wheels Barbie HIWAY HAULER 1 5000 Limited Edition Made (Very Rare),

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Greenlight 1 64 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 Heinrich Chevy-Land 13210-A Chase,.Spark F1 Lotus 87 n°11 1981 E. De Angelis 1 43 S5350,.Lancia Thema 8.32 2S 1988 in Metallic bluee with tan 1 43rd.Scale Kess ,.Norev Renault Frégate 1959 blue 1 18 185280 11,.Franklin Mint 1932 Cadillac V-16 4 Door Sport Phaeton 1 24 Scale,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 032252 Mercedes-Benz 280 SL Hardtop Pagoda 1968 1 43 VERY RARE,SPARK BRABHAM BT19 Belgium GP 1967 - Denny Hulme S5254 1 43,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz C111 ll 1970 1 43 orange 9.999 pcs (JS),. Id.,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 052432 - BMW 320i WTCC 2005 - M.Hennerici,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Herpa 1 87 Scania Topline Nelo 3 Set,; Puma Gtv 033 1985 With Alfa Romeo Engine White Limited 175 pcs 1 43 Model,DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE FERRARI 458 SPECIALE RED BBURAGO 16903 1 18 SCALE,.1 18 Kyosho Lamborghini Countach LP400 yellow,. The ScottsdaleTin s Manufactured 75602 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 429 302 RACER n.02 1 24,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Mercedes-Benz 250 D Lang (V124) brown grey metallic 1 43 NEO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Bentley Mark Vi Standard Steel Sports Saloon 1952 1 43 Spark S3802,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Kyosho 1 43 Scale 05051Y - Ferrari 365GTB 4 Early Version - Yellow,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Trofeu TF1404 FIAT 131 ABARTH N.2 2nd MONTE CARLO 1977 J.C.ANDRUET-BICHE 1 43 Mo,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Jaguar Heritage E-Type Coupe Lightweight 1963 Aluminium BEST 1 43 BE9680 Model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Starter Kit à Monter 1 43 - Porsche 962 C Elkron Le Mans 1986, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Ford Edsel's Roadster 1934 pearl essense gun metallic, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Minichamps Mercedes-Benz 300 SL SoMo 1 43 VP,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHerpa Mercedes Actros 1857 BIELEFELD, silver + silverner MB SLK - PC - 1 87,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Mercedes-Benz Actros Mp4 Kit REVELL 1 24 RV07439,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMaserati 3500 GT Touring Coupe 1957 Metallic bluee 1 43 NEO 45910,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Diecast Car Model Roewe RX8 1 16 (Brown) + GIFT ,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Matchbox Superfast German Issue No 33 Police Motorcyclist GREEN POLIZEI MIB RARE,Corgi CC99111 Only Fools and Horses Ford Capri & Reliant Regal Van.,.Barkas B 1000 Autobus Medio Volkspolizei 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.Lamborghini Gallardo 1 43 Diecast Minicar,. The HuygheTarmac Works 1 43 Mitsubishi EVO LANCER EVOLUTION 6.5 Die Cast Model,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheLancia Delta HF Integrale 16V 1989 Metallic bluee 1 18 Model 3152 SUN STAR,.

Ralf Toyota RT3 Winner Macau GP 1983 A.Senna 540834313 1 43 Minichamps,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE 70401 PINDER JEAN RICHARD BERLIET GLR8 - DEPANNEUSE,.

1973 Hot Wheels Redline Red Baron SCARCE ENAMEL YEAR SUPER SHAPE KEEPER ,.First Gear 50-3392a KOMATSU KENWORTH T880 LOWBOY RED RED TRAILER,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky Army Water Carrier - Green - A B,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeFORD CROWN VICTORIA INTERCEPTOR POLICE 1 18 MIT LED-BELEUCHTUNG(XENON) MOTORMAX,.1 18 Sunstar Mercedes Benz 220SE 1958 red mit OVP,.

For example, in Partridge,MATTEL FBL83 HOT WHEELS AI,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark Models 1 43 Scale Dauer 962 LM No36 Winner Le Mans 1994 M. Baldi Y Dalmas,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Mercedes 300 D Pompe Funebri 1960 1 43 Model RIO,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs,. That is the same situation in this case.Norev 183634 Manta A GT E 1975 white black 1 18,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Fujimi Model 1 20 Grand Prix Series No.26 Ferrari 641 2Mexico GP France GP),. Detroit Edison, supra.

2018 MEGA Hot Wheels LOT 30 Random Cars No Duplicates FREE SHIPPING,.Kess Scale Models 1983 Maserati Quattroporte III 4.9 gold 1 43 Resine-Modell,.Verem 3101 PEUGEOT 403 CON SCALA POMPIERI 1 43,.

1 43 Diecast - ATLAS - Porsche 550 Spyder - 1955 - Little Bastard - James Dean,.