Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals CORGI 1 50 HERITAGE 71802 RENAULT JL20 SEMI CITERNE PERE BENOI Brand New RARE ,.Italeri IT3919 IVECO HI WAY 40,.Pontiac Bonneville Congreenible yellow white 1959 NEO 1 43 46030,.Scottoy 27S AUTOBOTTE VIBERTI SHELL RED YELLOW Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.PONTIAC GTO TH400 HURST EDITION blue 1 18,.1992 Porsche 911 2.4S Resina Coche de Modelo en 1 43 Escala de Spark S4925,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Acura Nsx bluee Pearl Lhd 2017 True Scale Miniatures 1 43 TSM164387 Model,.Old 70's 1 43 Moskvitch 408 A1 Base USSR CCCP Moskvich Red Model Car Used,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Ixo 1 43-OM Leoncino Van Anno 1966 - Trasporto Vermouth Martini-Pezzo Unico ,.Audi 100 C2, silver, 1 43, ZUBA5-5788,.FORD GT 2017 blue 1 18 GT40, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

BMW M1 grey 1 18 GT Norev,.1 18 Norev Peugeot 208 Gti 2013 perlweiss 184824,.Shelby-Toyota 2000GT 1 43 Del Prado - 23 CP Die Cast Model Car Brand New in Box,.Rav4 Toyota 1 43 Minicar,.

Brand Dodge Viper Rt 10,.Ferrari 250 Spider California 1957 red 1 43 ART 069,.Fiat Ritmo Abarth 130 Tc 1984 grey Quarzo (639) 1 43 Kess Ks43010011 Model,.CORGI TOYS GIFT SET GIFTSET 37 GS37 FIAT X1 9 CARLSBERG POWER BOAT VN MINT BOXED,.Citroen SM 1971 gold Leaf 1 18 - 181730 NOREV,.

SIKU WORLD - HEFBRUG - SPEELGO,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Neo 45600 Alfa Romeo 2600 Sz ,red, 1967 1 43 Neo,.Very Scarce DINKY 252 BEDFORD REFUSE WAGON - GOOD,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F430 Spider 2005 red,Minichamps 1 18 BMW M Coupe 2002 Metallic Grey 029064,.Kyosho Minutes Ae86 Sprinter Torino Gtv,.

MERCEDES SLR McLAREN 722Edition TAMIYA 1 24 PLASTIC KIT,.Ebro 1 43 FAIRLADY 240ZG GC 1972 No99 finished product,.Citroen DS Break Ferrari Chronometrage Service Tag Heuer 1 43 RIO 4542,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1975-79 CORGI 1 43 Gratte-Ciel Grue à tour No1155 Très Bon Etat BOITE ABIMER,.

2003 FORD F-150 White Toys “R” Us Ertl American Muscle Elite Edition 1 18,. We agree in part.

Ferrari 500 Mondial 1954 Prova Yellow 1 43 Model 0331 ART-MODEL,.Art Model AM0019 FERRARI 500 TRC N.29 30th LM 1957 F.PICARD-R.GHINTER 1 43 Model,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Danbury Mint 1931 Ford Model A Roadster 1 24 scale diecast model,.NEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,.1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.25 Daihatsu Compagno Spider 1965,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Humber Sceptre Mki 1964 Red White NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46126 Model,.Rare 2003 Revell 08444 1 18 Scale VW Microbus Concept Car Metal Diecast Model,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Diecast Car Model KIA K2 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,; NEO MODELS Ford Taunus (P7b) Turnier Green 1 43 44345,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

ERTL COLLECTIBLES 1948 VOLKSWAGEN WITH PEPE LE PEW, PENELOPE & PLAYBOY PEGUIN,.Red Bull RB6 2010 S.Vettel W.Champion 2010 1 20 kit di montaggio 20067 Tamiya,BMW 635 ALPINA B7 TURBO E24 white 1 43 SPARK,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Ixo 18RMC015 FORD FIESTA RS WRC V. ROSS MONZA RALLY 2015 cochesaescala,.

Dinky Toys F 24 ZT 542 Simca Taxi ariane en boîte,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.BMW 318i E21 1975 green Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,.ART MODEL AM0070 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 YELLOW 1 43,.MATCHBOX HOT WHEELS DATSUN LOT OF 22 ZAMAC 240Z JAPAN HISTORICS 620 510 blueEBIRD,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 18 Anson Metal Series Mercedes-Benz CLK-Class AMG Sport Edition Die-cast Rare,; 4 x Star Wars Last Jedi Hot Wheel Millennium Falcon -Tie -Scout Bike Destroyer.,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 LOT VOITURES MINIATURES X 5,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97Matchbox Series Lesney Jumbo Crane Kran 11 Vintage Vintage Vintage Old 8b7d97

Matchbox Lesney Moko no.47A-2.near mint OVP B-2 good Condition from 1959,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Schuco 1 43 BMW M8 Coupe red 450902600,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Dinky Toys F n° 25 BV Peugeot D3A Postes en boite,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Porsche 356A Coupe 1957 Light bluee SUNSTAR 1 18 SS1329 Miniature,.Matchbox Lesney Ford Zephyr With Original Box,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Dinky GB Jaguar XK 120 - red rede Felgen - original,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.2 x NZG 1 50 - 844 08 MB Actros 4x2 SZM FH25 HT Hauser + Chrom 844 01 ZM,.

RARE Vintage 70's Joal No 125 Green Lamborghini Miura P400 1 43 - VNM,.1 18 Otto Renault Super 5 Bacara brownmetallic,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Audi TT Coupe Phase 2 1.8T Quattro 2000 Green 1 43 Minichamps,.1966 Chevrolet Chevy Chevelle Ss 396 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Auto World Ertl,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Esval Models Mercedes-Benz 260D Pullman Landaulet 1936 - 1940 1 43,.

Bmw 5-Series M535I (M5) (E12) 1978 bluee Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO49540 Model,.Fiat 238 Assistenza Fiat 1971 1 43 Model RIO,.TSM 1954 Land Rover Series 1 88 Royal Review,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, DINKY SUPERTOYS MECCANO 561 BLAW KNOX BULLDOZER RARE BOXED TOY CAR,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Schuco MB LP 608 Jägermeister Racing Team ,.Spark Model S5952 FORD FIESTA WRC N.2 6th MONTE CARLO 2018 E.EVANS-D.BARRIT 1 43,.Ebbro 1 43 KURE Skyline GT-R R33 JGTC 1996 M. Kondo T. Suzuki from Japan,.Chrysler Lebaron Congreenible (Red) 1990,.Maisto Exclusive 38134 1 18 Ford GT metallic bluee with white stripe NEW BOXED,.

1 18 SHELBY COLLECTIBLES 2011 FORD SHELBY GT 350 RED with WHITE STRIPES rd, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ferrari 225 Spider 1952 Red Jolly Model 1 43 JL06024,.Dinky gift set 299 police crash squard vintage 1978 boxed,. The PartridgeMinichamps 1 18 HANOMAG R28 - FARM TRACTOR - 1953 - orange,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2041 - Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 Speedster Clubsport,.Conrad 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN4 Container Trailer + Scania Cab,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Mercedes 300 D Pompe Funebri 1960 1 43 Model RIO, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Norev 1 18 Mercedes Benz E 500 Coupe Diecast Model Car bluee 183542,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Schuco Piccolo 3er-set 2000 Jaguar Mkii MB 300D Citroen DS19 all Red (64997),.Ford Falcon XB 351 GT Sedan 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Mulberry Model Car,PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 DODGE CHALLENGER R T 1970 400144700 Green Limited 2304pcs NLA ,.Tekno 62988 Classical 3-axis Kuehlkofferauflie.1 50,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CAMION SCANIA TOPLINE REMORQUE ALUN JONES 1 50 CORGI CC12913 335 2700, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ertl 1 18 1969 Chevrolet Camaro SS396 Indy Pace Car Item 7100,; Art Model AM0348 FERRARI 290 S N.T TARGA FLORIO TEST 1958 L.MUSSO 1 43 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, VINTAGE MARX TOYS PRESSED STEEL 1930's CHRYSLER AIRFLOW, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Neo Saab 95 GL - brown - 1979 - 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeKrAZ 260, oliv, NVA 1 43 Premium ClassiXXS NEW,.

Mclaren P1 2013 yellow Yellow Autoart 1 43 AA56011 Model,.Schuco Piccolo Henninger Limited Edition of 2222 VW Mercedes 2005 FREE US SHIP, Clarke's negligent act.1987 BMW M535i blueE METALLIC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 183267,.Minichamps 180 000029 2000 Williams FW22 R Schumacher Australian GP,.Rio Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 4154 - Mercedes Benz 770 USA Army 1945 - Green,.

Mint Kyosho Benz 1 43 Minicar,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Mercedes Benz Gt (C190) 2014 White 1 43 Spark S1071,Jadi 1 18 Scale - FOX3 Mini Cooper Foxton - Green,. In Noska,Wonderful modelcar MERCEDES-BENZ 220 W115 BINZ WAGON 1974 - red - scale 1 43,.1931 Mercedes Benz SSKL White Boxed Danbury Mint 1991 C12 Diecast Replica 1 24,.Verem 4100 GMP PC POMPIERI,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 009 - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery 1 Of 750, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Penny die cast made in italy 1.66 set of four dino fiat alfa maserati,.DINKY TOYS - Armstrong Siddeley Coupe,.VINTAGE SUN STAR JAGUAR XK140 DROP HEAD COUPE SPORTS CAR TOP DOWN MINT IN BOX,.Art Model AM0218 FERRARI 166 MM N.340 50th MM 1951 E.CASTELLOTTI-P.redA 1 43 Mod,. Id., p 923.

Mercedes SL65 Amg 2009 Top Gear Grey Metallic 1 43 Model 519433820 MINICHAMPS,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fiat 238 1974 Polizia Rio 1 43 Rio4297 Model Diecast,Mercedes-Benz Modellauto 1 50 NFZ Unimog U430 Sommerdienst B66004134,.Schuco 02389 DKW Schnelllaster Büssing mit Anhänger Baujahr 1962 orange 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Scale SG251 - SCG P4 5 Comp M16 24h Nurburgring 2016,.Hot Wheels 69 Ford Mustang Boss 302 Super Treasure Hunt,.Minichamps McLaren Ford MP41C 43 530834308 1 43 1 43,.1 43 Premium Classixxs Magirus 290D Kipper grey 216877,.Ebbro 1 43 Scale Model Car 598 - Toyota Supra Yellow Hat JGTC 2004,. The parties Hot Wheels 1998 Treasure Hunts Lot,.

Bn183-0, 5 X HighSpeed H0 1 87 Metal Car Vintage ALFA ROMEO etc. , MINT,.1 43 Truescale TSM Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Matt White Predotype LHD 2016,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, QSP Model Collection DAF 33 Bestel 1 43 Posterijen ,; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940133020 - McLaren 12C - 2011 - Yellow, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Art Model AM0401 FERRARI 857 S N.7 5th 1000 KM PARIS 1956 A.DE PORTAGO-P.HILL 1 ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BN47-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 Sattelzug Ford Dachser+Shell+540 etc, NEUW+1x OVP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)PRD200 PremiumX 1 43 Ford Bronco II Jeep Fire 1990 Feuerwehr,.Solido Military Army SB 1 50 - Combat Car M20 Surblinde - Opag Line,.Innocenti Mini Cooper 1300 Export 1973 Red 1 43 Kess Model KS43012030 Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Porsche 924 Turbo (1979) Resin Model Car S1376,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Burago 1 24 Scale Model Car 2518L - Lancia Delta S4 Racing Car - White,.Corgi 154 Ferrari Formula 1 Grand Prix Racing BOXED original,.Spark Model S5152 PORSCHE CARRERA CUP N.2 MOBIL 1 SUPERCUP 2016 SVEN MULLER 1 43,.Maisto 1 18 Special Edition White 2009 Nissan GT-R R35 Diecast Car,.Neo Pegaso Z-102 Berlinetta Touring - dunkelblue silver - 1955 - 1 43,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 410161006 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS F1 W07 HYBRID ROSBERG SINDELFING,Rio RI4465 CITROEN DS 21 1967 PERNOD 1 43 Modellino,.Spark Mercedes-Benz F600 Concept Car 2006 1 43 gold Metallic (JS),. Id.,Best Model BT9714 FERRARI 330 GTS 1967 LIGHT blueE METALLIC 1 43 Modellino,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1917 Ford Model T Cargo Van Coca-Cola Drink Delicious 1 18 Diecast Model Car by,; Schuco 450360000 Mercedes Benz LP 608 Jägermeister Racing Team,Barkas B1000 Minibus Wolks Polizei 1965 White Green MCG 1 18 MCG18097 Model,.Corgi Toys 229 Chevrolet Corvair mid bluee with original box,. The ScottsdaleVEREM CIRQUE PINDER PEUGEOT J9 + VAN V841 peu courant neuf en boite,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Citroen SM 1971 gold Leaf 1 18 - 181730 NOREV,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Schabak Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - B66005748 Mercedes Benz SL 500 Green,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Volkswagen T2c Bus 1 43 18380,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 962 L 85 Win Coca Cola Akin TrueScale Resin Highenddetail TSM 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Benetton Renault B195 Britannique Grand Prix Win 1995 en 1 43 Echelle par Spark,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Corgi 1 50 CC15305 Scania 110 Tandem Axle Tilt Trailer - BRITISH ROAD SERVICES, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Genuine MINI Congreenible 2016 Miniature Die Cast Model Car Toy White 80432405582, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Ferrari F60 2009 - Tamiya Kit 1 20 20059 con parti foto incise - Nuovo,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeQSP Model Collection Toyota Cgoldlla E35 Coupé 1 43 bluee,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 87 Herpa MB SK AMG Sonax 1996 Koffer-Sattelzug 225540,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDINKY TOYS ATLAS STUDEBAKER CAMIONNETTE DEPANNAGE DEPANNEUSE REF 25R IN BOX,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.RAS43900 by RASTAR BUGATTI VEYRON 16.4 GRANS SPORT VITESSE 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Rio 4405 MERCEDES 11 40 '24 OPEN 1 43 Modellino,Minichamps 1 43 - F1 Force India Mercedes VJM04 Sutil 2011,.Volkswagen Kafer Beetle Stoll Coupe 1952 2 Tone Cream NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47055 Mod,.1 50 Diecast International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor-Cab Only Collect 71004,. The HuygheDINKY TOYS F 24X FORD VEDETTE PALE-GREY 1954 SCALE 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheKIT MAQUETA CAMION BERLIET 356CH RENAULT R360 LE CENTAURE 1 24 ITALERI 3913,.

1 43 McLaren MP4-1 , Monaco GP 1981, Spark models,.Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast - 1968 Chevrolet Camaro Z28 - yellow,.

Lloyd Lt 500 600 1955 Dark Beige Light Beige 1 43 Neoscale NEO43872 Model,.McLaren MP4-12C, 24H Spa 2014, Sparkmodels,. Nonetheless, on the facts of KESS MODEL KS43015001 FORD LTD COUNTRY SQUIRE 1968 RED 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSunstar 1 18 American Collectible 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CONV SS6140,.Handmade 1 43 ZIL-157 AC-4.3 Aeroflot USSR 1958 swivel front wheels SSM1012,.

For example, in Partridge,McLaren MP4-12C,City of Dreams Macau GT Cup 2013, Sparkmodels,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps 436 139800 Bentley Continental Supersports 2009 Grey 1 43 Scale Boxed,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Schuco Mercedes Benz L6600 1 43 450302500,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,PORSCHE 911 TURBO 1 24 MOTORIZED ''NEW,SEALED BAGS INSIDE BOX''MINT,CLASSIC,. That is the same situation in this case.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3015 Mercedes Benz 300 SL1954 Red Model Car,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.MCG 1 18 Lada Niva 1976 Feuerwehr,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Spark Model S4426 PORSCHE 935 L1 N.69 DNF LM 1981 J.LUNDGARDH-M.WILDS-A.PLANKENH,.AUDI R8 V10 PLUS VERSION PREMIUM voiture miniature 1 18 collection maisto 38135,.CORGI TOYS MORRIS MINI COOPER 1 43 RALLYE MONTE CARLO,.

Sun Star Lancia Stratos Stradale - black - 1975 - 1 18,.