Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ferrari 500 Mondial Prova 1954 Red 1 43 Model 0320 ART-MODEL,.Rio RI4308 FIAT 1100 103 TV 1953 GREY 1 43 Modellino,.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST BMW 530 I 4 DR SEDAN CAR RE 8841 BOX SCUFFED,.Minichamps 1 43 Alfa Romeo Giulia Europa Testfahrt Sizilien 1973 400-120905,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Norev Citroën 2CV Dolly 1985 1 18 white green,.Minichamps 410066220 1 43 Porsche 911 R, 2016, White with Red Stripes,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CLASSIC '31 FORD WOODY Redline Hot Wheels Anti-freeze Green,.AT088 MW Conquest 1 43 - 57' Chevrolet Belair,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Vintage Mint MIB 1998 Mattel Hot Wheels Collectors' Choice 30 Car Set,1968-1998,. RALLYING4BELGIUM RR002 FORD FOCUS WRC EVO WINNER RALLY DE WALLONIE 2006 RARE,.Citroen DS3 WRC Vainqueur Rallye du Portugal 2011 - 1 18 - Norev, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1 43 Spark Shadow DN5B Ford South African GP 1976 Pryce S3838,.1 43 Premium Classixxs VW Käfer grey limitiert,.Dtm Audi Rs5 1 43 2014,.Ebbro EB44034 PORSCHE 911 RSR N.8 6th NURBURGRING 1974 MULLER-VAN LENNEP 1 43 Mo,.
Ford Falcon XY GT HO Phase III 351 1 32 Scale Aussie Classic Diecast Model Car,.Ford Limited Country Squire 1968 Red 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,.SURTEES TS7 SURTEES GP BRITISH 1970 1 43 SPARK S5400,.AMX-10RCR T-40 NEXTER 40 CTAS TURRET TIGER MODEL 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.Citroen SM 1971 gold Leaf 1 18 - 181730 NOREV,.
BUB 06555 VW T1 Bus mit Anhänger BUB-Racing 2007 1 87 OVP ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Corgi 1 50 CC12907 Scania Topline Curtainside D Curran & Sons Ltd 214 2500 MIB,.Tijuana Taxi Corvette Dragster Hot Wheels Redline Premium Resto- Conversion,.Porsche 918 Spyder 2014 White 1 43 Spark S4242 Model,Kit pour miniature auto CCC Panhard Dyna X86 canadienne référence 119,.KIT EBBRO 1 20 DA COSTRUIRE IN PLASTICA TEAM LOTUS TYPE 72E 1973 ART 009 5800,.
Hillman Californian Minx Saloon Sedan in orig. Box Lansdowne Coupe,.Au983-1 x Wiking H0 Bus Mercedes-Benz MB+ Büssing 721+ Man etc.,.Spark Model S5906 VENTURI T.DILLMANN 2017 N.4 Rd10 NEW YORK FORMULA E 1 43 Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Modelcar Group BMW 2000 (red) 1 18 OVP ,.
Jada Brian's Nissan GT-R (R35) Fast & Furious NIB 1 18 scale 2015 release,. We agree in part.
Corgi 267 1970 Whizzwheels Batman Batmobile VnrMint w figures original,.Corgi 1 50 CC12912 Scania Topline Curtainside Stephen Sanderson 2648 2900 MIB,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 43 Schuco 03520 MB LP 608 Koffer LKW Martini Racing,.Hot Wheels Treasure Hunt 2002 Complete Set,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale - 403 120403 Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint 1954 light bluee,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Vintage MECCANO LTD. Dinky Toy No.167 A.C. ACECA SPORTS CAR . RESTORED NEAR MINT,.Jadi Model TVR Tuscan S 1 18 scale Diecast model car,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vitesse 1 43 Scale VCC99065 - 1997 Austin Mini Moke Cagiva - Yellow,; Air UK British Aerospace 146 Jet by Wooster 1 100 Scale Model RARE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Corgi Toys 218 Aston Martin DB4 Saloon red with flat disk hubs EXC condition,.POLISTIL RJ23 RENAULT 5L - blueE - RARE SELTEN - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,Minichamps 400 073519 Mercedes C-Class DTM 2007 P. Di Resta 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Diapet 1 30 Scale Diecast SV-17 - Toyota Celsior 4000 - Pearlescent White,.
Spark 1 43 - Porsche 918 Spyder red,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.CC12203 Scania Low Loader Eddie Stobart,.Toy Old 1 43 Norev Renault R8 Years 60 Bel Condition,.CORGI HERITAGE 1 50 SCALE - 08707 - 1926 BAZAR DE L'HOTL - RENAULT KZ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 2012 SUBARU BRZ COUPE IN LIGHTNING RED BY EBBRO RARE JDM DIECAST MODEL CAR,; Dinky 40a 158 Toys Riley Saloon Green Meccano original Diecast 1411-14-15,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MINICHAMPS Red Bull Racing TAG-Heuer RB12 Daniel Ricciardo Aero Shield Test F,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
JEM METAL MINIATURES 1 43 MG MIDGET SPECIAL - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Audi A5 Cabrio Teak brown Facelift Ab 2011 1 43 Norev Auto mit oder ohne indiv..,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
RIO RI4289 FIAT 238 1974 ESSO 1 43,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Corgi Modern Heavy CC13725 Scania R Curtainside Barry Haulage 1 50,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Renault R5 Supercinq GT Turbo silver Rally Tour de Corse Ragnotti 3 Türer 2. G..,.SPARK BMW E30 M3 Winner 24h SPA 1987 Van de Poele, Martin, Theys SB067 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Citroen 2CV Dolly 1985 white-grey 1 18 Norev 181494 neu & OVP,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1976 FORD GRAN TORINO STARSKY AND HUTCH RED CHROME EDITION 1 18 GREENLIGHT 19023,.
Dinky Toys 480 Bedford 10 CWT. Van Kodak In Original Box,.Maisto 2006 Pontiac Solstice Diecast 1 24 Red Special Edition NIB,.Corgi CC15403 - Seddon Atkinson Strato Curtainside - Eddie Stobart - A+ A,.ALFA ROMEO Spider 3 Serie 2 Roadster red red Cabrio Diecast KK 1 1500 1 18,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Wartburg 353 Feuerwehr 196 - 1 18 - IST Models,.
CITY VITESSE 1 43 SCALE - MORRIS LD150 VAN LAKELAND PENNINE LAUNDRY & CLEANING,.Bentley Mark Vi Standard Steel Sports Saloon 1952 1 43 Spark S3802,.Heavy Chevy Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Lt. Green,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Fiat 18Bl Croce Rossa Eser.Italiano 1915 1 43 Rio4320 Modellino Diecast,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.RENAULT JUVAQUATTRE vitré ivoire 1 18,.MAQUETTE KIT VOLKSWAGEN T3 CAMPING CAR WESTFALIA 1 25,.Porsche 356 B Cabrio 1960 red 1 of 504 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 400064331,.LONE STAR FLYERS 7 'VAUXHALL FIRENZA'. BROWN, BEIGE INTERIOR. VINTAGE. ORIGINAL.,.Ferrari 575 GTZ Zagato Hi 932 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite P9915 Limited 5.000PCS,.
MINICHAMPS, 1979 PORSCHE 934 KORES RACING, 1 43 SCALE, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.2007.03 3 Ferrari Collection F 2002 With Booklet Hachette,.NOREV 1 18 1972 RENAULT ESTAFETTE ASSISTANCE RENAULT YELLOW WHITE DIECAST 185168,. The Partridge2012 FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT500 GULF OIL 18 CAR MODEL BY GREENLIGHT 12990,.Rio RI4191 CITROEN DS 19 CABRIO 1960 WHITE 1 43 Modellino,.Ferrari 290S Buenos Aires 1957 1 43 Von Trips Castellotti Model 0237,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera Metallic Yellow AA54614, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.RARE SCHUCO VW T1 VAN OBLETTER SPIELWAREN 1825 PROMO 1 43 NEW BOXED 1 OF 500 RED,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM10 Wartime set 1940s Figure set,.Renault R 5 Kombilimousine 1972-84 weiss white 1 18 Norev,PartridgeCITROEN 2CV 50 ANS DE LA 2CV 1948-1998 NOREV 1 43,.Matchbox Models of Yesteryear 1912 Mercedes-Benz Fire Engine YFE-20 (JS),.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Original Hotwheels Redlines J-Car Anti-Freeze - Free S&H USA, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco 1004 MIRAKO PATENT Bus red red Vintage US Zone Germany alt,; CORGI DIE CAST - SCANIA T-CAB FELDBINDER TANKER - IAN HAYES TRANSPORT,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mazda εfini RX-7 (FD)  1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars Vol.68, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Porsche 924S Coupe 1988 White SPARK 1 43 S4460, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFiat Ritmo Bertone 100S Supercabrio Palinuro Open 1985 Kess 1 43 KS43010040 Mode,.
McLaren MP4-12C GT3 2012 orange 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 437121399,.Vintage Matchbox Battle Kings K-105 Hover Raider & 3 Infantry Figures, Clarke's negligent act.Minichamps Ford Galaxy 2006 anthrazit Modellauto 1 43,.Hot Wheels Lamborghini Exotic mix lot of 23 1 64 Lot,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 400 800050 - F1 Williams RAM Racing,.
True Scale 1 43 Bentley GT3 whitepain 2014 Paul Richard 154317,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari 330 P Sebring 1965 1 43 Model 0175 ART-MODEL,Dinky Toys Market Gardeners Lorry Type 4 1940's Post War Dinky Toys 25f Lorry,. In Noska,Spark Porsche 935 K3 n°41 Winner 24h du Mans 1979 1 43 S43LM79,.Rio 4305 ITALA 1907 RED 1 43 Modellino,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31854 1948 Chevrolet Fleetmaster Woody Burgundy,.Citroen DS Break Ferrari Chronometrage Service Tag Heuer 1 43 RIO 4542, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Citroen Ds 19 President Car 1962 Attempt Rio 1 43 RIO4451 Miniature,.GENDARMERIE Batiment, grillage et miniature Peugeot 206 SAI 1 87 Ref 232,.HOT WHEELS L7114 ELITE FERRARI FXX ENZO 18 orange,.SCHUCO 1001 1 MIRAKOCAR Mint in Original Box NO REPRO Full Working + key,. Id., p 923.
Dinky 412 Bedford 'Hymo Lift Tables' Promotional Van Boxed,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, B39-6 DINKY TOYS FERRARI V12 F1,Welly 1 18 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG (C197) grey,.1973 Hot Wheels Redline Red Baron SCARCE ENAMEL YEAR SUPER SHAPE KEEPER ,.MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ SLR McLAREN 2007 ROSSA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.PROVENCE MOULAGE ASTON MARTIN DB 4 GT ZAGATO - 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.PORSCHE-911 CARRERA RSR PORSCHE CLUB ROMAND N 66 24h LM 1977 S2095 Spark 1 43,.ELITE 1971 FERRARI DINO 246 GT NURBURGRING 1 18 DIECAST CAR T6268,.1 18 Large Elegant Wooden MODEL DISPLAY CASE - Wood & Glass - CAR NOT INC.- 1 18,. The parties Norev C31540 VIVA GRAND SPORT MECANIQUE CIJ NOREV Modellino,.
Spark S3133 1 43 Resin McLaren M7C, 3rd 1969 German GP, Bruce McLaren,.1996 Matchbox Series 8 Premiere Collection die-cast complete collection POLICE,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, CAT CATERPILLAR 3516B ENGINE GENERATOR 3-PIECE SET 1 25 DIECAST MASTERS 85100 C,; Spark Models 1 43 Scale PP002 - Norma M20 - Pikes Peak 2013, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
1 18 Minichamps, Ligier Honda JS41, A. Suzuki,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Maisto 1 18 Scale - 1969 Dodge Charger R T Lime Green Diecast Model Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)CORGI 1 50 - 75605 RENAULT CURTAINSIDE - NIGEL RICE TRANSPORT LTD,.Ferrari 488 GTB 2017 The Schumacher 1 18,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1968 OLDSMOBILE 442 W-30 DIECAST CAR AMM1084,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 87 Brekina VW T1 b Gute Fahrt,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.RARE Corgi 77501 1960's DC Comics 1 24 diecast Batmobile with BatCommunicator,.Neo Plymouth Fury Hardtop - hellblue weiss - 1958 - 1 43,.Chevrolet Camaro Z28 Indianapolis 500 Official Pace Car 1982 - 1 18 - Sun Star,.CORGI TOYS 909 QUAD TRACTOR, AMMUNITION TRAILER & FIELD GUN OVP,.Minichamps 1 43 OPEL BLITZ 1,75t Camión de Bebidas SINALCO 1952 New in Box Rare,. The ScottsdaleProvence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Nissan R89 C Le Mans 1989,NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46415 AUDI S1 2014 YELLOW 1 43,.Mercedes 600 Pullman 1972 Red Baron The Hilton Family True Scale 1 43 TSM154340,. Id.,MINICHAMPS VW 411 TAXI 400051195,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, NOREV 1 18 2012 Renault Megane Throphy Diecast Model Car Pink Yellow (185113),; PORSCHE 911 934 DRM 1976 Norisring Vaillant Wollek Kremer Minichamps 1 43,Minichamps Honda NSR 500 2000 1 12 Valentino Rossi (ITA) Test Bike,.Schuco Krupp Schultheiss Beer Delivery w Twin-Axle Trailer SHU05763,. The ScottsdaleCHEVROLET CORVETTE Z06 POLICE 1 18 C5,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 25 POLISTIL Serie S Mercedes Benz 190 E 2.3 16V MIB - No Burago Politoys,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Ferrari 365 GTC 4 1971 red 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3035 BUGATTI EB 110 1991 - blueE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 25 POLISTIL Serie S Porsche 956 Le Mans Gaggia MIB No Burago Politoys,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Studebaker Champion Coupe 1953 Cream Red SPARK 1 43 S2955 Model,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Art Model AM0114 FERRARI 225 S N.94 WINNER G.P.MONTE CARLO 1952 V.MARZOTTO 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 43 Spark - S5156 Citroën DS3 WRC Monte Carlo 2017 C. Breen, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, UH Renault 5 Turbo blue 1 18 limitiertes Modell 1 1000,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMaxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 131030 - 1962 MGB - Red,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR 1927 AHREN'S FOX FIRE ENGINE MIB,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDaihatsu Mira Walk Through Van 1986 White Spark 1 43 SJ032 Model,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CHEVROLET CORVETTE C7 coupé black 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Herpa Art Colección 3x BMW 525i Touring 3er Cabrio 1x AUDI A 3 Cabrio Limitado,MoYShop Matchbox 2015 Ford Bronco Albuquerque 13th Gathering purple OVP USA RAR ,.PORSCHE 911 GT3 2016 black METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS 410066021 NEU,.Universal-Hobbies 5234 Deutz-Fahr Agroprima 4.56 1 3 2,. The HuygheCORGI 1 50th SCALE HEAVY HAULAGE 8x NICHOLAS 6 WHEEL BOGIES AND DRAW BAR,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1957 STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK APACHE RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR 6153,.
Lexus LS600HL 1 43 Kyosho 03647GR,.Rio RI4550 CITROEN DS 19 POMPIERS DE VILLE DE LYON 1956 1 43 Modellino,.
Lancia STRATOS 1 43 KingStar Safari Type KS104 South Korea,.Fiat 500L Nuova Urmodell blue grey 1957-1977 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder o..,. Nonetheless, on the facts of DINKY SUPERTOYS MODEL No.563 963 BLAW KNOX HEAVY TRACTOR ( RED ) VERSION,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePolistil 1 16 Scale Diecast - 01664 Alfa Romeo Alfetta 1750 White,.KK-Scale Ferrari 275 GTS Pininfarina Spyder - silver - 1 18,.
For example, in Partridge,Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.1 2nd ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014 SG129,. In Jorgensen, supra,AUTOSHKA MICRO AUTO SET 10 PCS. SEALED USSR SOVIET ERA,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche 911 991-2 Gt2 Rs Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7623 Model,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Hot Wheels Red Line Club Exclusive Christmas Holiday Texas Drive 'Em,. That is the same situation in this case.Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Legende 2018 Limited.500 Pcs 1 43 Model 517864 NOREV,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BBU16904 by BBURAGO FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN TOP (CABRIOLET) 1 18,. Detroit Edison, supra.
1964 Lotus Elan 26R Walker Racing Crystal Palace 1 43 by Spark S0267,.Italeri Racing Trailer 1 24 3936 Plastic Model Kit,.Honda Civic Type R Aegean bluee Metallic Rhd TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 43 TSM430276,.
Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 028A - 1935 Dodge Van - 12th james leake,.