CC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093fe

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
CC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093fe
SPARK BENTLEY R Type 1954 S4891 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC056 - Aston Martin DB35 - LM 1953,.CORGI 341 MINI MARCOS GT 850 'TAKE OFF WHEELS' - NR MINT in original BOX,.Hot Wheels McLaren Mercedes MP4 15 2000 1 18 Mika Hakkinen (FIN) (JS),.Quartzo 1 43 Scale - Q4044 LOTUS 72 E.FITTIPALDI BRITISH GP 1971,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.AUTO WORLD 1 18 MUSCLE CARS USA 2016 FORD MUSTANG GT DIECAST CAR AW242,.DINKY FRANCE 517 RENAULT 8 R8 yellow de 1962 TRES PROCHE DU NEUF, sans boite,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 43 RL33 ASTON MARTIN PROJECT 215 KIT BY SMTS,.1957 Studebaker golden Hawk Arctic White by Sunstar Diecast Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Hot Wheels Redline The Demon,.Mitsubishi GTO Twin Turbo [1990] Die-cast Model 1 24 Hachette Japanese Cars (19),.Porsche 911 Gt2 997 2007 White Top Gear 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Dinky toys Leyland Octopus Esso Tanker All ORIGINAL GREAT PRICE ,.MINICHAMPS Maserati 5000 GT Allemano MC-437123324,.VOITURE COFFRET CITROEN C4 1 43 GE18 11 16 NOREV,.1 18 Norev GT by Citroen Salon de Paris 2008 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Classic Tank Trailer Italeri Kit 1 24,.Kit BUS LONDONIEN en brique à assembler,.Porsche 911 (991 II) Gt2 Rs Weissach Pacchetto Anno di Costruzione 2018,.CAMION ABC FREIGHT FORWARDING CORP. KOKYU JAPON 1950s,.Motor Max 1 60 Scale Model Helicoptor 76299 - Mil Mi-24 Hind,.

NEO DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S 1 43 46275,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Solido 1 18 Scale - 11801500 Citroen C4 WRC Red Bull 2008,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 977693 - Ferrari 333 SP Le Mans 1997,.PEUGEOT 504 COUPE 1969 1 18 NOREV (MIMOSA WHITE),OLIVER 1750 DIESEL WIDE FRONT TRACTOR 1 16 DIECAST MODEL BY SPECCAST SCT536,.Herpa 121521 DAF XF 105 Ssc Baustoff-Sattelzug May Logistics Kann,.

SPECCAST 1957 CHEVY PANEL DELIVERY BUDWEISER BEER,.PORSCHE 911 GT1 Boutsen Wollek CHAMPION Motors USRRC MID-OHIO 1998 UT 1 18,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 028A - 1935 Dodge Van - 12th james leake,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Redline Hotwheels bluee 1968 Ford J Car oc15649,.


Rolls Royce silver Wraith Imperatrice di Hooper black 1 yellow 18 Modello Car,.Hot Wheels Plymouth Duster Funny Car Retro Rig,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Art Model AM0192 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.3 WINNER BEVERLY HILLS 1955 P.HILL 1 43 Mod,.NEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,.Porsche 911 GT3 Cup G.Vento 1977 Minichamps 1 43 NEU OVP,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Kugelgelenk für Gasgestänge T-3534-E Ford Model T-3534-X, 08 04,.MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR 1927 AHREN'S FOX FIRE ENGINE MIB,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Schuco 450889100 VW Typ 38,; New Ferrari 348 TB Red 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels X5532,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

EFE CODE 3 BRISTOL VR 3 IN YORKSHIRE RIDER LIVERY EASTERN NATIONAL FLEETNAMES,.EBRRO 1 43 Nissan Skyline GT hardtop KGC10 (43960) finished product,Wonderful modelcar Saab 96 LAKES RALLYE 1960 Bremer Lampi - 1 43 - lim,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Volkswagen Sp2 1974 Yellow NeoScale 1 43 NEO44222 Model,.

Schleich Giganotosaurus and Velociraptor SL42264 Miniature Figure Toy,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Porsche 911 CARRERA RS Touring 1973 1 18 Norev 187636 White 1963 Urmodell,.TSM 1971 Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 3 Sebring 12Hr 3rd Place Autodelta. Pescarolo,.Maisto 1 18 Scale - 1969 Dodge Charger R T Lime Green Diecast Model Car,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Modellino Auto Porsche Speedster Nostalgia Modello di Latta,Metallo 31 cm,Nuovo,; Bburago FERRARI FXX-K 1 18 Scale Model Toy Gift Die Cast Sports Race Car RED,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MCG Barkas B 1000 Halbbus - Volkspolizei - 1970 - 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

CC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093feCC12805 Corgi TINNELLY Bulk Tipper Tipper Tipper Scalia Topline Scale Model 1093fe

Vanguards 1 43 Scale Diecast VA10100 - Triumph Stag Hard Top - Tahiti bluee,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3012 - F1 HRT F1-10 Brazil GP 2010,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Corgi Fiat X19 and Power Boat Gift Set Boxed Vintage No 37,.Ferrari 365 California Spyder red 1966 - 1 18 KK-Scale,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Hot Wheels Lamborghini Exotic mix lot of 23 1 64 Lot,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - REMORQUE PLATEAU - REF MCM06 - 1 50,.

SunStar 1 18 Scale - 3968 1963 Chevrolet Nova Laurel green,.Ferrari V12 Gran Turismo Coupe 1972 365 GT4 2+2 green metallic 1 18 KK diecast,.Glazier Günther Adgreenising Bus Man SD 200 DETAILED FROM WIKING BUS H0 1 87 gd4å,.Ford Ranchero Gt (Red) 1972,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Mercedes 250 D Long V 124 Limousine 1990 Metallic Brown 1 43 Model,.

Formula F 1 Surtees T. S. 9 Corgi 1 36,.SPARK MODEL S5458 HONDA CIVIC EF3 GROUP A 1988 WHITE 1 43,.Heavy Chevy Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Lt. Green,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Auto World Chevrolet Chevelle SS454 Citrus green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Man Car Transporter With Trailer 1970 Red Grey IXO 1 43 TTRX007 Model,.KK-Scale 1 18 Porsche B32 gebaseerd op Volkswagen T3 bus 1984 grijs metallic nie,.Ford Mustang II Cobra Greenlight red 1 18 NEU OVP,.Ebbro 44687 EBBRO x HPI Mclaren F1 GTR 1996 JGTC 43 scale,.Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 White SPARK 1 43 S4911 Miniature,.

Schuco Mercedes-Benz L1000 Express Weihnachten 2017 - 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Gonio military 1 24 VW-82 Kubelwagen ambulance,.1968 Chevelle Fathom bluee 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32493,. The PartridgeCorgi Toys 218 Aston Martin DB4 Saloon red with flat disk hubs EXC condition,.Politoys no.108 Gobron Brillie 1899,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 DADE CITY FLORIDA Ford Police Interceptor,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Dinky Riley Saloon 40A Early series. Grey. Excellent Condition., although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Redline Hotwheels Light bluee 1969 Turbofire oc14895,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Wiking 113 Volkswagen kever - Beetle - Kafer very near mint,.1974 Rover 3500 V8 Beige 1 18 MC Group 18046,PartridgeMinichamps 1 43 - Mercedes E Class 1994 W124 Cabriolet pinkwood,.MINICHAMPS 400137720 Aston Martin V8 Coupé 1987 Grey Metallic 1 43 NEW,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NOREV - 1 18 - RENAULT 5 GT TURBO PHASE 1 - 1985 - 185209, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ebbro EB44034 PORSCHE 911 RSR N.8 6th NURBURGRING 1974 MULLER-VAN LENNEP 1 43 Mo,; Yat Ming 24068 1972 Lincoln Continental Pres Reagan Car 1 24 Scale Die Cast Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Jaguar E type S2 Coupe 1968 Spark S2128 resin 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, KK SCALE KK180012 OPEL KADETT C SALOON 1978 OCHRE-YELLOW LIMITED 1500 PCS 1 18, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFERRARI FXX-K N. 75 2015 1 18 BBURAGO SIGNATURE BU16907R,.

Ferrari GTO 1984 Edition limité - Bburago,.2018 M2 COCA COLA 1958 CHEVROLET APACHE STEPSIDE CHASE LIMITED 500 PCS 1 24, Clarke's negligent act.Ford Focus RS WRC 'Stobart' Rossi Cassina RAC Rally 2008 - 1 43 - Minichamps,.Lot of 9 Hot Wheels Lexmark,.Dinky Toys Early Version of the Bentley Two Door Coupe - 1940's Dinky Toys Green,.

Original Hotwheels Redlines J-Car Anti-Freeze - Free S&H USA,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, C302 Matchbox MOY Y-6 1926 Bugatti Type 35 A a,ERTL CARS OF THE 50S SET OF 6 CARS,. In Noska,Greenlight 1 24 Scale 84011 - 1974 Dodge Monaco blueesmobile - The bluees Bredhers,.1 64 Toyota Sprinter Torino AE86,.Fiat 2300s - BoS 1 18,.UT Model Ferrari F355 Coupé 1 18 red (DC), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Minichamps 410130201 Infiniti Red Bull Racing Renault RB9 Vettel,.Corgi Juniors No. 77 Bizzarrini Manta. Pink.. MINT CARDED. 1970's,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S2077 - Porsche 911 Carrera RS,.Volkswagen VW Passat B3 VR6 Variant 1988 Dark bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,. Id., p 923.

Vintage CIJ 1 43 Scale - 3 12 - Mercedes 220 Saloon - Grey,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET 1961 PEARL GREY NOREV 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,MODEL BUILT F.1 TYRRELL 011 FORD CHEEVER GERMAN GP 1981 43,.Fiat 500 Giardiniera positano yellow 1 18 Norev,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD.3001 ALPINE A110 1600S - MONTE CARLO RALLY 1971,.Britains Centenary Limited Edition 1 32 Scale 5892 Tractor - Boxed,.Moko Lesney Matchbox 1-75 Series 11 Taylor Jumbo Crane,.Ferrari 333 Presentation 1994 Spark Model 1 43, New in Box, Ships From USA,.Best Model 9448 JAGUAR E SPIDER NASSAU 1961 1 43 Modellino,. The parties Vintage Matchbox Series No. 28 Mark Ten Jaguar NIB,.

Bentley R Type Continental red 1 43 Minichamps Modellauto 436139422,.Audi 100 C2, silver, 1 43, ZUBA5-5788,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1968 Mustang CJ428 White 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32518,; Peugeot 404 1965 NOREV 1 18 NV184833 Miniature, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

FIAT 128 RALLY - 1971 - green green 1 43 RIO4564 Made in ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Kit Metal Assembled 1 43 - Renault 40CV Records 1925,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Collectible Soviet MOSKVICH 412 Militia toy car 1 43 Scale Model USSR Russia,.MERCEDES BENZ 190 E W201 Tuning Brabus 190E 3.6 3.65 1989 white Minichamps 1 43,.S5615 SPARK 1 43 Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid Paris Dakar 1988,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,S4959 Spark 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe 1956 Red with Tan Seats,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Spot On Triang Jaguar E Type Rare,.Best Model BT9186 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.2 3rd 500 KM IMOLA 1968 M.CASONI-S.DINI 1 43,.Infinity FX50 Version 2 2010 Pearl 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK15A - 1950 Mercury Congreenible Red,.INTERNATIONAL HX615 CONCRETE MIXER WHITE 1 50 MODEL BY DIECAST MASTERS 71014,. The ScottsdaleFerrari California T Open 2014 White Signature 1 18 Model BBURAGO,DS E-Tense Salon De Geneve 2016 Metallic Green 1 43 Model PM0103 NOREV,.1 87 Herpa MB NG Paule Schwertransporte SZ,. Id.,BoS MODELS 1 43 VW Passat Variant GT Syncro , red,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 Crema-whiteo 1 18 Yat Ming 92327,; Corgi Junior No 3114 Set of 5 Cars Gift Set - (Original 1982 BOXED),1 18 ROAD SIGNATURE Fiat Abarth 695 SS - MIB - No Minichamps - Autoart - Kyosho,.New Hot Wheels FORD GT Gulf Zamac color HW Speed Graphics Limited F S,. The ScottsdaleNissan Calsonic Skyline GT-R Rd.4 Fuji Champion 1993 1 43 Model 44646 EBBRO,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, AC 378 GT Zagato 2012 red, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Alfa Romeo RZ black 1989 (Spark 1 43 S0399),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 1 18 4533 RENAULT 5 TURBO No. 4 TOUR DE FRANCE 1980 CALBERSON,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Tarmac Works 1 43 Mitsubishi EVO LANCER EVOLUTION 6.5 Die Cast Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Lamborghini Reventon 2008 Metallic Matt Gun Grey 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Very rare french solido lorry tracteur willeme cabine horizon mint in box, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Maserati Bellagio 2008 bluee modelcar PRXO468R PremiumX 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Emek 83894 Man Tgs LX with Rolling Garbage Press 1 25,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeQ903 CIJ MICRO-MINIATURE RENAULT FOURGON 120CV 1 135 NB,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Kyosho Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-R 1971 Hakosuka Novelty,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFujimi model 1 20 Grand Prix Series SPOT-No.24 Sauber C30 Japan GP driver with,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.GOZAN 1 32 155 MM US HOWITZER. BRITAINS COPY IN PLASTIC AND METAL.BOXED.VGC,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,EMEK 28804 Scania R mit Abrollmuldenhängerzug 1 25,1 43 CL86 JAGUAR XK120 FHC KIT BY SMTS,.DeAgostini 488 SPIDER 2015 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.46 Japan,.KK SCALE MODELS - 1 18 - ALFA-ROMEO ALFASUD 1.3 - 1972 - 180022W,. The HuygheRobur LO 3000 Bus NVA Volksarmee DDR 1 43 IXO IST CCC078 Cars & Co NEU & OVP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMatchbox Lesney Collectors job lot,.


EUROBRUN JUDD EG189 OSCAR LARRAURI F1 1989 GP AUSTRALIA 1 43 RESIN,.KYOSHO Bentley Flying Spur W12 Glacier White color 1 43 Discast Model,. Nonetheless, on the facts of HOT WHEELS F12 berlinetta Ferrari 1 18 Brand New,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMini Champs 1 43 Vodafone Mclaren Mercedes,.Alpine Renault A110 1600s 1971 bluee 1 18 Model 185300 NOREV,.

For example, in Partridge,Onyx 1 18 Scale Diecast - 360092 Williams Renault Estoril Heinz Harald Frentzen,. In Jorgensen, supra,Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 57 B Chevrolet Impala metallic bluee BPW Lesney,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Chgold Q TAKARA Toy's dream project 2003 Limited 5 Cars Set Vol.2 NEW F S,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 069201 - 1993 Porsche 911 Turbo 993 - Metallic bluee,. That is the same situation in this case.Sheet Metal Model Car Steam Tractor Tractor Model 30 cm 1,3 kg Heavy,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.JAMES BOND SET OF 7 CORGI PLUS 2 DIE CAST MODELS (DRMP),. Detroit Edison, supra.

Alter VW Käfer Brezel KdF Limitierte Auflage Nr. 0739 Staufen Porzellan 50 J. VW,.Ford Torino GT (1976) Diecast Model Car 400085201,.Austin Powers Shaguar (Jaguar) Boxed RCERTL 1 18 Die Cast Car Rare,.

Minichamps Mercedes 560 SEL 1 43,.