CHR TOYOTA Storefront Display Items bluee Metallic Metallic Metallic Not sold in stores Model Car db831a

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
CHR TOYOTA Storefront Display Items bluee Metallic Metallic Metallic Not sold in stores Model Car db831a
Barkas B1000 Wohnmobil Baujahr 1973 in 1 43 von IST die-cast model,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Toyopet Skb Kiyoken Van bluee Yellow 1 43 Model EBBRO,.Minichamps - Fiat X1 9 - black - 1974 - lim. Edition - RAR,.MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 - 2017 - 410066027,.1 43 TRAX 1972 CHRYSLER VALIANT CHARGER IN RED . AUSTRALIA TG,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Matchbox Lesney Fiat With Original Box MIB,.MOTORKITS 1 43 SCALE - EK3 1937 PEUGEOT 402 ANDREAU - blueE,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Kyosho original 1 43 Toyota Crown Majesta Dark bluee Mica,.Premium X 1 43 Scale Model Car PRD307 - Morgan 4 4 1974 - Green,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.MAISTO 1 18 31078 BMW 645 Ci - DARK GREY,.Schuco - 450892800 VW T1b Schlüter-Service Kastenwagen - 1 32 Neu,.Ebro Nissan blueebird 410 1964 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Volkswagen VW Bus T3 1993 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 Schumacher World Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Gta Coupe' 1988 Met. Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO46023,.1 12 Honda RC211V Barros MotoGP 2004 1 12 • Minichamps 122041004,.

WOW EXTREMELY RARE Jaguar E Type MkIII Roadster Red 1 43 Auto Art-Minichamps,.Porsche Cayman GT4 2016 white 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 410066120,.Minichamps 410066028 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 Green 1 43 Scale,.Citroen 2CV A 1950 GREY 1 18 NOREV 181497 2 CV Ente 2CV deux chevaux,.Brago Toy bluee fiat Nuova Panda (2003) Replica Miniature Minicar Model 360,.

Ferrari 250GT Berlinetta Coupe - Politoys 504 1 43 34742,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Siku 1000er Serie Citroen DS hellblue in ungeöffneter Blister OVP Karte,.Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3 Targa 1987 bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV187663,.Hot Wheels Toy Maker Dodge Minicar,Lot of 6 Hallmark Kiddie Car Classics. New in boxes. Please read description.,.1 18 Red JOYRIDE 2003 SALEEN MUSTANG S281 THE FAST AND THE FURIOUS Year One,.

Ford Mustang II Cobra 1978 Greenlight 1 18 white red NEU OVP,.Ferrari 250 LM 1965 Sebring Daytona bluee 1 18,.Jada toys 1 24 import racer,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 24 Franklin Mint 1954 '54 Chevy Corvette Roadster Congreenible RED Free Ship,.

1962 Volkswagen Microbus Combi Type 2 T1 orange-whiteo 1 18 Road Signature 9232,. We agree in part.

Siku 3112 Mercedes Autotransporter (ADAC) OVP - 2517-176,.ROS 1 32 HALF AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR TRACTOR NEW HOLLAND G170 FIATAGRI ART 301498,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ebbro 44697 TOYOTA IQ blueE 1 43 scale,.1 18 Model Car Group GAZ Wolga M24 Taxi 1972 white,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 046 - 1935 Dodge Van PCTS 1989 1 Of 200 White,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1994 Ferrari 348 TS red 1 18 Bburago 16006 R,.Minichamps 1 43 Ford RS 200 Diamond White Limited RS200,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Mini Gt Nissan Gtr R35 Lb Works Zero Fighter Hong Kong Limited,; OPEL Diplomat B Neo scale models 1 43 NEO46135,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Peugeot 106 1 43 kit COMPLETAMENTE IN METALLO,.1 18 Norev Opel Manta A Coupe 1970 green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,Mattel Hot Wheels Rebound Raceway Car Play Set Toys from 4 Years,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ferrari 365 GTC 4 Baujahr 1971 silver KK-Scale KKDC180283 1 18 Neu,.

1 18 Norev VW 1303 1973 green metallic 188523,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.VITESSE 1 43 SCALE 410Y - VOLKSWAGEN CABRIOLET - JUST MARRIED,.1 24 1932 Ford Coddington Coupe Franklin mint,.Epoch MTech 1 43 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R IMPORT,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Ferrari 330P Spa 1965 M. Parkes 1 43 Model 0292 ART-MODEL,; PANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Rare Skoda Favorit Policie CR Police Abrex ABS708XA1 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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EIDAI GRIP NISSAN DATSUN FAIRLADY 240 Z 240Z RALLY MINT RARE,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 Opel Blitz Trasportatore Holzaufbau Von 1949,,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Norev 185157 Renault 5 Alpine Turbo 1981 - Navy bluee 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

McLaren M14A n.11 2nd Spanish GP 1970 Bruce McLaren S4843 Spark 1 43 New,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.ALFA ROMEO Spider 3 Serie 2 Roadster red red Cabrio Diecast KK 1 1500 1 18,.Ebro 1 43 FAIRLADY 240ZG GC 1972 No99 finished product,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Hot Wheels Jaguar Racing R1 2000 1 18 Johnny Herbert (GBR),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.DINKY MECCANO ENGLAND - PLASTIC PINK PANTHER WITH FIGURE - IN USED VINTAGE,.

HOT WHEELS 50TH ANNIVERSARY FAVORITES MIX B LOT,No Soft Corners,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO S 3.3 (964) LIGHTWEIGHT 1992 yellow 1 43 MINICHAMPS NEU,.Jada 1 24 Scale 99572 - Fast & Furious Brian's Ford Escort - bluee,.Ebbro 1 43 - Subaru BRZ - Red - Mint in box,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Permot Espewe, DDR Modell,Skoda LKW, m. greyen Rädern, rar (Schub48),.

Vtg 1940's Dinky Toys Diecast Toy Plymouth Woody Station Wagon No. 344 England,.Porsche Panamera 4S 2016 Saphir bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207210G,.Innocenti Mini Cooper 1300 Export 1973 Castgold 72 1 43 Kess Model KS43012031 Mod,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Mercury Toys Chaparral 2J CAN-AM made in 1 43 scale EX-NM,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.American Muscle Ertl Collectibles 1970 Chevy Nova,.Norev PM0069 CITROEN SURVOLT SALONE GINEVRA 2010 Modellino,.Ford Torino Cobra Motertrend 500 1969, Spark models,.1973 Mercedes 220-8 (W115) Policia Alemania 1 18 MC Group 18054,.544F Vintage Dinky 25O Studebaker M16 Laitier Nestlé Roues Zamak,.

Nissan NV350 Caravan School Bus 2012 Yellow 1 43 Model 45597 EBBRO, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Herpa - MAN TGS LX E6 KoSZ Bayern-LKW 2017 Bayerische Schmankerl 930765 - 1 87,.Enzmann 506 Cabriolet (Based on VW) red (1957),. The PartridgeThe BEATLES Limited 5-Car Sealed Boxed Set Hot Wheels Mattel Apple Pop Culture,.Ford Fire Engine 1938 1 24 Model YAT MING,.1 43 Mini Champs Bentley Arnage R bluee Metallic,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Renault Clio Williams 2.0 16V (1St Series) 1993 bluee Met Norev 1 18 NV185230-2, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Opel Manta B Matting Yellow bluee 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.(B) MIKANSUE WHITE METAL KIT TRIUMPH TRS LE MANS - 27 mint still sealed in bag,.1 18 SAIC Volkswagen 2017 Skoda Octavia Combi Brown Dealer Edition,PartridgeDinky Toys No.771 International Road Signs set with leaflet,.FERRARI MONDIAL 8 blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS P9883 NEW,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Maisto G Rides Bugz Volkswagen Käfer 1951 türkis RARITÄT §, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Atlas Editions Dinky Supertoys 514 - Guy Van - Lyons MIMB,; AC ACE SPIDER LHD 1955 RED Neoscale 1 43 NEO45006 Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 2016 CITROEN DS E-TENSE - SALON DE GENEVE 2016 NOREV 181700 1 18 DIECAST CAR, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Alpine A110 Premiere Edition 2017 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV185144 Model, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeblueE MAX NHRA 1971 Mustang Funny Car Auto World Collectible,.

Mercury Park Lane Hard Top Anno di Costruzione 1959 Bianco gold 1 ,.FERRARI 500 MONDIAL, RHD, H Torrey PINI, P.HILL 1956 Art Model 1 43 NUOVO, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi Toys 241 Chrysler Ghia L6.4 V8 bluee Metallic Restored,.Auto World Cord 812 Congreenible 1937 Red 1 18,.JRD (France), voiture miniature, Traction AV. 11, réédition de 1985 (avec boîte),.

NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET - 1970 - 184826,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 50 WSI BIG DAF XF 105 DEALER EDITION OHNE OVP,NACORAL 1 43 JAVELIN NO= 104 - GOOD CONDITION - IN ORIGINAL SHOWCASE,. In Noska,S5255 SPARK 1 43 Brabham BT24 South African GP 1969 Sam Tingle,.18111 MCG 1 18 Lada Niva green 1976,.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 31X 1953 PONTIAC SEDAN DELIVERY WESSEX WMTC 1989 MIB mq,.2014 HOT WHEELS RLC SERIES 13 1964 DODGE 330 REDLINES LOW 3000, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.S5157 SPARK 1 43 Ford Fiesta WRC test car for 2017 model cars,.MODELLINO MASERATI GRANTURISMO MC GT4 TEST CAR 2010 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.1 18 AutoArt Peugeot 307 WRC Rallye Plain Body red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Highway 61 50840 1 18 PLYMOUTH CONCEPT CUDA SUBLIME 2011 GREEN,. Id., p 923.

A Franklin mint scale model car of a 1961 Jaguar XKE. no box or paperwork,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Belkits 012 Ford Fiesta RS WRC 2017 WC Ogier Ingrassia kit 1 24,AUTO WORLD 1 18 1969 DODGE CgoldNET R T 50TH ANNIVERSARY DIE-CAST blueE AMM1116,.Pirana Bertone - Politoys 588 1 43 in Box 36702,.1 43 Premium X Porsche 924 turbo combi 1981,.Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.1989 Sauber-Mercedes C9 No.63 Winner Le Mans Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Matchbox SF Nr.31B Volksdragon red ohne Rippen oben top in Box,.1 18 Ertl Auto World Ford Mustang Congreenible 1965 grey red,. The parties Fiat 18 Bl Ei 1919 Il Re Del Deserto +2 Figures Rio 1 43 Rio4378P Model,.

Porsche 911 (993) Cabrio 1994 black 1 18 Norev 187595 neu & OVP,.CODE 3 1 64 pinkMONT IL FIRE DEPT FORD E-350 AMBULANCE C911 - NIB,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Polistil Porsche 911 Carrera Waldegard Rallye Martini 1 24 S.22 Metallmodell,; MG B Roadster Hard Top bluee white Spark S4138 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Alfa Romeo Giulietta Polizia Museo Di Roma 1961 Green RIO 1 43 RIO4572 Model,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Revell 08444 VW Microbus Concept Car, Diecast in 1 18, NEU & OVP,.UT 1 18 FERRARI F355 BERLINETTA xx,.BMW M235i M Eifelblitz Scheid Honert 24h Nürburgring 2015 Schrey Eber Spark 1 43,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,VITESSE KAGER 1 43 VW COMBI HENNINGER BEER VITREE NEUF EN BOITE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz. HANGING OUT II 8PC FIGURE SET 1 18 AMERICAN DIORAMA 38181,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,.Rietze Neoplan Starliner Chauffeur scale 1 87 H0,.1 64 Kyosho Toyota 2000GT Yellow Green Diecast Model Car,.1 43 Neo Ford Taunus P6 Turnier hellblue 44340,.Dinky Matchbox 1 43 - Mercedes Diesel O 3500 Omnibus Reisebüro Ruoff,. The ScottsdaleFord Country Squire 1960 Red Wood Look, Model Car 1 18 Mcg,DINKY TOYS No 651 CENTURION TANK N MINT BOXED NO 3,.Spark Model TOYOTA Yaris E. Lappi GAZOO Racing WR 1 43 S5959,. Id.,Mercedes Benz 460K Nurburg 460 460 K (W 1 18 18033,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 5 Boxed Matchbox Models Yesteryear Fire Engine Series (1993),; RIO RI4239 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FIAT 1971 1 43,Hot Wheels Looney Tunes 2 Kind Minicar Character,.VW Käfer 1200 Hebmüller Cabrio 1949 dunkelred black Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,. The ScottsdaleLote de 3 camiones 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lamborghini Aventador J Spyder 2012 Green Autoart 1 43 AA54654,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark 1 43 Scale - S0056 Dome S101-Judd LM 2004,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Toyota Cgoldlla Wrc 1998 Sainz,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 007 James Bond Suntory Collection Diecast Toy Car 8pcs Set Japan Mini Car 2012,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Lotus Cortina Mk1 - Corgi ‘Classic Models Range’ 1991 - Code 96760 - 1 43 Scale,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Bugatti Atlantic 57 Sc Atlantic 1938 Rio 1 43 Rio4313 Modellino Diecast, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DINKY SUPERTOYS MODEL No 958 GUY WARRIOR SNOW PLOUGH, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, DINKY TOYS 105 MAXIMUM SECURITY VEHICLE CAPTAIN SCARLET VINTAGE GERRY ANDERSON,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 50 Diecast International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor-Cab Only Collect 71003,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Schuco 1 32 Hanomag Robust 900 Turquoise Tractor 450780000,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMercedes L3500 Schöller 1 43 Premium Classixxs 12403,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Dinky HUMBER VOGUE - 36C,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Motormax MTM79152OR LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP560-4 2008 orange 1 18 Modellino,McLAREN MP4-4 GP DU JAPON 1988 A. SENNA MINICHAMPS 1 43,.IScale 1 18 Mercedes-Benz GLC Coupe (C253) 2016 bluew nieuw in Mercedes-Benz dea,.2013 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari black 1 43 Hot Wheels Elite BCT84,. The HuyghePREMIUM ClassiXXS 010463 MERCEDES L 911 DEUTSCHE BUNDESPOST 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSchuco 301 858 Ford Consul green 1 66 TOP & in OVP,.

CORGI 54011 GMC TDH4507 O SCALE OLD LOOK TRANSIT BUS - LIONEL CITY MOTOR COAC,.Tyrrell Ford 007 P. Depailler 1975 1 43 Model 400750004 MINICHAMPS,.

EFE 1 76 - 'A' 5X SET OF RT RTL BUSES LONDON TRANSPORT ETC,.Matchbox Lesney No 34 Volkswagen VW class,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 2005 HAWAII CONFERENCE 1940 WOODY WAGON ERTL RARE,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeReplicagri REPLI120 ARATRO ESAVOMERE A BILANCIERE CHARRUE GREGOIRE BESSON RWY8 1,.Alfa Romeo Alfetta 2000 Quadrifoglio gold 1983 1 43 Kess Model Ks43000011 Diecast,.

For example, in Partridge,Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 bluee Sera Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43014013 Model,. In Jorgensen, supra,McLAREN F1 GTR Le Mans 97 Lark Nakaya PMA 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MERCEDES-BENZ 250D (V124) Long 1990 1 43 Neo scale models NEO44306,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Norev 185225 Renault Megane R.S. 2017 - Tonic orange 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Minichamps 1 43 Alfa Romeo Giulia Europa Testfahrt Sizilien 1973 400-120905,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.CITROEN 2CV6 BASKET 1976 NOREV 1 18,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Spark 1 43 Scale US004 - Nissan Deltawing th Petit LM ALMS 2012,.Mitsubsihi Sappgold Coupe (Brown Metallic) 1982,.Corgi 1 50 scale CC20304 Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor Pride of the south,.

Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 Gun Grey Met.1 43 Kess Ks43011020 Model,.