Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 10 10 10 C Sugar Container Tate & Lyle BPW Lesney 1 6c212f

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 10 10 10 C Sugar Container Tate & Lyle BPW Lesney 1 6c212f
BMW M5 E34 (1994) Resin Model Car 43311,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MAISTO PORSCHE SPEEDSTER YELLOW 1 18 METAL DIE-CAST MODELCAR OPENING PARTS,.Brooklin Models BRK1 - 1933 Pierce Arrow - Pale bluee - A+ C,.Ferrari FXX Evoluzione 1 18 Scale Model Car,.Coffret c3 pluriel numerede 1360 3000 en boite 1 43 (f),.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Vintage Nylint Napa Auto Parts Semi & Trailer`Pressed Steel & Plastic`27 3 4 ,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Roadcar 2011 White Autoart 1 43 AA56009 Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mercedes-Maybach G650 - white - Schuco 1 43 - 450900500,.SCHUCO 1 43 Mercedes-Benz O 6600 BUS •Deutsche Bundespost neuwertig OVP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lot of 81 Hot Wheels No other brands,.ASTON MARTIN V8 VANTAGE GT2 PRÄSENTATION 2008 LIGHT blue 1 43 SPARK NEU,.Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser Born on Date Daytona Win, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

EBBRO 1 20 KIT IN PLASTICA MCLAREN HONDA MP4-31 2016 LATE SEASON ART 020 4800,.Old toy Ets Villet wooden toy on wheels,.Classic Metal Works Mini Metals Die-Cast Car Set Of 2 1949 Mercury Coupe 1 160 N,.Talbot Lago 2500 coupe T14 LS 1955 Spark 1 43 S2719,.

Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes-Benz E-Class 250TE SW (S123) Polizei 1976 Art.430032294,.Triple9 18100122 Opel Kadett C2 Facelift 1977 2 door - red,.EBBRO 44164 1 43 Lotus Elan S2 TYPE26 Resin Yellow model cars Japan,.Spark Model SG414 SCG003c N.705 WINNER SP-X CLASS 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 MUTSCH-M,.Oxford Diecast 1 43 Scale OXSET26 - Ford Anglia Set Of 3 Ice Cream Vans - Walls,.

DAF 55 Red 1971 1 43 NEO 43341,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Spark Spyker C8 GT2R Speedy Le Mans 2008 in Yellow bluee on 1 43 in Box,.MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 - 2017 - 410066027,.Porsche Cayman GT4 - vipergreen - 1 of 200 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE - CA,Autodrome 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - AD1A Mercedes Benz 180SL 1975,.USSR RUSSIAN FIGHTER PLANE MODEL - N-16 - MADE IN RUSSIA,.

Jada 1 24 Scale 97603 Fast & Furious - Brian's Mitsubishi Eclipse,.NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 282 Mercedes Benz 500 SEC Dark Grey,.Ebro 1 43 DATSUN 17 Roadstar 1938 BROWN finished product,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Jeep Fire van Maxwell India 6137,.

Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270061 - 1964 Jaguar E-Type Coupe - Gunmetal,. We agree in part.

Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK17 003 - 1952 Studebaker Champion - Grey,.DTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Lucas Auer 1 43 Nip,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Modellauto BMW M3 DTM 2013 Marko Wittmann, BMW Team MTEK M 1 18,,.Schuco 3726 PORSCHE 908 n.21 NORISRING '68 1 43 Modellino,.PEUGEOT 307 WRC 2004 Rallye Plainbody red red Street Test AUTOart AA 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Vintage Corgi Toys Datsun 240Z Rally no 394 Whizzwheels,.1 18 Ferrari Mondial 8 Hot Wheels Elite Serie 60th Anniversary F1 cherry red 19,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Lamborghini Gallardo Lp560-4 White Lambo Academy Minichamps 1 43 436103801 Model,; Franklin Mint 1 43 Ford Station Wagon,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Norev 1 18 Porsche 917K 5th Place 1000km Spa 1970 Laine 187585 Yellow Shell,.DIECAST MODEL Bonnet Bus Nitto Kotsu Co., Ltd. Minika Hobby goods Used rare,PORSCHE 911 RSR Carrera 1974 DRM Kremer Wallys Jeans Kremer Minichamps 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Porsche 911 R 2017 white - Spark 1 43 - BRAND NEW,.

AUDI S3 cabriolet black 1 43 A3 S-line,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.TROF 43 - 509 FORD ESCORT 1600 1ST ACROPOLIS RALLY 1968 - CLARK PORTER,.MATTEL MEBETOYS SERIE EUROPA CITROËN DIANE SCALE 1 43 MADE IN ITALY,.Polistil 1 25 Vintage diecast - 02266 Jaguar XJ-S Congreenible Red Model Car,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, DINKY Meccano England vintage 1957 TRIUMPH TR2 sports tourer grey ORIGINAL,; Schuco Mercedes-Benz Unimog U300 1 43 Feuerwehr FFW Stuttgart (JS),. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Dinky Toys 142 Jaguar Mark X made in England 1 43 scale Near Mint,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 pre-painted model series No.35 Toyota 86 2012 satin w,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Tamiya JGTC Weds Sports Celica 2003 1 64 scale collectors club From Japan 5Q,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Corgi 1 50 Scale CC51004 - M4 A3 Sherman Tank - BA Royal Scots Greye 1943,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

SUNSTAR - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVAIR - 1963 - 1486,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Toyota Land Cruiser FJ40 1967 yellow white, Modellauto 1 18 Triple9,.1 18 Triple 9 Honda Civic EF-3 Si 1987 white,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 43 Spark Volkswagen Towareg,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.HOTWHEELS - Pop Culture Nostalgia 2015 - SUPER MARIO - Set of 6 cars - 1 64,.

Moissonneuse batteuse Farm Boy Playland,.V & V model Skoda 706R 1946 Pritschenkipper grey,.IRON MAIDEN hand created original Eddie - rare Audi RS4 1 24 model- unique,.MARK 43 1 43 Mazda Roadster (NB 8 C) RS II (2000) Stripe Decal Classic Red,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Minichamps F1 minicar 1 43B.A.R Honda 006 Takuma Sato,.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 430 033106 MERCEDES-BENZ 180 1953 RED,.2006 HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE 1940 FORD COUPE RARE SHORT CARD NEW,.Lincoln Continental Mark Vii Lsc Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45501 Model,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, RD MARMANDE SALMSON 2300 SPORT PARFAIT ETAT,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ferrari GTO 1984 Edition limité - Bburago,.Sun Star 1 18 European Collectibles 1984 Ford Escort RS Turbo Diecast Car 4961R,.AUTOWORLD AMM1091 CULTURE EDITION 1969 DODGE CHARGER DAYTONA 1 18 DIECAST WHITE,.Marx pressed steel toy cars Speedster Large Congreenible,.GAMA MINI-MOD 9600 - FIAT ABARTH - 1 46 - NEU in OVP - Modellauto - Model Car,.

Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Legende 2018 Limited.500 Pcs 1 43 Model 517864 NOREV, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Spark WAP0202040F Porsche Boxster e Cabrio Bj. 2010 in silvermetallic 1 43,.Dinky Toys no. 226 Ferrari 312 B2 ovp,. The PartridgeToyota MR2 Gr.B White 1986 (Premium X 1 43 PR0031),.AUTOWORLD AW230 1 18 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS GARNET RED,.Porsche 914 6 , winner Marathon de la Route 1970, minichamps,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, CITROEN 2CV COCA COLA 1 18 2CV6 999ex limited edition, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.ERTL 1957 Chevrolet BELAIR American Muscle 1 18 Diecast Red White,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.RARE cattera sound of motors ford mustang GT 350 1966, white and bluee stripes.,.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 10 C Sugar Container Tate & Lyle BPW Lesney 1,PartridgeBurago Modellauto 1 18 Dodge Viper RT 10 1992 Standox Indianapolis greenin OVP,.Lamborghini Gallardo Lp560-4 White Lambo Academy Minichamps 1 43 436103801 Model,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 Falken Tires 1999 türkis blue Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco Mercedes-Benz Unimog U300 1 43 Feuerwehr FFW Stuttgart (JS),; 1974 Rover 3500 V8 Policia Reino Unido 1 18 MC Group 18045,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, RD MARMANDE SALMSON 2300 SPORT PARFAIT ETAT, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Nissan Skyline GT-R R34 Falken Tires 1999 türkis blue Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1974 Rover 3500 V8 Policia Reino Unido 1 18 MC Group 18045,.

CORGI RED SCANIA R620 V8 6x2 & TRAILER C.J.HAYNES & SONS LTD 1 50 SCALE CC13739,.1 18 Opel 4 PS Laubfrosch año 1922 MC Group 18050 green, Clarke's negligent act.Citroen Ds 19 Cabriolet 1961 (Chapron) Pearl Grey 1 18 Model NOREV,.Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast Ferrari Testa Rossa Millennium Series MIB,.CITROEN CX CABRIOLET ORPHEE CAR MINISTYLE 67 1 43,.

Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940133020 - McLaren 12C - 2011 - Yellow,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CORGI RED SCANIA R620 V8 6x2 & TRAILER C.J.HAYNES & SONS LTD 1 50 SCALE CC13739,1 43 SPARK LOTUS 19 INNES IRELAND 1962 NASSAU RACE WINNER,. In Noska,MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3-RS T2M MOTORSPORT PRE-TEST 24H LE MANS 2005 IN METALLO,.BMW M5 E34 (1994) Resin Model Car 43311,.MAISTO PORSCHE SPEEDSTER YELLOW 1 18 METAL DIE-CAST MODELCAR OPENING PARTS,.Brooklin Models BRK1 - 1933 Pierce Arrow - Pale bluee - A+ C, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ferrari FXX Evoluzione 1 18 Scale Model Car,.Coffret c3 pluriel numerede 1360 3000 en boite 1 43 (f),.Vintage Nylint Napa Auto Parts Semi & Trailer`Pressed Steel & Plastic`27 3 4 ,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Roadcar 2011 White Autoart 1 43 AA56009 Model,. Id., p 923.

Mercedes-Maybach G650 - white - Schuco 1 43 - 450900500,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 18 Opel 4 PS Laubfrosch año 1922 MC Group 18050 green,SCHUCO 1 43 Mercedes-Benz O 6600 BUS •Deutsche Bundespost neuwertig OVP,.Lot of 81 Hot Wheels No other brands,.ASTON MARTIN V8 VANTAGE GT2 PRÄSENTATION 2008 LIGHT blue 1 43 SPARK NEU,.Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser Born on Date Daytona Win,.EBBRO 1 20 KIT IN PLASTICA MCLAREN HONDA MP4-31 2016 LATE SEASON ART 020 4800,.Old toy Ets Villet wooden toy on wheels,.Classic Metal Works Mini Metals Die-Cast Car Set Of 2 1949 Mercury Coupe 1 160 N,. The parties Talbot Lago 2500 coupe T14 LS 1955 Spark 1 43 S2719,.

Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes-Benz E-Class 250TE SW (S123) Polizei 1976 Art.430032294,.Triple9 18100122 Opel Kadett C2 Facelift 1977 2 door - red,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Citroen Ds 19 Cabriolet 1961 (Chapron) Pearl Grey 1 18 Model NOREV,; EBBRO 44164 1 43 Lotus Elan S2 TYPE26 Resin Yellow model cars Japan, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Spark Model SG414 SCG003c N.705 WINNER SP-X CLASS 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 MUTSCH-M,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Oxford Diecast 1 43 Scale OXSET26 - Ford Anglia Set Of 3 Ice Cream Vans - Walls,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)DAF 55 Red 1971 1 43 NEO 43341,.Spark Spyker C8 GT2R Speedy Le Mans 2008 in Yellow bluee on 1 43 in Box,.MINICHAMPS - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 - 2017 - 410066027,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Porsche Cayman GT4 - vipergreen - 1 of 200 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE - CA,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Autodrome 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - AD1A Mercedes Benz 180SL 1975,.USSR RUSSIAN FIGHTER PLANE MODEL - N-16 - MADE IN RUSSIA,.Jada 1 24 Scale 97603 Fast & Furious - Brian's Mitsubishi Eclipse,.NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 282 Mercedes Benz 500 SEC Dark Grey,.Ebro 1 43 DATSUN 17 Roadstar 1938 BROWN finished product,. The ScottsdaleJeep Fire van Maxwell India 6137,Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270061 - 1964 Jaguar E-Type Coupe - Gunmetal,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK17 003 - 1952 Studebaker Champion - Grey,. Id.,DTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Lucas Auer 1 43 Nip,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Modellauto BMW M3 DTM 2013 Marko Wittmann, BMW Team MTEK M 1 18,,; Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast Ferrari Testa Rossa Millennium Series MIB,Schuco 3726 PORSCHE 908 n.21 NORISRING '68 1 43 Modellino,.PEUGEOT 307 WRC 2004 Rallye Plainbody red red Street Test AUTOart AA 1 18,. The ScottsdaleVintage Corgi Toys Datsun 240Z Rally no 394 Whizzwheels,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Ferrari Mondial 8 Hot Wheels Elite Serie 60th Anniversary F1 cherry red 19,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CITROEN CX CABRIOLET ORPHEE CAR MINISTYLE 67 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940133020 - McLaren 12C - 2011 - Yellow,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Franklin Mint 1 43 Ford Station Wagon,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Norev 1 18 Porsche 917K 5th Place 1000km Spa 1970 Laine 187585 Yellow Shell,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, DIECAST MODEL Bonnet Bus Nitto Kotsu Co., Ltd. Minika Hobby goods Used rare, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, PORSCHE 911 RSR Carrera 1974 DRM Kremer Wallys Jeans Kremer Minichamps 1 43, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Porsche 911 R 2017 white - Spark 1 43 - BRAND NEW,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAUDI S3 cabriolet black 1 43 A3 S-line,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, TROF 43 - 509 FORD ESCORT 1600 1ST ACROPOLIS RALLY 1968 - CLARK PORTER,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMATTEL MEBETOYS SERIE EUROPA CITROËN DIANE SCALE 1 43 MADE IN ITALY,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Polistil 1 25 Vintage diecast - 02266 Jaguar XJ-S Congreenible Red Model Car,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,DINKY Meccano England vintage 1957 TRIUMPH TR2 sports tourer grey ORIGINAL,Dinky Toys 142 Jaguar Mark X made in England 1 43 scale Near Mint,.Aoshima Bunka Kyozai 1 24 pre-painted model series No.35 Toyota 86 2012 satin w,.Tamiya JGTC Weds Sports Celica 2003 1 64 scale collectors club From Japan 5Q,. The HuygheCorgi 1 50 Scale CC51004 - M4 A3 Sherman Tank - BA Royal Scots Greye 1943,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSUNSTAR - 1 18 - CHEVROLET CORVAIR - 1963 - 1486,.

Toyota Land Cruiser FJ40 1967 yellow white, Modellauto 1 18 Triple9,.1 18 Triple 9 Honda Civic EF-3 Si 1987 white,.

1 43 Spark Volkswagen Towareg,.HOTWHEELS - Pop Culture Nostalgia 2015 - SUPER MARIO - Set of 6 cars - 1 64,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Moissonneuse batteuse Farm Boy Playland,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeV & V model Skoda 706R 1946 Pritschenkipper grey,.IRON MAIDEN hand created original Eddie - rare Audi RS4 1 24 model- unique,.

For example, in Partridge,MARK 43 1 43 Mazda Roadster (NB 8 C) RS II (2000) Stripe Decal Classic Red,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps F1 minicar 1 43B.A.R Honda 006 Takuma Sato,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MINICHAMPS 1 43 430 033106 MERCEDES-BENZ 180 1953 RED,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,2006 HOT WHEELS SUPER TREASURE 1940 FORD COUPE RARE SHORT CARD NEW,. That is the same situation in this case.Lincoln Continental Mark Vii Lsc Met.Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45501 Model,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Ferrari GTO 1984 Edition limité - Bburago,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Sun Star 1 18 European Collectibles 1984 Ford Escort RS Turbo Diecast Car 4961R,.AUTOWORLD AMM1091 CULTURE EDITION 1969 DODGE CHARGER DAYTONA 1 18 DIECAST WHITE,.Marx pressed steel toy cars Speedster Large Congreenible,.

GAMA MINI-MOD 9600 - FIAT ABARTH - 1 46 - NEU in OVP - Modellauto - Model Car,.