Ferrari Testarossa Testarossa Testarossa Cabrio 1 87 365870

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Ferrari Testarossa Testarossa Testarossa Cabrio 1 87 365870
Schuco BMW Turbo, red 1 43 450898100,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals TINTIN HERGE 69 FORD CLUB CABRIOLET VB - SCEPTRE D'OTTOKAR 1937 - NICE IN BOX,.McLaren Honda MP4-31 2016 late season 1 20 Kit Ebbro 020-4800,.American muscle 1967 shelby gt-500 white 1 of 4998 new in the box 1 18 scale,.MAN Autotransporter 1970 red grey, mit Autoanhänger 1 43 IXO NEW,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Corgi 12801 Foden FG Artic & Long Platform Trailer Ltd Ed No. 0002 of 6700,.Schuco 7258 OPEL GTC CONCEPT WHITE 1 43,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Bburago 1 18 gold Lamborghini Miura (1968) (color may vary),.AUTOWORLD 50th ANNIVERSARY 1966 DODGE CHARGER 426 HEMI 1 18 gold AMM1067,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Minichamps Benetton Playlife Showcar 1999 1 18 Alexander Wurz (AUT),.Norev 1 43 Scale 517704 - 2014 Renault Megane RS Trophy - Pear White,.Hot Wheels 2014 Collectors Nationals VOLKSWAGEN T1 DRAG BUS Fast Ship 7A, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Spark 1 43 Audi RS 5 DTM 2018, Rast,.SPARK Lola LC89 6th Spain GP (6º gp Spain) 1989 Philippe Alliot S2975 1 43,.Audi V8 Quattro DTM 1990 Minichamps Audi Collection 1 43,.Ferrari Mondial 8 60 Jahre 1947-2007 red 1 18 HotWheels Elite,.

Cotswold models 4MM Scale KIT23 London Transport RT RTL metal bus kit,.Ferrari 166 Spider E. Peron 1949 1 43 Model 0224 ART-MODEL,.Dinky Toys no. 34 Berliet Container,.Toyota Verso 2009 Minichamps 1 43 400166970,.Wiking 077811 Claas Arion 420 Tractor 1 3 2 NEW,.

Lesney Matchbox 1971 MB64B Pink Slingshot Dragster C9.8 Mint in VG to Excnt Box,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 Spark Roof Rk Spyder,.PILEN 253 ALFA ROMEO ALFETTA GTV 2000 - TEXACO GULF - RED 1 43 -VERY GOOD IN BOX,.FORD Usa Coutry Squire 1960 Red Wood MCG 1 18 MCG18074 Model,Corgi cc 11908 a & j Nelson,.Lotus Elan S4 Sprint 1971 bluee Met.1 43 Spark S1242 Model,.

MATCHBOX SERIES A LESNEY PRODUCT N° 34 VOLKSWAGEN CAMPER CAR CON SCATOLA,.Herpa 1 87 Scania Topline Trans Härma Oy Schwedenzug 158107 Valkonen Viking NEU,.CORGI STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK 211S,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Jingshang 1 43 Nismo R34Gt-R S-Tune 2016 Limited Edition Products,.

NEO ROLLS ROYCE CORNICHE 1971 -, RED,. We agree in part.

Porsche 911 Turbo Targa 1987 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.Minichamps Japan Gp 2002 Jordan Honda Ej12 Takuma Sato,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Porsche 968 Turbo S 1993 Yellow 1 43 Spark S3456 Model,.Maisto 1 18 Premiere Edition Porsche Carrera GT, Red Diecast Metal Car,.SCHUCO PRO BMW TURBO PredOTYPE STUDIE 1972 - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 21 39,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; A Franklin mint scale model car of a 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang congreenible,.Franklyn Mint 1 24 Volkswagen Karmann Ghia wie Neu , Nos , Mintnoboxed,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 43 DACIA DUSTER VERSION CRS FRANCIA SECOURS GENDARMERIE ALARME,; ROA223700 by ROAD SIGNATURE VOLKSWAGEN MICROBUS T1 1962 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Kyosho minicar 64 1 Ferrari,.Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 mit Stahlfelgen dunkelblue 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,Brooklin Models 1936 Dodge Van New England Tel - Tel Salem 201 Bell Systems,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Porsche 911S 2.4 901 Coupe 1972 Green SPARK 1 43 S4925 Model,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1951 Jaguar C-Type,.ART MODEL AM0364 FERRARI 250 GT CALIFORNIA 1962 GREEN METALLIC 1 43,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce pink Celeste 1 43 Model RIO,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Aoshima Mini Car Plastic model BEEMAX Series No.7 1 24 Nissan 240RS 1983 JAPAN,; Ebro 1 43 Nissan Datsun Fairlady 240Z Safari,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, OCCASION RENAULT F1 BENETTON n°5 B198 Giancarlo FISICHELLA 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Norev181498 Citoren 2CV 6 Ente Basket 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Brand Paprika 1 43 Scale Car,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

SUBARU IMPREZA WRC 1999 RALLY MONTE CARLO 69991 AUTOart 1 43 New in a box ,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

ROAD LEGENDS Collection 1958 Edsel Citation Die Cast Vintage Vehicle Toy Car,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ford Bronc Hot Wheels Pink Hello Kitty in Display Candy Case Limited,.CHEVROLET IMPALA SEDAN SIX WINDOWS 1959 1 43 Spark S2904,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Spark Morris Cooper Monte Carlo 1963 S1190 1 43 Resin,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1930 MATCHBOX MODELS OF YESTERYEAR FORD A VAN BALLANTINES YWG01 M,.

ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 1600S blue 1 18 1971,.1974 Rover 3500 V8 Beige 1 18 MC Group 18046,.Kyosho original 1 43 Nissan concept 2020 Vision GT bluee,.Matchbox Superfast No 56 Hi-Tailer bluee Driver REVERSED WHEELS VNMIB RARE,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Schuco 1004 MIRAKO PATENT Bus red red Vintage US Zone Germany alt,.

Ferrari 250 California ISA 1959 1 43 Red + White Roof Model 0245 ART-MODEL,.POLITOYS EXPORT 562 - FERRARI 330 GTC - blue - 1 43 - Model Car,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 Winner Cup Fuji 2016 SJ052,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, FERRARI FXX K red Scala 1 18 von BBURAGO,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MATCHBOX RACE HORSE Transporter K-18,.1 43 Mercedes Benz 190E W201 1984 Green MINICHAMPS 400034100 VERY RARE diecast,.Johnny Lightning Super Magmas 1 24 Die-Cast Hemi Express Wheel Stander,.PORSCHE 911 Turbo Targa 3.3 1987 bluemetallic 1 18 Norev 187663 G-Modell,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 19 - Alfa Romeo 158 1950 - Red,.

WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Admiral B 2.8L I6 Auto 1974 Green 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.KK-Scale Porsche B32 - metallic-hellblue - 1984 (VW T3) - 1 18,.CORGI VANGUARDS HILLMAN AVENGER TIGER WARDANCE LIMITED EDITION 1 43  USED,. The PartridgeDanbury Mint 1956 Corvette Roadster- Nbr Ltd Ed,.Porsche 911 Gt3 Purple Metallic 2017 MINICHAMPS 1 43 410066027 Model,.Volkswagen VW Maggiolone 1303 Anno di Costruzione 1972 green Metallico 1 18,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Porsche 718 Boxster Gts 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7619 Model, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Herpa Scania R 410 Gardinenplanensattelzug „Weihnachtsmodell 2015“ H6012,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Neo DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S - hellgreen - 1951 - 1 43,.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 10 C Sugar Container Tate & Lyle BPW Lesney 1,PartridgeMajorette 1 60 Nr. 235 BMW 3,0 CSI redmetallic Nr. 1,.RARE PORSCHE CAYENNE (92A) TURBO S 2013 WHITE 1 43 MINICHAMPS (DEALER MODEL),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Norev Ford Capri 2.8 Injection green green in OVP, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Wonderful modelcar JAGUAR E-TYPE COUPE 1963 RITA PAVONE - pink - 1 43 - lim.ed.,; Greenlight Ford Mustang II Stallion1976 Yellow bla 1 18 12889,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Dinky Toys Superior Criterion Ambulance Meccano 1960s, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Fiat 238 Polizia 1974 1 43 Model RIO, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.


Merryweather Vintage Rabbit. Approx 60 Years Old,.AUDI Sport Quattro Turbo 20V white 1984 der Kurze Minichamps Maxichamps 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.SUN STAR Ford Mustang Sportsroof 1971 1 18 3619,.Mira 1 18 Scale Diecast - 6182 Ferrari 348 Coupe 1989 Red,.Ford 999 72Hp World Speed Record 147Km H Henry Ford RIO 1 43 RIO4589 Model,.

National Mint an even 1 half 1 2 dozen, great deal.,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Guiloy Mercedes-Benz C-111 1 18 gold (JvM),Corgi CC60213 Skirmish Panther Ausf.G Tank & 3 German Infantry, Ardennes,in 1 50,. In Noska,Johnny Lightning The Ultimate Collector Race Case Includes 32 Cars w Coins,.Rastar 1 18 Scale - 43900 Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Gran Sport Vitesse White bluee,.SPARK ALPINE A210 th Le Mans 1968 J.-C. Andruet - J.-P. Nicolas S4375 1 43,.1997 Porsche 911 (993) Coupe Mint Green 27801 Ut Models 1 18, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.VEHICLES 1953 PONTIAC VAN, MINI VAN + OTHER VANS (DT) MINI VAN NOT INCLUDED,.Solido Renault 12 Gordini blue 1 18,.Neo Enzmann 506 Cabriolet (Basis VW) - red - 1957 - 1 43,.STEWART Sf-3 GP EUROPA 1999 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,. Id., p 923.

NOREV - 1 18 - CITROEN DS 19 - 1956 - 181481,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Nissan Gt-r R-35 2008 Dark Grey Metallic 1 18 Model 188053 NOREV,LILLIPUT Schuco Micro Racer 1038 W111 Mercedes 220 S blackwhite 1 45 Box 105235,.Minichamps 410161006 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS F1 W07 HYBRID ROSBERG SINDELFING,.Redline Hotwheels Green 1970 TNT Bird oc17214,.Opel Commodore A Steinmetz Pilette Gosselin Spa 1970 MINICHAMPS 1 43 400704608 M,.Johnny Lightning Street Freaks Zingers,.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 36653 Mercedes Benz SLR McLaren Grey,.( GO ) 1 18 Guiloy BMW F1 Competition Predotyp,. The parties Danbury Mint The 1929 Cord L-29 Special Coupe 1 16 Scale,.

Matchbox Superking K-51Barracuda met. blue oranger Spoiler in Box,.1972 chevelle 72 Chevy SS 454 maisto 1 18 special edition Red congreenible,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MINICHAMPS 436054612 Opel Vectra GTS V8, Zandvoort DTM 2005 1 43 NEW,; 1972 FORD MUSTANG SHIRLEY CHA CHA MULDOWNEY FUNNY CAR 1 18 AUTOWORLD AW1113, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Porsche 911 RS Touring 1973 - yellow - Norev 1 18 - 187638,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, JAPAN Tin Toys Retro Ice Cream Seller,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Renault rs.01 no.88 GT Tour 2015 ( A. Bard - E.Clement - B.lorgere-roux ),.Rio RI4518 FIAT BALILLA 1936 DITTA G.PATRONE MATERIALI EDILI 1 43 Modellino,.Burago 1 18 - Lamborghini Diablo 1990 Yellow,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1 25 SCALE FIRST ( 1ST ) GEAR CLASSIC MUSCLE orange 1969 CHEVY CHEVELLE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CORGI CLASSICS MODEL No.96011 MR BEAN'S MINI ( 2nd VERSION ) MIB,.1 18 RARITÄT Norev Peugeot 908 Le Mans 2008 NEU §,.IXO 18CMC001 TOYOTA CELICA GT FOUR ST165 diecast model road car red 1990 1 18th,.1 43 DIECAST MINICHAMPS LOTUS 98T DUMFRIES 1986 NEVER DISPLAYED,.BOS186 - Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser, brown 1964 - BoS 1 18,. The ScottsdaleMinichamps 1 43 Ferrari F355,ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 - 92158 1958 CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ - METALLIC blueE,.Vintage 1973 CORGI GIFT SET 19 Land-Rover Nipper Aircraft and Trailer Beauty ,. Id.,SPARK S1531 Corvette C6.R Luc Alphand n°73 24h Le Mans 2009 2nd LMGT1 Class 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPARK Scuderia Tgold red STR8 No.19 2013 Daniel Ricciardo S3062 1 43,; SOVIET T-28 MEDIUM TANK (RIVETED) HOBBY BOSS 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,ISCALE MERCEDES BENZ W196 F1 MOSS 2ND BELGIAN GP 1 18 OVP NEU,.CITROEN DS DIVINE CONCEPT CAR 1 43,. The ScottsdaleMEBETOYS A-38 MATRA 530 VIGNALE (Year 1969) SCALE 1 43 MC2298,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 Toyota Sports 800 1965,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; (B) MIKANSUE WHITE METAL KIT FORD ANGLIA POPULAR - 25 mint still sealed in bag,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Citroen 2CV Dolly Weiss grey 1949-1990 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CORGI DIECAST CC1293 OLIVERS TRANSPORT SCANIA TOPLINE CURTAINSIDE TRAILER,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, TSM Models 1 43 2013 Mini Countryman, Dakar Rally, Novitsky,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Fiat 500 Jolly 1 43 Resin S1497, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, PEUGEOT 908 HYBRID 2008 CHROME SPARK 1 43 SP1282, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, TAMIYA 1 24 MITSUBISHI PAJERO MONTERO,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 Norev Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 Coupe green 1977 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Best Models Lancia Beta H. Heyer Winner DRM 1980 1 43 9420,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSPARK 1 43 S1331 ABARTH 1000 SP 1968 blueE,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1948 CHRYSLER TOWN AND COUNTRY CREAM 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY SUNSTAR 6140,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Renault 5 Turbo 1 Anno di Costruzione 1981 blue Metallizzato 1 18 Ixo,BARLUX Diecast Ford Brabham 1 66 SCALE VERY RARE MADE IN ITALY,.SUPERBE DINKY TOYS NASH RAMBLER STATION WAGON REF 173 BOXED,.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1954 Jaguar D-Type,. The Huyghered FERRARI 643 - F1 JEAN ALESI RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheTrofeu 1 43 Scale 1018 - Ford Escort Mk2 4th Rally 1977 Clark Pegg,.

Spark S4977 - Porsche 991 Targa 4S Baujahr 2017 dunkelblue metallic 1 43,.Trofeu 1714 BMW 2002 RALLY PORTUGAL '75 n.2 1 43 Modellino,.

Spark Model SA149 BMW M6 GT3 N.9 FIA GT WORLD CUP MACAU 2016 N.CATSBURG 1 43 Mod,.Saurer D330F Willy Schlauri Removals 1978,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Minichamps WAP 0201420H Porsche Carrera RS 2.7 Baujahr 1973 in blue 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - MAN Curtainside - MB,.1 18 Norev Citroen Ami 6 1964 hellgreen 181535,.

For example, in Partridge,Solido 1 18 Scale Diecast - 9054 Citroen Xsara Tour de Corse 2004 Signed,. In Jorgensen, supra,Neo Models Citroen SM Espace by Heuliez in bluee Metallic 1971 47000 1 43 NEW,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.NEO NEO47171 1 43 LA SALLE SERIES 50 COUPE 1940 METALLIC RED,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Be9314 1 43 Model Car Diecast,. That is the same situation in this case.Mercedes-Benz 250 D Lang (V124) brown grey metallic 1 43 NEO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Hot Wheels Redline 1969 Snake Don Prudhomme Dragster w Button,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Mercedes-Benz 500K Roadster W29 1 18 Modellauto silver B66040624,.Johnny Lightning Indianapolis 500 Champions Collection Limited Edition Set 3000,.1976 Chevrolet Monza No.14 Champion Imsa Al Holbertr en 1 43 Echelle par Spark,.

1 18 Norev Renault Megane RS 2017 sirius yellow NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.