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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 18 Norev GT by Citroen Salon de Paris Paris Paris 2008 white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS 8988a4
Noddy In Toyland Corgi Die Cast Models Bundle Joblot collectibles,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals NOREV 1 18 Renault 30 TX 1981 Brown Met. Art.185271,.Ebbro Toyota Supra Gr. A 1990 Minolta White bluee 1 43 Scale Die From japan,.Motormax 1 18 Scale Model Car 73145TC - 1964 1 2 Ford Mustang - Red,.1 43 GERMAN CAR GOLIATH GP 700 TAXI 1953 Handmade,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.ZIL 130 MMZ 555 orange SSM 1057 1 43,.Scania R Curtainside N.G.Bell & Sons ltd CC13757 1-50 New in box ltd edition,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Dinky Toys 25d Type 2 Petrol Tanker Original Rare,.Spark Model S5906 VENTURI T.DILLMANN 2017 N.4 Rd10 NEW YORK FORMULA E 1 43 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Sun Star 1 18 Ford Focus WR09Latvala Antt Finnland,.AUTOART Car 1 18 Porsche 917K Hour Sebring Elford & Ahrens White,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Baja BUG HG Resin Kit, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

FIAT RITMO ABARTH 125 TC NURNBERG INTERNATIONAL TOYFAIR 2007 1 43 PROGETTO K,.Best Model BT9322 ALFA ROMEO TZ2 N.82 15th 1000 KM NURBURGRING 1967 TROSCH-PILET,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3030 - F1 McLaren MP4-26 Winner German GP 2011,.(Go) 1 18 GUILOY BMW F1 COMPETITION PredOTYPE,.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3350 - Mini John Cooper Works WRC Monte Carlo 2012,.Johnny Lightning JLMC013 Muscle Car 1965 Volkswagen Beetle Ver A WHITE CHASE,.PORSCHE 911 TURBO green Olive 1977 1 18 930 933,.Porsche Panamera Gts 2016 Carmen Red HERPA 1 43 WAP0207310J Model,.Schuco Piccolo Set Display 2000 mit vier Modellen und Display,.

NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 404 COUPE - 1967 - 184831,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Schuco Studio II Auto-Union Weihnachtsedition 1998 ohne OVP,.AN EXCELLENT GROUP OF 8 MATCHBOX MODELS WITH ORIGINAL F-BOXES ALL VNMIB TO MIB,.Rio 4272 ALFA ROMEO P3 TARGA FLORIO 35 n.22,Mercedes 1908 Ambulance 1 43 Model RIO,.PAZ 32051 City Bus SSM 4026 1 43,.

Matchbox RW 05D London Bus Longlife Ausführung top in E Box,.Ebro 1 43 Subaru BRZ,.Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Metallmodell -18025- Versuchswagen V3 Predotyp limitiert,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Matchbox Superfast No 68 Porsche 910 68 Hood & Side Label Wide Hollow Wheels,.

PORSCHE 911 991 II CARRERA 4 COUPE 2016 GREY METAL HERPA WAP 020 103 0G 1 43,. We agree in part.

MJ7 Matchbox - 2000 ROW 1-75 - MB61 Concept Beetle Congreen. bluee - CASE LOT(36),.Nylint Mr Goodwrench Semi Tractor Trailer Large,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NEO 43179 1961 Amphicar Hamburg Polizei 1 43,.TelPal Classic Vintage Desktop Wired Office Telephone of 1950 Old Fashioned Home,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 034 - 1935 Dodge Van Motor Fair 1985 1 Of 200 White,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; RENAULT 8 Gordini Rallye Tour de Corse Piot 1966 RAR IXO Altaya 1 18,.BoS 1 43 Scale 43900 Plymouth XNR 1960 Red Resin Model Car,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Dinky a - Wagon - Stone (Type 3) - B NB,; SOLS1850008 by SOLIDO' CITROEN 2CV 6 COCA-COLA 1968 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

FERRARI F50 Barchetta cabriolet 1995 black 1 18 MIRA 6207 voiture miniature coll.,.Herpa 310215 H0 Set m. 2 Modellen, 80J. Wandt 1 87,ERTL 1 32 SCALE CASE IH MAGNUM 175TH ANNIVERSARY MODEL BN 44135A,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Old Fire Brigade Model Car Sheet Metal Car 46 cm Oldtimer Fire Engine,.

FIAT 131 ABARTH ALEN SAFARI 1979 TROF 43,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Mercedes Benz 300 (W189) Adenauer 1951 White RIO 1 43 RIO4547 Model,.DAYS GONE 10 Different HORSE DRAWN VEHICLES Deceased estate FREE POSTAGE,.1999 Racing Champions Mac Tools Mark Martin Vaoline--1 24th scale,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Spark McLaren M16 Denny Hulme 1 43 S3139,; Conrad 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN4 Container Trailer + Scania Cab,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Herpa, Bayern LKW 2017 Bayerische Schmakerl Nr. 930765,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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GREENLIGHT 86544 1 43 1960 GENERAL MOTORS TDH NO.2525 LA BUS FROM FILM SPEED,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Corgi Toys 1 36 MORRIS MINI COOPER gold PLATED Anniversary Model Car 2011 MIB ,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

SHELBY Cobra Daytona Ford Coupe Harper Sutcliffe 1965 Le Mans Scud. CMR 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Hachette Toyopet Cgoldna ST10 1 24 Special Scale Japanese Car Collection Vol 27,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Starter CEC N7 Provence Résine 1 43 - Facel Vega HK 500 blacke,.Spark Lotus Carlton 1990 1 43 dark green,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.MiniMarque43 UK10C 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 170 Cabriolet Handmade White Metal Model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Hallmark 2011 Winter Fun with Snoopy Repaint Miniature Series Register To Win,.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3076 Chevrolet Corvette Congreenible Red Model Car,.Ferrari California T Closed Top 2014 Red 1 18,.THE goldVARG COLLECTION - HENRY J KAISER 1951 - 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION 7,.Porsche 356C Hard-Top Cabriolet Closed 1963 Red White SPARK 1 43 S4922 Model,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 43 Aston Martin V8 Vantage 2005 MINICHAMPS 400137422 1 43 scale car IN BOX,.

1967 CORVETTE L-71, Die Cast Metal, Model Car Toy, SCALE 1 18, VINTAGE,.Resin Car Model TSM Model Jaguar F-Type 1 43 (Red) + GIFT ,.Century Models 1 43 Scale White Metal - 8 Mercedes Benz 300 CE Coupe 1987 gold,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Norev Renault R.S. 01 2015 Official Yellow Presentation Version 185135,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz L319 1957 Deutsche Post Nr. 183417 OVP,.Acura NSX 2017 (LHD) - nouvelle bluee pearl - TSM-Model - 1 43 - TSM164387,.Mac Due MCG18111 LADA NIVA GREEN 1 18 Modellino,.Hot Wheels '67 Camaro Z-28. Seattle Toy Show. 1 of 8000 Made.,.Porsche 911 (991II) GT2 Rs Weissach Paquete Año Fabricación 2018 Kreidegrey 1 43,.

RARE RIO MADE IN ITALY LEYAT 1923 blue BIcolor REF 62 1 43 in BOX COMME NEUF, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Vintage Tonka Flat Bed Mound, Minnesota,.JL Greatest Generation WWII Allied Victory Ver B M3 Grant Tank CHASE WHITE,. The PartridgeSpark Model S5508 PORSCHE 962 C N.15 10th LM 1990 H.HUYSMAN-M.SIGALA-B.SANTAL 1 ,.Hot Wheels BCJ72 1 18 FERRARI F12 BERLINETTA 2012 RED,.Porsche 936 J, DRM 1982 ,1 43 Sparkmodels,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, PORSCHE 956L whitehet locatop no. 19 LeMans 1986 (BOUTSEN - Theys - Ferte ), although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Corgi Imp Police Panda Car, Good condition and excellent Original Box.,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Norev NV185261 RENAULT 300 kg 1953 PARFUMS REVILLON 1 18 ,.BURAGO Ford Focus WRC 2001 Metal Kit 1 18,PartridgeROAD SIGNATURE PLYMOUTH BARRACUDA 1969 - GREEN 1 18 - NEAR MINT IN BOX,.Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK32 - 1953 Studebaker Starliner - Unboxed,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Volkswagen Passat B3 Vr6 Variant 1988 Grey Met KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180071, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 87 Audi S1 Abt red,; MODEL CAR SCALE 1 18 FORD SIERRA COSWORTH CAR MODEL NOREV MINIATURES MODELO,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Opel Manta B i200 1984 silver, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, CORGI TOYS 204 ROVER 90 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeJada 1 24 Scale 99574 - Brian's Ford F-150 SVT Lightning - Fast & Furious,.

Ebbro EB44444 NISSAN GT-R N.24 FUJI 2010 1 43 Modellino,.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS VW VOLKSWAGEN T1 KUNDENDIENST - blueE 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX, Clarke's negligent act.Solido Ferrari Type 500 TRC 100 serie near mint condition,.Spark Model 1 43 Porsche 911 Targa 4S 2011 bluee Met. Art.S4977,.HOT WHEELS 2012 SUPER TREASURE HUNT '71 DODGE CHALLENGER W+,.

Spark S4936 1 43 Resin 2016 Porsche 991 Carrera S Coupe with LHD, Dark Grey,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, WSI 1 50 SCALE 3-AXLE DRY VAN TRAILER MODEL BN 03-1072,SPARK MODEL S2222 LOTUS SEVEN S2 1960 GREEN 1 43,. In Noska,PredAR 260 KIT (unbuilt) McLAREN MARLBgold MP4 2C TAG TURBO - WHITE 1 24 - IN BOX,.Bburago 1 18 gold Jaguar E Cabriolet (1961),.1 43 Land Rover Range Rover 4.6 HSE 1994 1995 AUTOart 54802 Turning wheels RARE,.Corgi OM46614B New Routemaster NBFL New bus for london Go-ahead london 453, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mclaren Mp4-12C Roadcar 2011 orange Autoart 1 43 AA56006 Model,.CITROEN 2CV BREIZH 1 18 Bretagne,.Ebbro 1 43 Toyota Ts010 Nippondenso 1993 Sekiya Suzuki Irvine New F S,.SPARK Lola LC89 6th Spain GP (6º gp Spain) 1989 Philippe Alliot S2975 1 43,. Id., p 923.

Ferrari 312 P Coupe Monza 1969 Prova Best 1 43 Be9370 Modellino Auto Diecast,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Nissan Fairlady Z Coca Cola Japan 1984 1 43 Tsm104317 Modellino Miniature,SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 718 CAYMAN GTS 2018 - S7618,.Porsche 911 991 Targa 4 2015 bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0201390G Miniature,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 120100 - 1972 Alfa Romeo Alfasud - Red,.VINTAGE RARE MATCHBOX LESNEY VEHICLE,.1 18 Sun Star Pontiac GTO 1965 Capri gold Nr. 1809 in OVP,.Kyosho Porsche 911 Turbo 1975 (White),.1 18 Model Car Group GAZ Wolga M24 Taxi 1972 white,. The parties 1 18 Signature Models REO Touring 1917 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.

Gumpert Apollo Test Car 2005 Red Met SPARK 1 43 S0666 Model,.Schuco SH3879 VW KAFER OPEN AIR WHITE 1 43 Modellino,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Minichamps 1 43 Jaguar XJ12 Series ll Series ll 1975 Cream Modell Nr. 400 130400,; Q DINKY TOYS 158 RILEY SALOON ORIGINAL EMPTY BOX GREEN COLOR SPOT EXCELLENT, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Testors Peterbilt 379 1.32 Size NOS Metal Rare ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dinky Mercedes-Benz 600 - bluee (Window Box) - A B,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)FRANKLIN MINT 1988 CHEVROLET CORVETTE - 1 24,.Lote 3 Camiones Pegaso, 1231T Campsa, Mofletes Forestal y 1060 Campofrío (1 43),.Norev 188521 Volkswagen VW Käfer 1303 Cabrio 1972 orange 1 18 Modellauto,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Best Model 9426 LOLA T70 SPYDER RIVERSIDE 1966 1 43 Modellino,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Norev Renault Alpine A110 1600S 1 18 Model Car 185300 Metallic bluee,.Mondo 1 18 Scale Diecast - 500291 Fiat 500 New Shape Red,.Best Model 9535 PORSCHE ABARTH 1000 KM PARIGI 1 43,.SMALL DAMAGE Model DieCast 1 18 DODGE CHARGER bluee CHRISTINE King AUTOWORLD,.CRANE TRACTEUR ROUTIER RENAULT GRUE FAINEANT CIJ ORIGINAL old,. The ScottsdaleVW Volkswagen Käfer Beetle Coupe Beige Cream 1 18 Greenlight Modell Auto mit o..,Franklin mint 1935 Mercedes Benz 500K Special Roadster, Boxed,,.1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR ERTL COLLECTIBLES 1996 EXCLUSIVE DIE CAST COLOR 1 18,. Id.,Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet 1961 blue Royal bluee chapron 1 18 Norev 181564 NEU,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Revell 28503 Renault Clio Sport V6 Trophy,; CORGI 1 50 th VINTAGE GLORY, L E GARRETT 4CD ROAD TRACTOR + TRAILERS + LOAD,MERCEDES BENZ O 307 Überland Linienbus - SONDERMODELL POST Edition Brekina 1 87,.RENAULT CLIO ESTATE blue 1 43,. The ScottsdaleDiecast Car Model Almost Real Mercedes-AMG GT R 2017 1 43 (Yellow) + GIFT ,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, HPI Racing 1 43 Scale Model Car 8080 - Alfa Romeo 155V6 TI - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; KIT FORD VEDETTE CCC CLASSIQUES 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE MONTAGE USINE,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lesney Match Box bluee Ford FairlanePolice Car White Interior in Box,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AUDI Quattro Rallye Gr.B Pikes Peak Winner Sieger Buffum 1983 limit Trofeu 1 43,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Tenariv Models 1 43 1969 Matra MS80 Jean-Pierre Beltoise F1 French Grand Prix,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 18 AUTOart Ford GT Gulf Colours bluee orange 80513, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Red Line 1 43 Scale Resin - RL024 Ferrari F360 Modena JMB Le Mans 2004, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT NYPD MODEL BN 19036,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1 18 Bburago Signature Series Ferrari California T Hardtop closed,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MINICHAMPS Maserati Mistral Syder 1964 1 43 437123431,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDINKY TOYS ENGLAND FARM LAND ROVER 27D-340 TRES BON ETAT,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MODELLINO JAGUAR XKR ZAO JAMES BOND 2002 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,NOREV 1 18 1955 MERCEDES-BENZ 300 DIE-CAST GREY 183578GRY,Vintage Corgi Toys Morris Mini-Minor no.226 Boxed. Box Poor A F,.Burago 1 18 Scale - 3005 Bugatti Type 59 1934 white box version,.Maisto 1 18 Metall orange 07 Lamborghini Ga Superleggera - Gallardo 118 Diecast,. The HuygheHamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Neo Scale Neo45695 Model,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVery Rare Matchbox Superfast MB - 19 b Road Dragster in Red with 3 x no.8 Labels,.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3378 Ferrari 360 Modena Challenge 1999 bluee,.Fiat 238 Van 1970 White Rio 1 43 RIO4519 Model,.

Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ309 - Matra DJET Monte Carlo 1966,.Tameo Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - F1 Lotus Ford 107 B European GP 1993,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Mercedes C190 AMG GT-S 2015 bluee vehicle miniature 351348 Norev 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePorsche 911 Coupe van Diapet Yonezawa Toys 248 Japan 1 40 in Box 26660,.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1971 PLYMOUTH GTX 440 1 18 SCALE,.

For example, in Partridge,Lot Of 100 Plus Hot Wheels Dates From All Eras Working & Rolling 100 CAR CASE ,. In Jorgensen, supra,Motormax 1 18 Scale - 73100 BMW MINI Cooper green white,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 ERTL 1969 CHEVY CAMARO gold METALLIC W FLAMES & gold TORQUE THRUST WHEELS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VINTAGE MATCHBOX Y5-C YESTERYEAR 1930 LEYLAND TITAN TD1 MICA CLUB MODEL,. That is the same situation in this case.1967 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z 28 blueE 50TH ANNIV LTD 1002PCS 1 18 BY AUTOWORLD AMM1101,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Bruder Dodge Power Wagon with Horse Trailer RAM 2500 1 16 Toy Vehicle 02501,. Detroit Edison, supra.

True Scale 1 43 McLaren 2013 MP4-12C GT3 Goodwood Festival 134325,.Hot wheels lot 26 Cars,.Matchbox Lesney Red No. 67 Volkswagen 1600 TL oc16189,.

HOTWHEELS - ELITE (MATTEL) - 1 0 - STAR WARS NEW STARSHIP 2015 - THE FORCE AWAKE,.