Renault 300 Kg 1953 'PARFUMS REVILLON' REVILLON' REVILLON' 1 18 Model NOREV 246da5

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Renault 300 Kg 1953 'PARFUMS REVILLON' REVILLON' REVILLON' 1 18 Model NOREV 246da5
Porsche 908 2 - No.67 Le Mans 1972 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Renault Supercinq Gt Turbo 1985 silver 1 18 Modelo 185209 NOREV,.DINKY TOYS 36F BRITISH SALMSON FOUR SEATER SPORTRS CAR - RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.MINICHAMPS - The Johnson Car. LINCOLN CONTINENTAL PRESIDENTIAL PARADE CAR 086101,.PROVENCE MOULAGE - ASTON MARTIN DB 3 - 1 43E,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.DIECAST CAR & CASE 1976 JILL MUNROE FORD MUSTANG II COBRA II CHARLIE ANGELS 1 18,.CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ pink 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.TA056 DINKY TOYS FR MECCANO 1 43 SIMCA 1100 GL 1967 70 Ref 1407 BEL ETAT,.Premium ClassiXXs KrAZ 255V - oliv - NVA - 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Franklin Mint 1936 Bugatti Type 57SC ATALANTE 1 24 Diecast Red B11RP48 W Box,.FORD GT 2017 blue 1 18 GT40,.Emek Scania R Hook Lift Skip Tipper (White), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

RENAULT ALPINE GT4 2+2 PARADCAR 072BB 1 43 résine ancien boitage,.Rio RI4148 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA REPARTO MOBILE 1 43 Modellino,.1 18 1971 Mustang Sportsroof , ,,.Citroen GS 5 Türer Beige 1970-1986 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indivi..,.

1 43 Spark Model MG B GT V8 1973 S4141,.VW 1303 red, 1 18 NOREV,.MATCHBOX RACE HORSE Transporter K-18,.Motor Max 1 60 Scale Model Helicoptor 76299 - Mil Mi-24 Hind,.AUTOCULT SHELTER - MICRO CAR - YELLOW 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 39,.

BATMAN BATMOBILE - Lot of 15 - Hot Wheels & Matchbox (See Description),. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.MECCANO DINKY TOYS 172 STUDABAKER LAND CRUISER EXC NM-- ENGLAND UK CAR,.Conversion 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN3 D. Steven & Sons + Trailer,.Best Model BT9277 FERRARI 250 LM N.57 10th LM 1966 NOBLET-DERNIER 1 43 Modellino,Display Case 1 18 Hand Made Mahogany Wood Colour Base Scratch Resistant Lid,.Tobar 1 18 Scale F50 Model Car,.

Corgi 230 Mercedes Benz 220SE coupe 1 43 Oldtimer old Box,.FERRARI 330 P MONZA - 1964 L. SCARFIOTTI 1 43 art.337 ARTMODEL Made in ,.Lamborghini Miura P400 Bertone 1966 orange RIO 1 43 RIO4583 Miniature,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Hot Wheels 1998 30th Anniversary VW Bus (1996) Soft Box w PM Shipping,.

Spark SE00 1 43 Resin Audi R8, Winner 2000 Sebring 12H, audi Sport Team Joest,. We agree in part.

Classic Metal Works 1 24 ROSWELL POLICE GEORGIA Ford Police Interceptor,.CORGI 486 KENNEL SERVICE WAGON(with four dogs) NEAR MINT.,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.SUNSTAR SUBARU IMPREZA 555 WINNER RALLY OF NEW ZEALAND 1994 1 18 blueE 5502,.REMORQUE PORTE-VOITURE DOUBLE ESSIEUX AVEC RANGE PNEUS TEXACO red - 1 18 GMP,.Corgi Toys 226 Morris Mini Minor pale bluee with lemon interior,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Benetton Renault B195 British Grand Prix Vincitrice 1995 in 1 43 Scala da Spark,.Hpi 1 43 BP OIL Trampio Skyline GT-R R32 1993 JTC hpi8077 Japan new.,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 048 - 1935 Dodge Van Apotheek de Korenbloem 1 Of 750,; BITTER SC Coupe Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44266,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

VW T3 Multivan Bus bluee Red White Star 1993 - blue red white -1 18-KK Scale,.Jaguar E Spyder Cantagiro 1962 Adriano Celentano Best 1 43 BE9618 Model,HOT WHEELS 1 43 Scale Diecast V8375 FERRARI 612 SAGLIETTI,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3, 24H Spa 2015 , Sparkmodels,.

Vitesse Peugeot 205 T16 Tour de Corse 1985 Darniche in bluee on 1 43 in Box,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.HI FI Kit à Monter 1 43 - Ferrari Mondial 3.2L,.1 43 Jaguar E-Type Series 1 Roadster-Century Dragon-Cream White-High End Diecast,.Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Kyosho Original 1 43 Toyota 86 Gt Limited 2016 Pure Red New F S,; MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP P. MA CARRERA CUP ASIA MACAU 2007 IN METALLO MINIC,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, ARPRA LOWBOY 3 AXLE TRAILER excellent condition with no box,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Renault 20 TS 1978 Algue Green Metallic 1 18 - 185265 NOREV,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

DINKY 132 FORD 40-RV - EXCELLENT in original BOX,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

2010 Honda gold Wing Roja 1 6 Motor Max 76264,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Spark 1 43 Scale S4950 - Peugeot 2008 DKR16 th Dakar Rally 2016,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.GMC B.A. SUV Van A-Team Movie Vandura 1983 TV Serie Filmauto A Greenlight 1 18,.Kyosho 1 43 Alice Motors â–ª Lancer Evolution X Test Car,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.VINTAGE MATTEL RRRUMBLERS MOTORCYCLE TOY RIDER RED LOOPS GOOD,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VW T2 Pritsche blue 1972 1 43 Minichamps Modellauto,.

Premium Classixx PREM12107 MERCEDES LP 911 BMW RENNABTEILUNG 1 43 Modellino,.DV5316 QUARTZO VITESSE PORSCHE 956 WARSTEINER LE MANS 1984 Ref Q3074 1 43,.Old toy Ets Villet wooden toy on wheels,.SCHUCO Renault R5 Turbo (white) 1 43 450885500,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.RIO 4112 CITROEN DS 19 Gendarmerie 1965,.

Post Office set Dinky restoration and Atlas combination 6 Pieces,.1997- MATCHBOX- HOT ROD COLLECTION SET - SERIES 11 - MIB - 1 OF 25,000,.Ebbro 44164 Lotus Elan S2 TYPE 26 ( Yellow ) 1 43 scale,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Lamborghini Countach LP400 Baujahr 1974-1978 black 1 18 Kyosho,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.2013 Ferrari 458 Speciale red 1 18 Bburago 16002,.BMW E21 323i Gr.2 Youngtimer Trophy Munhowen Moutarde NEO Resin 1 43,.BC Transit New Look Fishbowl Bus 1 87 Rapido 701009 Standard (2018),.Original Audi S1 8X Modellauto A1 1 43 Misangoldt Misano red 5011411013,.FRENCH DINKY TOYS 821 MERCEDES UNIMOG ORIGINAL BOX VERY NICE L@@K,.

1 18 Norev Ford Capri 2.8 Injection green green in OVP, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1 18 Minichamps Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 ADAC GT Masters NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Spark Model SB169 AUDI R8 LMS N.6 NC 24H SPA 2017 RICHELMI-BERTHON-TRELUYER 1 43,. The PartridgeMinichamps Yamaha YZR-M1 2004 1 12 Carlos Checa MotoGP,.Subaru Brz Tokyo Motor Show 2011 Matt White 1 43 Model 44903 EBBRO,.Ferrari 166Mm Barchetta Gianni Agnelli Personal Car 1948 ART MODEL 1 43 ART026-2,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MINICHAMPS 081390 081391 081333 JAGUAR XKR GT3 diecast model cars 2008 1 18th, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Dinky Toys GB n° 449 camion Ford Johnston Road Sweeper neuf en boite MIB,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 125 Caterpillar CAT 994K Wheel Loader Diecast Car Model Masters () Toys,.Opel Record A, 1963 coupe, aeroblue, 1 43, Minichamps LIMITED EDITION,PartridgeLANCIA DELTA HF INTEGRALE 16V n°1 Rallye TOUR DE CORSE 1991 1 18 Auriol,.Doosan DH220LC hydraulic excavator 1 40 model free shipping,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Western 1 43 Scale White metal 15NOV2017D Arrows A1 Jochen Mass Warsteiner F1, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PREMIUM CLASSIXX PCL47061 TATRA 815 S3 orange 1 43,; Mercedes-Benz LP 608 Porsche Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Last Of The V8 Interceptors Ford Falcon XB 1 18 Scale Diecast 181GR04, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, BMW 5er Reihe E12 Alpina Tuning Limousine B7 Turbo red red Spark Resin 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCorgi Toys 96011 MR.Bean's Mini perfect mint in box all original condition,.

Spark Model S6060 Tgold red STR13 P.GASLY 2018 N.10 4th BAHREIN GP 1 43 Modelli,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S0178 - Corvette C6-R Team Corvette th LM 2007, Clarke's negligent act.NOREV BMW M 1 1980 blue 1 18 183224 Neuheit 2018,.Vanguards 1 43 Scale Diecast VA10705 - MGB Open Top - Pale Primpink,.Old Fire By Brumm 1 43 Scale Diecast X06 - Turbina Di Verbiest 1681,.

NOREV 1 18 1973 Simca 1000 Rally Monte Carlo Diecast Model Car Red (185707),.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hot Wheels Datsun blueebird 510, Datsun 620, 240Z, And Honda Civic Type R Zamac,Maisto 1 18 scale Diecast - 31619 BMW Mini Cooper Red with white roof,. In Noska,Vintage Corgi No 469 London Routemaster Bus; 1974; Near Mint,.Nuova Faor Pro Racing Alloy Forks 1 5 Scale,.Ferrari 365 California Spider 1966 Red KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180051 Model,.AVONCAST 1 43 SCALE WHITE METAL AC14 - THE WAYNE ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP - SHELL, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.BMW 507 Cabrio 1956 silver 1 18 Norev 183483 neu & OVP,.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 4P 1.3 1972 Red KK Scale 1 18 KK180021 Model,.Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 White 1 18 - 182771 NOREV,.1 43 Premium X Ford mustang Tour De France 1964 Greder - Delalande,. Id., p 923.

ART MODEL AM0325 FERRARI 250 CALIFORNIA 1957 red SCURO 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Peugeot 206 CC, green, 1 18 - WELLY,Brooklin 1 43 - Studebaker Commander Indianapolis Pace Car,.Spark Model S5083 MC LAREN F1 GTR N.41 2nd LM 1997 A.OLOFSSON-P.H.RAPHANEL-J.M.G,.2017 TAKUMA SATO INDIANAPOLIS 500 CHAMPION ANDRETTI 1 18 BY GREENLIGHT 11020,.Peugeot D4b 1963 Ambulance 1 18 Model NOREV,.Hot Wheels 23rd Convention Dinner '69 Chevelle SS Real Riders Red,.Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 785016 - 1985 Lancia Delta S4 - Red,.Mercedes 600 Pullman 1972 Red Baron The Hilton Family True Scale 1 43 TSM154340,. The parties DINKY TOYS Lincon Zephyr brown brown Metall Modellauto England 1 43 (K36),.

MINICHAMPS Opel Rekord P1 Caravan im Maßstab 1 43 - OVP,.MERCEDES LP911 Camoin Citerne MILCH PREMIUM CLASSIXXS 18277 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, BBR 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - MET62 McLaren MP4 11 Mercedes GP Australia 1996,; Best Model 9401 FERRARI 512BB LM III SERIES 1 43 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Porsche 911 T 1969 - dark red - Norev 1 18 - 187630,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO spyder blue clair 1 18,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Matrix Scale Models Arnolt Bristol Bolide 1955 White,.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX13 Mercedes C11 1st Monza 1990 1st Spa 1990,.Cararama Diecast 1 50 Scale CR035 Stobart Rail Scania R560 & Nooteboom Lowloader,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Renault T460 tracteur camion ref 115508 1 43 eligor,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Neo 1 43 Borgward Hansa 2400 Rappold, black,.Western 1 43 Scale White Metal - 17OCT17F Tyrrell Pironi Model F1 Car,.Neo Maserati Quattroporte IV - black - 1996 - 1 43,.Matchbox Superfast Nr.20B Police Patrol Police yellow red black blacke Bpl.,.1975-79 CORGI 1 43 Gratte-Ciel Grue à tour No1155 Très Bon Etat BOITE ABIMER,. The Scottsdale1 25 POLISTIL Serie S Mercedes Benz 190 E 2.3 16V MIB - No Burago Politoys,CORGI HERITAGE 1 50 SCALE - 08707 - 1926 BAZAR DE L'HOTL - RENAULT KZ,.Morgan Evo Team Sard Morand , 24H LeMans 2015 , Spark models,. Id.,Mercedes-Benz Modellauto 1 50 NFZ LKW Econic Koffer mit Hebebühne B66004149,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC056 - Aston Martin DB35 - LM 1953,; SPARK McLaren F1 GTR J.D. Deletraz M.S. Sala F. Giroix Le Mans 1996 S4732,Diecast Masters Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor bluee 1 50 Trailer Head 71004,.NEW 1968 Oldsmobile Cutlass Hurst Die Cast Class Of '68 50th Anniversary Edition,. The ScottsdaleVintage 1981 Matchbox Emergency Services Carry Case - Nice ,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, VOXxi9 1 43 Scale VOX505TBOBL - Peugeot 505 Turbo Injection bluee Grey,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; TOY The incredible 2 Die Cast Car free shipping,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark 1 43 - TVR Tamora yellow,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ghostbusters Ambulance Racing Champions 1 18 SCALE Ecto 1 - Excellent Condition,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, SPARK PORSCHE 908 3 Winner Targa Florio 1970 J. Siffert - Redman 43TF70 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Yamaha YZF-R1M 1 12 ( Tamiya ), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS 2000 Dark bluee 1 18 Model 1986 SUN STAR, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, MARK43 PM4316SR 1 43 Datsun Fairlady 2000 SR311 sports wheel Red,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSPARK PORSCHE 356 C Cabrio Hard Top 1963 S4922 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Yamaha YZR-M1 2006 1 12 James Ellison,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePORSCHE 918 SPYDER 2014 silver METALLIC 1 43 SPARK S4244 NEU,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.IMBRIMA INBRIMA MAJORETTE Nº255 TRACTOR HANOMA B154,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,NOREV159988 - CITROEN T46 Pompiers Pompe Guinard Ech 1 43 - 1 43,Wiking H0 Pritschen-LKW Büssing 4500 (MC1387),.Maisto 1971 DATSUN 510. 1 24 DIECAST MODEL.,.Minichamps Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 1 43 410140644 1 43 1 43,. The HuygheLot of 11 Vintage Lesney & Lesney Matchbox Series Cars,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheJensen Healey Mkii Spider 1972 Green NeoScale 1 43 NEO44391,.

Circle K Sunks Kyosho 1 100 Honda Mini Model Car Collection Set of 18 Pcs,.CORGI 261 ASTON MARTIN DB5 JAMES BOND 007 1965 Restored WOW,.

Dinky Bedford Van - MJ Hire Service - White - A+ B,.STAHLBERG SAAB 99 GL 99GL CREAM PLASTIC FINLAND EXCELLENT RARE SELTEN .,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Diecast Car Model Mazda All New CX-5 CX5 Generation 2 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBRISTOL 400 1947 KENSIGTON blueE LANSDOWNE MODELS LDM.31X 1 43,.1 18 SIGNATURE MODELS 1917 REO TOURING LIGHT blueE rd,.

For example, in Partridge,MODELER'S 1 43 Keisuke Takahashi RX-7 FD-3S Painted Model Japan,. In Jorgensen, supra,Porsche Boxster E - Mobility ltd. Edition 1 2000 Spark 1 43 WAP0202040F neu,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.DIECAST MASTERS 1 87 SCALE PROGRESS RAIL - A CATERPILLAR COMPANY 85534,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,HOT WHEELS RED LINE CLUB EXCLUSIVE 55 CHEVY SANTA'S SPEED SHOP 2009 HOLIDAY CAR,. That is the same situation in this case.F1 RED BULL RB12 Renault Heuer Verstappen Deutschland 2016 Minichamps 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 43 Ford AA cabriolet 1928,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SIKU PLASTIC V172 V 172 FORD TAUNUS 17M 17 M TWOTONE N MINT RARE SELTEN ,.MODELLINO ASTON MARTIN DBRS9 SCHROYER 24H SPA FRANCORCHAMPS 2009 IN METALLO MINI,.Ferrari 166Mm Barchetta Gianni Agnelli Personal Car 1948 ART MODEL 1 43 ART026-2,.

1 18 Norev Citroen GS Club 1972 Camargue bluee blue Nr. 181625 in OVP,.