Ferrari Ferrari Ferrari 250 Gt California 1962 Green Metallic 1 43 Model 0364 ART-MODEL 6d7b6c

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Ferrari Ferrari Ferrari 250 Gt California 1962 Green Metallic 1 43 Model 0364 ART-MODEL 6d7b6c
Märklin Digital - 3665 Diesel Locomotive Br 260 Model Railway Gauge H0 (Mf11),
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals METAL BUILT KIT 1 43 PRESTIGE 2 BUGATTI ROYALE TORPEDO- RARE SELTEN -,.Fiat 18Bl Croce Rossa Eser.Italiano 1915 1 43 Rio4320 Model Diecast,.(V) triang spot on AUSTIN HEALEY 100 6 - 105,.Mercedes L 3000 Pritschenwagen MB Holzkiste, Modellauto 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Limousine Nissan Skyline 2000 GT 1972 white DISM 1 43,.1 18 Autoart A1 GP 2007 Grand Race Car Die Cast Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.SCHUCO BMW Isetta Export mit Anhänger 60 Jahre BMW Isetta 1955-2015 1 43,.WIKING 550 POSTWAGEN MB L 3500 W510,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.HOT WHEELS 2012 HIDDEN TREASURE HUNT - HW PERFORMANCE HONDA S2000,.2011 2018 BMW 650i 6 Series Grand Coupe F06 Frozen Bronze 1 18 Dealer Edition,.Emek Scania R Hook Lift Skip Tipper (White), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

617F Novoexport A3 Yanka 13 Chaika Beige Russia 1 43 Soviet,.Diecast Car Model Toyota Yaris 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,.Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Grey 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 25 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE 1958 - IDIANAPOLIS PACE CAR 1 43 -NMIB,.

Audi A5 Cabrio Teak brown Facelift Ab 2011 1 43 Norev Auto mit oder ohne indiv..,.Abarth 595 Ss 1966 White 1 43 Spark S1310 Model,.Fiat Ritmo Bertone 100S Supercabrio Closed 1985 Red Kess Model 1 43 KS43010041 M,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale Built White Metal Kit 58 - Lancia D50 G.P. 1955,.NEW DIECAST TOYS NOREV 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS DTM 2011 D. COULTHARD 183581,.

Castaway Action Nascar Dale Earnhardt JR Nitro Bass Boat Trailer Diecast 1 64,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Solido CITROËN Dyane 6 Jade Green 421184010 1 18,.Art Model AM0093 FERRARI 500 TR N.61 MONZA 1956 CORTESE-PINZERO 1 43 Modellino,.2004 Corgi 2000 DC Comics Batmobile 1 18 Scale Model,Corgi Diecast 327 - Chevrolet Caprice Taxi - Yellow,.Neo Borgward P100 - weiss - 1 43,.

Porsche 911 964 Carrera 2 4 1992 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 30340,.Trofeu TF0717 TOYOTA CELICA ST205 N.1 RET.MONTE CARLO 1995 AURIOL-OCCELLI 1 43 M,.AWR1150 - Voiture de la police de New York DODGE Monaco 1974 - 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Porsche 911 RS 1973 - white - Norev 1 18 - 187636,.

EFE Leyland Titan Predotype bus London Transport rte 024 Victora ref 28825 BNIB,. We agree in part.

1 43 Toyota Celsior Lexus LS400 VERY RARE MODEL Die Cast Model,.1 43 RL86K Jaguar E-type lightweight Samir Klat low drag coupe KIT BY SMTS,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Spark 1 43 Nissan GT-R LM NISMO LMP1 Manchester City 2015 S4561,.Herpa Wasel MB Actros LH 08 Schwerlast ZM Semitieflader Raupenfahrwerk 7213,.1 43 Wit's WITS Toyota CARINA 1600GT TA61 Light Yellow 1990 W481 NEW ,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Vanguards 1 43 Scale Model Car Diorama BD1002 - Ford Anglia Van - Whitbread,.Hot Wheels Classics 1949 Ford know as SHOE BOX gold 24 Karat gold Plated,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Diecast Car Model Almost Real Mercedes-AMG GT R 2017 1 43 (Purple) + GIFT ,; KYOSHO 1 43 MUSEUM COLLECTION SHELBY COBRA 427 S C RACING SCREEN MEGA RARE ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 18 Pontiac GTO año 1965 Sun Star 1809 Capri gold,.Chevy Impala Open 1958 Red 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,SPARK 1 43 - S3701 AUDI R18 E-TRON QUATTRO AUDI SPORT TEAM JOEST 2ND LM 2012,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.RED BULL RACING TAG-HEUER RB12 RICCIARDO 2016 417160003 Minichamps 1 43 New ,.

Minichamps 1 43 - Opel Rekord Coupe bluee,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2580 - Corvette C6 ZR1 Corvette Racing LM 2010,.RECORD PORSCHE 356 B CABRIOLET BUILT RESIN MODELCAR 1 43,.Tekno 62988 Classical 3-axis Kuehlkofferauflie.1 50,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Corgi.CC13771 SCANIA R HIGHLINE,BULK TIPPER O`DONOVAN WASTE DISPOSAL 1 50,; ALFA ROMEO 159 2005 silver ALFA silver 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400120500 NEU,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 18 Range Rover Sport (Champaigne) Burago 18-12069,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Mercedes 11-40 1924 White 1 43 Model RIO,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Wonderful NEO-resin-modelcar MG RV8 1993 - darkred metallic - 1 43 - lim.ed.300,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Spark Model SA136 AUDI R8 LMS N.1 2nd FIA GT WORLD CUP MACAU 2017 R.FRIJNS 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Road Signature 1963 Fiat Abarth 695SS Rally Car 1 18 Scale Diecast Race Drivers,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.MINICHAMPS BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GT RED 436139025,.NOREV 1 18 1964 CITROEN AMI 6 181536,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.BROOKLIN MODELS BRK 27 CADILLAC ELDORADO BROUGHAM 1957 - 1 43 - NMIB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Auto Art Gateway 60034 MERCEDES BENZ CLK DTM 2000 1 43 n.6,.

FERRARI 458 RED SPECIALE SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BBURAGO 16903,.Dinky Toys 36a Armstrong Siddeley saloon,.Alezan 1 43 Scale Resin Built Kit 270 - 1996 Alfa Romeo 145 Quadrifolio Sport,.De Agostini Ferrari Collection 550,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Neo Mercedes 500 SEC Koenig Specials - metallic-dunkelred - 1 43,.

Trofeu 1 43 Scale 1018 - Ford Escort Mk2 4th Rally 1977 Clark Pegg,.Domestic Famous Car Collection 1 43 Isuzu Beret 1600 Gt-R,.Traffic Stoppers- Hot Style and Traffic Jammerz Lot of 28 NIP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Porsche 911 Targa 4 S 2017 bluee 1 43 Model S4977 SPARK MODEL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast Model Car 31386 - Lamborghini Centenario - Grey,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari 550 Maranello metal polish NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.ASTON MARTIN DB5 1963 AQUA VERDA GREE CHRONO 1 18 NEUVE EN BOITE,.1965 SHELBY COBRA 427 S C PINK WITH CARROLL SHELBY SIGNATURE 1 18 SC114,.1979 Die Cast Buddy L NASA space set (used),.

Spark 1 43 BMW 635 CSI N.1 winner Macau Guia race 1983 SA052, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.BMGL02 - FIAT TOPOLINO VACANZE ROMANE 1953 ED.LIM.PCS 100 1 43 MODELLINO MODEL,.NEO MODELS BMW E39 Polizei 2002 1 43 43298,. The PartridgeSiku Super 3528 99900 EU LIEBHERR Raupenbagger R 974 B mit Klappschaufel 1 55,.Vitesse 1 43 Scale RA233 - Austin Morris Mini Cooper RAC Rally Conversion,.Ford Top Fuel 427 Cid SOHC Engine in 1 6 -,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Vitesse 04542 FORD FALCON HARD TOP 1963 1 18 Modellino, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 43 Rampini Mercedes-Benz 220 Taxi Berlin 1952 Handmade Resin Model Car,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Ebbro 1 43 Epson Nsx Concept Gt Okayama Super Gt 500 2015 New F S,.Volkswagen 1303 1972 Red NOREV - NO 188520 - Echelle 1 18 NEWS JUILLET 2018,PartridgeMINICHAMPS OPEL KADETT C GT E SIGNALyellow black 430045622,.DINKY 828 JEEP HOTCHKISS WILLYS LAUNCHER SS10 MILITARY MIB 9 EN BOITE L@@K,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Novoexport 1 43 Lada VAZ 2101 leberwurstredbrown cccp USSR ohne Box 511501, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco 1 43 Hanomag L28 Kreidler 450292900,; MCG - 1 18 - OPEL MANTA MATTIG - 1991 - 18095YBR,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Opel Kadett C Saloon 1973-1977 - yellow - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RSR h Le Mans 2004 Racer's Group, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeCitroen T46 Pompiers Pompe Guinard 1962 1 43 ELIGOR 159988,.

ACME 1 18 1967 Z 28 CAMARO - CHEVROLET'S FIRST EVER Z 28 - NO OUTER BOX - READ,.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale CM-DGS002 -Dennis Dragon Bus HK R12 Club Model, Clarke's negligent act.380F Vintage CIJ Europarc 3 93 Renault Estafette Vehicle Police officer 1 43,.Mercury Toys Chaparral 2J CAN-AM made in 1 43 scale EX-NM,.MINICHAMPS 1 12 HONDA NSR 500 NASTRO AZZURRO ROSSI 46 2001 PRE SEASON TESTBIKE,.

Britains DISPATCH RIDER ON MOTORCYCLE - 9698 mint boxed,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1935 Jaguar SS1 Saloon,RIO RI4520 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FERRARI CH POZZI LE MANS 1978 1 43,. In Noska,Universal Hobbies UH4990 MF HARRIS 202 WORK BULL 1940-47 1 32 Modellino,.FIAT SEAT 131 Abarth Rallye Villa Gijon 1981 Spain Cardin Motul 1 250 1 43,.NOREV 181610 CITROEN CONCEPT GT WHITE SALON DE PARIS 2008 1 18 DIECAST WHITE,.Porsche 962C Winner ADAC Eiffelrennen Nürburgring 1986 NOREV 187411 1 18, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Kyosho 1 43 Nissan GT-R Fuji Speedway official car K03741FSW,.Spark Model S4503 CITROEN DS3 N.3 10th MONTE CARLO 2015 K.MEEKE-P.NAGLE 1 43 Mod,.SCANIA R580 KRONE Big M green 1 50 Faucheuse,.SCHUCO WIKING 1 87 Modellauto Konvolut Posten 1 72 Teilweise NEU,. Id., p 923.

Rare Minichamps 436 144000 Dodge Viper 1993 - 2003 10th Anniversary Set in Red,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale 34510 - Riley Kestrel - Arianca Beige Sandy Beige,1 24 Action Austin Dillon Rheem 2016 Chevy Camaro 1 of 505,.Fiat 238 Assistenza Ferrari Le Mans 1977 Red 1 43 Model RIO,.Renault 21, Superproduction 1989 , Sparkmodels,.Norev NV155429 CITROEN C 4 N.1 GB RALLY 2009 LOEB 1 43,.PONTIAC Trans Am K.I.T.T. The Knight Rider K.A.R.R. KARR. Film HW Mattel 1 43,.HOT WHEELS LOOSE random LOT OF 50 read add,.PEUGEOT 206 RC 2003 Red, Model Car 1 18 Norev,. The parties BMW 328i e46 Airbrush 1 of 50 1 18 inkl. OVP + Zertifikat 3er 3 series SELTEN,.

NOREV185260 - Voiture break RENAULT Juvaquatre Elfenbein de 1951 de color crèm,.SPARK PORSCHE 911 Carrera 2.7 1974 S4997 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, S3812 Spark 1 43 Bentley Brooklands Pearl Red Metallic with Parchment Seats 1992,; NSU RO80 Wankel - Mebetoys A-37 1 43 34382, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

MULLIN AUTO MUSÉUM 1931 BUGATTI TYPE 54 ROADSTER MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, BMW 2000 CS - Solido 157 France 1 43 36185,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)FINEWORK Chgold Q size New Lancia Stratos HG Resin Kit,.Spark 1 43 Scale S4507 - VW Polo R WRC rd Monte Carlo 2015,.SOLIDO 134 PORSCHE GT 8 CYLINDER LE MANS GREY 1 43 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,BMW 5 er reihe Schabak 1 43 NEUVE + BOITE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Honda Civic SiR VTEC RHD 1990 red, Modellauto 1 18 Triple9,.1 43 ZIS 150 MOSCOW STREET CLEANER TANKER blueE & YELLOW DiP NEW IN BOX,.Troféu Ford Escort RS 1600 Mk1 1971 1 43 Sclater Holmes RAC Rally,.2016 Porsche 991 (II) CARRERA S Tennis Grand Prix 16.04 24.04 1 43 Spark,.LESNEY MATCHBOX NO. 42 BEDFORD EVENING NEWS VAN - NR. MINT & RARE L2,. The ScottsdaleJLE Scale Models Texaco Puget Sound 35 Anniversary 1931 IHC tanker,NIB, GB 4098,1 43 Spark - S5968 Ford Fiesta WRC Solberg Sweden 2018,.International 1 50 scale HX520 bluee Tandem Tractor - Diecast Masters 71004,. Id.,PILEN 252 LOTUS ELITE - blueE JPS 1 43 - NEAR MINT IN BOX CONDITION,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fiat 500L 1968 blue 1 1 18 Norev,; Hot Wheels 2012 RLC Subscription School Busted Short Bus Rare Members Only,Porsche 962 , No.68, BF Goodrich, IMSA, Riverside, 1 18, Norev,.BMW SERIE 3 E30 ALPINA B6 3.5S blue 1 43 M3,. The Scottsdale1 18 KK-Scale 180203R VW Bus T3 Multivan Bulli Red Star 1993 red in OVP,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Rietze MB Travego Weltmeisterbus 2014 Fußball Manschaftsbus DFB (R1_5_25),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; ALPINE RENAULT BERLINETTE A110 blue 1 18 1973,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1951 Jaguar C-Type,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VW T2 b Bus 1973 Field of Dreams red, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Neo Dodge Sportsman - metallic-green weiss - 1973 - 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, BNIB CORGI LIMITED EDITION CC12807 CAB FELDBINDER TANKER CYRIL KNOWELS LTD, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 120441 - 1965 Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GTA - White, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Art Model AM0332 FERRARI 500 MONDIAL N.535 RETIRED MILLE MIGLIA 1956 G.CASAredTO,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeBROOKLIN MODELS BRK 53x CHEVROLET CAMEO blueE GRASS FARMS - 1955 - 1 43 - NMIB,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43ème AUSTIN A30 1955 COUNTRYMAN ESTATE - LANSDOWNE LDM 18 - NEUVE EN BOITE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCitroën T46 1962 Pompiers Pompe Guinard NOREV,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 006978 - Porsche 911 GT3R Le Mans 2000,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Maserati Sebring Series Ii Metallic bluee 1 43 NeoScale NEO45643 Model,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 091118B - 1994 5 Alfa Romeo 155 V6 Ti - Green,.Audi R8 LMS , 24H Nurburgring 2013 , Sparkmodels,.Vitesse Chevrolet Corvette 1973 1 43 Aubriet Depince 24h Le Mans (JS),. The HuygheFORD FK1000 FK 1000 + NSU MAX 1 43 SCHUCO 450328700 NEU,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMODELLINO VOLKSWAGEN RACE TOUAREG SABY PARIGI-DAKAR 2004 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

Matchbox Superking K-25 Boat & Trailer Variante 1 top in Box,.Maisto 1 18 Lamborghini Reventon Assembly DIY Racing Car Diecast MODEL KITS 2018,.

Ebbro 44202 Lotus Europa S2 Yellow (Resin) 1 43 scale,.1 18 Norev BMW M 535i 1980 gold 183268,. Nonetheless, on the facts of ORIGINALE - DINKY TOYS - N 295 ATLAS BUS,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeCITROEN DIANE DINKY TOYS SANS BOITE,.CORGI 486 CHEVY IMPALA KENNEL SERVICE WAGON ORIGINAL PLAYWORN CAR IN REPRO BOX.,.

For example, in Partridge,GMP Models 12423 MCLAREN M8B n.1 GURNEI '69 1 43 Modellino,. In Jorgensen, supra,1961 CITROEN DS 19 CABRIOLET PEARL GREY 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 181598,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31814 Porsche Boxster Red,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 20 Fujimi, Alpine Renault A310 V6, Calberson,. That is the same situation in this case.MB Unimog 406 mit TSA 8 Werksfeuerwehr EKU ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX13 Mercedes C11 1st Monza 1990 1st Spa 1990,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270062 - 1961 Jaguar E-Type - Carmin Red,.Corgi toys no. 211 s studebaker golden hawk ovp,.Mercedes Benz T1 208D Transporter 1988 weiss - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,.

PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS T2M SPA04 MINICHAMPS 1 43 400046980,.