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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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KIT A MONTER MINICIRQUE - SEMI HABITATION ALQUIER PINDER - REF ACP90 - 1 50,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Art Model AM0333 FERRARI 500 MONDIAL N.106 9th NASSAU 1959 A.MARKELSON 1 43 Mode,.Porsche Panamera 4S 2016 Saphir bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207210G,.Diorama Led Cable Light Unit 6 Balls White 2 Pieces,.Corgi 308 Monte Carlo Mini-Cooper 'S'. Yellow. Red Interior. Boxed. 1970's,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1976 Peugeot 504 Break Gendarmerie blue 1 18 MC Group 18036,. 43 BRABHAM ALFA ROMEO BT46 NELSON PIQUET CANADIAN 1978 P400780066,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Yamaha YZF-R1M 1 12 ( Tamiya ),.Hot Wheels 2019 Auto Kultur Team Transport C 3er Set Datsun Nissan 1 ,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Autoart 1 43 58206 Pagani Huayra (2011), silveré Métallique,.Ford Taunus P7b 20M Coupe, weiss 1971 - 1 43 Neo Scale Models 49551 NEW,.Porsche 935 K3 n.85 Le Mans 1980 Resin Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

RECORD PORSCHE 356 B CABRIOLET BUILT RESIN MODELCAR 1 43,.Fiat 242 Martini 1 43 Artigianale,.ENGINE DODGE CHALLENGER 6.1L SRT8 1 6 MODEL BY LIBERTY CLASSICS 84033,.DIECAST MASTERS 1 50 SCALE CATERPILLAR 320D L HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR BN 85280,.

HIGHWAY 61 KAISER MANHATTAN LIGHT GREEN 1 18 SCALE DIECAST METAL,.1958 CHEVROLET SPARTAN & 1957 CHEVROLET BELAIR R26 17-16 BOOTLEGGER,.Hot Wheels Ferrari Racer Red Enzo Ferrari,.Dinky Toys Citroën U23 dépannage Réf 35A Excellent état,.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1970 CHEVELLE SS 396 L89 1 1 18 SCALE,.

Audi R8 LMS , 24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.WELLY WE18051CW PORSCHE 918 SPYDER WHITE 1 18,.Original Omnibus Wright Eclipse Gemini GO North East OM41216 1,.Neo Vacel Vega Excellence 1 43 mit Box Unbespielt,Vintage Meccano Ltd. Dinky Toy A-G Wagon. EXCELLENT CONDITION,.2019 Hot Wheels 19th NATIONALS CONVENTION VOLKSWAGEN DRAGBUS - New in Box ,.

Bentley Continental GT3 ADAC GT Masters Red Bull in 1 43 Scale by TSM,.Matchbox No.41B Siva Spider met. red body rarer 4 spoke wheels mint,.Porsche 911 RSR 2.8 , 24H Daytona 1973 , Minichamps,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Nex 1 18 Scale 18053W 1963 Volkswagen T1 Bus Panel van Cream Diecast model van,.

Russian soviet tractor excavator ATEK 4321 Kiev USSR factory Red excavator 1 43,. We agree in part.

Austin FX4 Taxi - Somerville 100A England 1 43 in Box 34986,.RAI'S 1 43 Toyota Crown GS151Z Metropolitan Police Department Regional Police,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.DIECAST TOY CAR ERTL PLYMOUTH GTX CONVT. 1 18 CAMPBELL CLUB AMER. MUSCLECAR,.( GO ) 1 18 Norev Citroen 2 CV Dolly NEU OVP,.Best Model 9484 FIAT ABARTH 750 ZAGATO 1958 1 43,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 180 Ponton W120 - hellgrey,.Rietze Auto Modelle H0 60119, 60605, 60101 & 696 - 4 caminones,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Neo 45600 Alfa Romeo 2600 Sz ,red, 1967 1 43 Neo,; Aoshima Bunka Kyozaisha 1 24 The Best Car GT Series No.104 Subaru BRZ 2012,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 13901 VW T1b flatbed Zündapp with Bella Roller,.LOT 7 FERRARI 1 43 NEUVE SOUS BLISTER MINIATURE COLLECTION NEUVE,TAKARA JAPAN 803644- FLIGHT ATTENDANT JAL - JENNY's TRAVEL UNUSED IN - BOX RARE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Limited Edition 1 of 1000 Chrome Minichamps Porsche 911 1 43 Dealer Item,.

1 64 HOT WHEELS PORSCHE SERIES FULL SET OF 8 CARS,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.J.E. MORGAN KNITTING TAMAQUA ERTL 1 64 T384 INTERNATIONAL CAB W TRAILER,.Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 Light bluee Met SPARK 1 43 S4912 Miniature,.Porsche 911 991 RSR Modell ab 2012 Ab Facelift 2015 1 43 Spark Modell Auto mit..,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, AUSTIN BUGEYE HEALEY SPRITE 3 LONG YELLOW BUGEYE HEALEY SPRITE WHITE LIGHTNING,; 1976 FORD GRAN TORINO STARSKY AND HUTCH RED CHROME EDITION 1 18 GREENLIGHT 19023,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Replicars 1 43 Scale Diecast - REP CWS 06 Cold War Series Mercedes 180,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Citroen DS3 WRC Rally de France 2012 Neuville Gi. 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181553,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Trofeu Ford Sierra Cosworth Tour de Corse 1987 D. Auriol 1 43 TRLMA07,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

RENAULT MEGANE RS 2017 yellow Sirius 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

BMW 327 Coupé 1937 Guiloy en boite,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Rio 4384 ALFA ROMEO GIULIETTA TI n.102 1 43,.Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 brown colorado Metallic 1 43 Model KESS MODEL,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1971 Plymouth Barracuda 1 25 DIECAST TRANE Employees HANDOUT VHTF RARE ,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Vintage Tootsietoy Graham Army Ambulance Camouflaged Rare,.

Norev France miniature Vedette dépanneuse Garage Paris 1 43 D'origine Plastique,.HOT WHEELS CLASSICS 1968 CAMARO SS AND 1970 MUSTANG BOSS 429 SCALE 1 42,.MERCEDES W123 T - Modell 250 T S123 kombi E Klasse 1980 blue blue KK Metall 1 18,.GUILOY 1 6 YAMAHA TR1 MOTORCYCLE Model Diecast Engine BIKE Spain oat,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Cabriolet Hebmueller 1949 KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180112,.

WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 113 FERRARI TESTAROSSA RED,.Porsche 917K GP Magny Cours 18 187580J,.1 18 Maisto Dream Classics Alpine Renault 1600S 1971 bluee RARITÄT ,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 Turbo Cabriolet 1987 Ivory 1 18 Norev 187661 G-Modell,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.NOREV 1 18 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA RSR MID-OHIO 3 HOURS 1977 FOLLMER HOLMES 187427,.NICE 1927 TOOTSIETOY DIECAST FAGEOL BUS,.Rietze Auto Modelle H0 62700, 40213 & 60183 - 3 autobuses,.Simca 1000 Rallye 2 1976 Maya Yellow 1 18 Norev 185708 1294 2,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR TEAM T2M MOTORSPORT PRE-TEST 24H LE MANS 2006 IN M,.

Bentley S1 Continental Park Ward DHC 1956 - Matrix 1 43 - MX10201-041, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.EARLY DINKY TANKER ESSO VG BOXED NICE EXAMPLE,.1976 Ford Mustang II Mach 1 red 1 18 Greenlight 12867,. The Partridge1 50 Caterpillar Cat 140H Motor Grader Masters 85030 Diecast Vehicle Toys Gifts,.Carrera Servo 160 Renault Alpine 68405,.Spark 1 43 Scale S2068 -1974 Porsche Carrera Turbo,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Ixo 1 43 Scale GTM096 - BMW 3.5 CSL gr5 1st Nurburgring 1000km '76, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Ebro Nissan blueebird 410 1964 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Lotus Xi N.41 16th le Mans 1957 A.Hechard - R. Masson 1 43 Echelle par Spark,.Porsche 911 GT2 2007 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,PartridgeTRAX TR21C Holden EK Sedan - Welland Red Grecian White,.1 43 Brabus 700 Biturbo Basis Mercedes SLS AMG C197 white white Carbon-black,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CC13769 Corgi Scania Highline Feldbinder Tanker Dowse Haulage Diecast HGV Model, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PREMIUM CLASSIXX PCL47061 TATRA 815 S3 orange 1 43,; Bentley Continental Supersports Coupe Grey,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Corgi Mercedes actros mp4 & reefer trailer- Mcculla, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 1972 red KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeKit Abarth T140 6000cc Predo 1967 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.

Wiking 1 87 H0, black Bau Set, MB 1620 Culemeyer + Container + Märklin Waggon,.Corgi Classics Showmans Range 15901 Scammell Highwayman Generator Trailer Dodgem, Clarke's negligent act.FORD Usa Coutry Squire 1960 Red Wood MCG 1 18 MCG18074 Model,.Vintage - ALFA ROMEO MONTREAL - 1 43 Nacoral S.A. Ref.307,.FERRARI 308 GTB MONTECARLO 1982 ARENA MODELLI FB 1 43 n AMR BBR MR BOSICA ABC,.

MERZARIO A1 MERZARIO GP ITALIA 1978 1 43 SPARK S4847,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SIKU 3279 Fendt 939 Diecast Model Toy,Anson Ferrari Dino 246GT Red 1 18 scale Boxed,. In Noska,Lancia Delta S4 Rallye Sanremo 1986 - 1 18 - Triple 9 Collection,.(B) TIMPO TOYS SALOON CAR FRICTION DRIVE,.Alfa Romeo 6c 2500 Freccia d'gold 1 43 Minichamps Diecast Model Limited Edition,.Schuco Classic Blechmodell Studio III W 196 karminred Limited Edition 300, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Italian Style Vignale 340 Mexico 1952 1 43 Art1002 Modellino Auto Diecast,.Johnny Lightning A Lot Of 5,.Spark Model Ligier JS27 Phillipe Alliot 1 43 S4268,.VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE blue au 1 18 GATE 01034 voiture miniature coccinelle,. Id., p 923.

Mazda Cosmo Sport L10B [1968] 1 24 Diecast Scale Model White Hachette Japan Cars,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ford Capri III Turbo (White) 1981,ERTL 1 16 SCALE FARMALL 656 WIDE FRONT TRACTOR MODEL BN 14886,.1 18 Bugatti EB 110 (Red) Burago 18-12023,. Tow & Go Series 1, Set B of 3 Cars Johnny Lightning 50 Years Limited Edition,.TOYOTA Celica ST205 GB RAC Rallye Winner Sieger black 1996 Cas Trofeu 1 43,.CAT 308E2 Caterpillar 85239 Diecast CR SB Mini Hydraulic Excavator 1 32 Vehicles,.Maisto 1 18 1956 CHRYSLER 300B White Display Miniature Car,.Wiking 773 47 Claas Scorpion 7044 Telescopic Loader 077347 1 3 2 New Boxed,. The parties PORSCHE 934 LE MANS 1978 SPARK S5091 1 43,.

You Takara lottery Chgold Q 12 units set,.CORGI CC13772 HAULIERS o RENOWN SCANIA R TOPLINE JOE SHARP ASSASSIN'S CREED 1 50,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Bburago Burago 1 25 PORSCHE 924 GR.2 DUNLOP Sports Car Model Car MIB`83 ,; Sunstar 1 18 Scale - 3122 Lancia Delta HF Integrale Tour De Corse 1990, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Brooklin models BRK 27, 1957 Cadillac Eldorado Brougham.. Boxed,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Fiat Ghia 1500 GT Coupe 1964 Red 1 43 MATRIX MX10701-021,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Minichamps BMW i8 Roadster in White Pearlescent 2018 410027031 1 43 NEW Ltd 504,.Kyosho 1 43 Diecast Car TOYOTA 86 GT LIMITED CRYSTAL WHITE PEARL 193786,.DANBURY MINT NIB 1940 FORD DELUXE COUPE RED NEVER DISPLAYED,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,CORGI 261 JAMES BOND DB5 ASTON MARTIN FULLY RESTORED & REPODUCTION BOX,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Henschel HS 140 Chassis 1954 -1 43 - Minichamps,.CORGI TOYS 282 MINI COOPER RALLYE OVP ORIGINAL 1970,.Vintage Hornby Dublo Lansing Bagnall Tractor and 2 Trailers VGC,.Rio 4317 FIAT 501S SAETTA DEL RE 1915 18 1 43 Modellino,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 410 120114 - F1 Sauber C31-Ferrari,. The ScottsdaleLamborghini Gallardo 1 43 Diecast Minicar,Audi 80 GTE yellow black 1 18 KK-Scale,.Best Model BT9025-2 FERRARI 250 LM N.27 6th LM 1965 A.BOLLER-D.SPOERRY 1 43 Mode,. Id.,Ferrari 250 P Le Mans 1963 43 Model 0136 ART-MODEL,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Stolichnaya Salted KaramelCaramel 37.5% 70cl,; WSI 03-1134 1 50 Scale Mercedes-Benz Actros Big Space 4x2,BBURAGO FERRARI SIGNATURE SERIES 458 SPECIALE ART.18-16903 1 18 NEW,.1 18 Triple9 Opel Kadett C2 Sedan 4-Doors gold 1977 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The ScottsdaleMATCHBOX MOKO LESNEY MODEL No.16a TRANSPORT TRAILER MIB,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Norev 1 18 - Peugeot 404 Cirque Pinder,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; QUARTZO 18273 F1 LOTUS 72 JOCHEN RINDT SPANISH GP 1 18 DIECAST MODEL RED,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Figurine V.Rossi Moto GP 2008 Misano 312080146 1 12 Minichamps,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CITROEN DS 3 - coffret numéredé de 3 - promotionnel Citroën - NOREV AMC,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, ORIGINAL VW modello auto 1 43, Scirocco R, RISING blue METALLIZZATO,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Classic Metal Works 1 24 DADE CITY FLORIDA Ford Police Interceptor, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Tamiya 1 12 Motorcycle Series No. 20 Suzuki GSX 750 Police Type Plastic Model, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, DIAPET YONEZAWA G-58 G58 G 58 BMW 3.5 CSL RED MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeShelby Collectibles 09078 1 18 FORD SHELBY MUSTANG N 08 TERLINGUA RACING TEAM 20,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 Minichamps, Ligier Honda JS41, A. Suzuki,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDAF 55 Marathon Variomatic 1971 White with Decor 1 43 Neo 43343,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ferrari 512 Bb 1976 Giorgio Armani bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,OLD CARS LKW Iveco Cursor Scuderia Ferrari 2000,Renault Clio 16S 1991 grey, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.HOT WHEELS 2017 MEXICO CONVENTION ‘71 DATSUN blueEBIRD 510 WAGON REAL RIDERS NIB,.1 50 CORGI 70301 PINDER JEAN RICHARD BERLIET TLR SEMI TRANSPORT CHEVAUX 2F,. The HuygheFiat 238 Van Assistenza Vacanze 1970 1 43 Model RIO,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheJADA 1 18 Fast and Furious 7 - Brian's Nissan GT-R R35 - bluee,.

Planex 1 43 Lotus 79 French GP 1979 finished product,.Ebbro 44588 TOYOTA ST010 CASIO 1992 No.33 1 43 scale,.

Motorkits 1 43 Scale Built Model Kit - Fod Y Van - Atco - Unboxed,.Neo Lincoln Continental Mark VII LSC - metallic-dunkel-red 1984 - 1 43,. Nonetheless, on the facts of 1970's Winross B&W Express Semi with Original Box, Nice,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeISUZU BELLETT 1600GT type R (1969) 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japan Cars (14),.Neo Audi S1 - yellow - 2014 - 1 43,.

For example, in Partridge,Herpa 090766 Ziegler Z8 8x8 Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug Flughafen Leipzig-Altenburg HO,. In Jorgensen, supra,NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9L - 1992 - 184856,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.MINI DINKY 16 FORD MUSTANG - WHITE L7.0cm - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN GARAGE BOX,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Hot Wheels 1998 30th Anniversary VW Bus (1996) Soft Box w PM Shipping,. That is the same situation in this case.Vintage Tonka Flat Bed Mound, Minnesota,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Peugeot D4B Ambulance 1963 White NOREV 1 18 NV184699,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Matchbox SARACEN PERSONNELL CARRIER military Flat Green in Type B3 box,.Starter N7 Provence Resin 1 43 - Simca Ocean 1957 bluee by CEC,.NEO MODELS Volkswagen T5 Hornis NEO-45453,.

1 43 Spark - S5846 Aston Martin Vantage GTE No.9 LMGTE AM 2017,.