MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS C-CLASS C-CLASS GARY PAFFETT DTM 2010 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS 577571

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C-CLASS C-CLASS C-CLASS GARY PAFFETT DTM 2010 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS 577571
Racing Champions 00563T 1 24 Texaco Havoline Kenny Irwin NASCAR,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals VW POLO R WRC 6R 6C GTI LATVALA - ANTTILA RACE CAR 1 43 SPARK (DEALER MODEL),.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940033430 - Mercedes Benz 350 SL 1974 bluee,.1956 PEUGEOT D4A CYCLES PEUGEOT 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 184710,.TOOTSIETOY U-HAUL TRIM LINE blueE CAR AND TRAILER NEW SEALED,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 43 . MECEDES-BENZ 300 CE de 1987 CENTURY,.TA057 DINKY TOYS FR MECCANO 1 43 FORD VEDETTE 1952 53 Ref 24X BEL ETAT,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Corgi ice cream van Reduced From to .00,.Spark Model S5052 Tgold red B.HARTLEY 2017 N.39 23th USA GP 1 43 Modellino,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Peugeot 206 RC red 3 Türer 1998-2012 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indi..,.2014 Ferrari California T Closed Top red 1 18 Bburago 16003,.New 2015 Ford Mustang GT Dark bluee Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

(Go) 1 18 Norev Renault 30 TS NIP,.MINICHAMPS 400137720 Aston Martin V8 Coupé 1987 Grey Metallic 1 43 NEW,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3049 - F1 McLaren Mercedes MP4-27 1st Brazil GP 2012,.1 18 Norev Opel Manta A 1970 greenmetallic,.

Dinky Dublo 072 Bedford Articulated Lorry - Excellent In Original Box,.Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce green Model RIO,.HOTWHEELS 1 18 ELITE FERRARI 3.2 MONDIAL DIECAST RED,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1970 FORD TORINO COBRA AMM1039,.Bentley Continental GT3 no. 8 Spa 2015 ( M. Buhk - M.Soulet - A.Soucek),.

Porsche 911 Carrera Rsr Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 1 18 Norev 187427 Follmer,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.EBBRO 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 2014 Red 45313 New,.DINKY TOYS ATLAS FOURGON PEUGEOT D3A CIBIE blue REF 25BV 1 43 IN BOX no poste,.REVELL OPEL KADETT B RALLYE 1900 - 1 18,1948 48 ford woody wagon Yatming Road Signature Series 1 18 box damaged bad,.DIECAST MASTERS- 85278 CATERPILLAR TH407C TELHANDLER 1 32 SCALE,.

FORD CONSUL CLASSIC 315 REF. 234 CORGI TOYS QUASI NEUVE EN BOITE,.Star Wars Celebration 2017 Hot Wheels 40th Anniversary Die Cast Vehicle Set of 6,.Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 Goliath Goli Scatola Wäscheverleih Berlino Von,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 18 Ertl Chevrolet Chevelle Phase III Mr. Motion black 33097,.

Ferrari 275 Gts Pininfarina Spider Closed 1964 Red KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180241 Mode,. We agree in part.

1 18 Autoworld Ertl 1962 Pontiac Catalina Super Duty,.MODELLINO AUDI R8 McNISH BIELA KAFFER 24H LE MANS 2004 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.DeAgostini 166 MM 1948 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.40 Japan F S,.Russian Made 1 43 Scale diecast - R5 Moskovitch 412 bluee USSR Car,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 113 FERRARI TESTAROSSA RED,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 431 051290 - VW 1200 Export - Feuerwehr Dortmund,.GUMPERT APOLLO 2006 orange S0668 Spark 1 43 New in a box ,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, McLaren MP4-12C Spider 2013 White 1 43 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,; CORGI 35 CHOPPER SQUAD SURF RESCUE,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Rio 4357 ITALA TARGA FLORIO 1906 1 43,.CITROEN DS 21 break bordeaux 1 18 DS 19,Herpa 120340 Mercedes Benz A LH Kühlkoffersattelzug,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.SCHUCO OPEL BLITZ S 3T ART.03071 1 43 NEW DIE-CAST,.

SPARK COURAGE C36 Porsche th Le Mans 1996 Collard - Pescarolo S4707 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.PORSCHE 911 964 Carrera RS Le Mans Konrad 94 gebauter Bausatz Renaissance 1 43,.Peugeot 106 1 43 kit COMPLETAMENTE IN METALLO,.Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 785016 - 1985 Lancia Delta S4 - Red,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Porsche 911 Carrera Rs 2.7 Coupe 1973 White Green Deco NOREV 1 18 NV187636 Model,; 1 18 Auto World Chevrolet Chevelle SS454 Citrus green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels 1 18 - F1 Williams Mecachrome FW21 R Schumacher,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Greenlight CHASE 84041 Steve McQueen 1968 Mustang GT Green Metallic Wheels 1 24,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1953 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe red-black 1 18 Welly 12525,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Scale model 1 43 Volkswagen T3 DOKA-PRITSCHE - orange 1983,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

MINICHAMPS 1 18 SCALE WILLIAMS F1 TEAM FW22 BMW JENSON BUTTON F1 CAR BOXED,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.BMW M3 GTR K. NISSEN ADAC GT CUP 1993 Minichamps yellow 1 43,.Diecast Car Model Almost Real Mercedes-AMG GT R 2017 1 43 (Purple) + GIFT ,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Fiat 238 Van 1970 White Rio 1 43 RIO4519 Model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Renault Megane RS • Sirius Yellow • 2017 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.

CIJ EUROPARC 1 43 RENAULT 2.5T Canon Autoporté Militaire ref 3 99,.Subaru Impreza WRX 1995 - 1 18 - IXO Models,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model MIN 052003 - VW Der Millionste Beetle - gold,.Herpa 022828 Renault Alpine 'Yellow', New,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.VW Käfer 1303 Cabriolet orange 1973 1 18 Norev 188521 Beetle Volkswagen,.

Dinky Army Covered Wagon - Green - A B,.BMW M535i (E28) 1987 blue metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.Jaguar Mk V Mark 5 1950 blue silver, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 18 Solido Citroen DS19,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 43 La Mini Minera Cisitalia 202 by Pininfarina 1947 red,.1 500 Jet Star Sky400 Sky500 A320-200 Low Farews Forever VH-VGF F S JAPAN Sale,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC13610 - DAF CF Felbinder Tanker - A.K.Longson,.MERCEDES AMG GT3 TEAM MANN FILTER 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 1 43 SPARK SG419,.Minichamps 1 18 - F1 Sauber Petronas C22 Frentzen,.

Renault 12 Gordini 1971 bluee 1 18 - 185210 NOREV, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1999 Racing Champions Mac Tools Mark Martin--1 24th scale,.Bburago BU76104 FERRARI CALIFORNIA T N.6 THE SUNOCO 70th ANNIVERSARY 1 18 Modell,. The PartridgeNsu Prinz 4 Polizei Streifenwagen 1964 Ed.Lim.Pcs 156 1 43 Kess Model KS43023001,.Maisto 1 18 Scale 46629 - 1967 Chevrolet Chevelle SS 454 Sport -Met orange,.Minichamps Red Bull Sauber Petronas C23 2004 1 18 Felipe Massa (BRA),

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, NOREV184821 - Voiture de color blue Métallisé - PEUGEOT 302 Darl'Mat 1937 - 1 , although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.HOT WHEELS Car Culture Team Transport set 72 Plymouth Cuda,Duster, PORSCHE 962,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Porsche 912 Coupe orange - Spark 1 43 MAP02001317 - Museum Edition - Brand New,.PARPA-97094 - Voiture berline BMW X4 color black - 1 18,PartridgeCOCA COLA Ford T-Model Cargo 1 18 Motorcity Classics 449804 Modell T Model COKE,.Spark 1 43 Porsche 964 911 Targa Alpine White 1989 S4472,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, ERTL Semi with 3 Trailers Kool-Aid, Mustang Mover, Car Transporter -Rare, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK MCLAREN M23 N°11 2nd South African GP 1976 - James Hunt S4360 1 43,; Siku Plastik V160 Porsche 356 Polizei V Serie,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Best Model BT9530 ABARTH SP 1000 N.59 15th 1000 Km MONZA 1968 PASOTTI-GRANO 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Austin Mini Cooper S Mk1, Almond Green, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 917K Watkins Glen 6 hours 1970 - Norev 18 MIB.,.

Takara Tokyo Wrapping Bus Collection Chgold Q,. (S) crescent FERRARI 2.5 LITRE - 1286, Clarke's negligent act.Norev Renault Alpine A110 Première Edition 2017 bluee 1 18 185148 25,.SIKU 5603 Stable, Car and Vehicle Models,.TSM Model - McLaren F1 LM Straßenversion - Street Version - 1995 - orange - 1 43,.

CORGI JAMES BOND THE DEFINITIVE BOND COLLECTION X 5 DIFFERENT CARS,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hot Wheels 2003 Toy Fair Highway 35 Passion,Antigua miniatura 1 43 Pilen M-306 Mercedes Benz 250 coupé cromado Made in Spain,. In Noska,Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 020101 - 1991 BMW Z1 E30 - Metallic bluee,.Mercedes C Class Dtm 2005 1 43 Model 400053504 MINICHAMPS,.Motormax 1 18 Scale - 73100 BMW MINI Cooper green white,.NEO NEO46236 1 43 MORGAN 4 4 FLAT RADIATOR S1 1936 GREEN, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.FERRARI 308 GTB MONTECARLO 1982 ARENA MODELLI FB 1 43 n AMR BBR MR BOSICA ABC,.KADEN DODGE WC -52 1 24,.Used Prestige Castrol Oil Ford Citerne Fuel Tanker 1 18 Diecast Solido,.SPARK Lola LC89 6th Spain GP (6º gp Spain) 1989 Philippe Alliot S2975 1 43,. Id., p 923.

Audi A3 S3 8V Limousine red Ab 2013 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit oder ohne ..,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Wartburg 353W 1985 Feuerwehr Cars & Co 1 18 NEU OVP,Western Models (Kit) Bugatti 57SC Corsica 1 43 (JS),.CORGI 1 43 SCALE COLLECTION HERITAGE EX07402 LAND ROVER POMPIERS DE MARSEILLE,.Action Collectibles, The Dale Earnhardt FOUNDATION 2003 Monte Carlo,.Mercedes Benz 300 (W189) Adenauer 1951 White RIO 1 43 RIO4547 Model,.Club Bialbero 40 TZ1 ALFA ROMEO TZ1 GREEN METALLIC 1 43 Modellino,.SPARK FORD Mk2 Le Mans 1966 d. Gurney - j. Grant S5180 1 43,.True Scale 1969 PORSCHE 917 WINNER KYALAMI 9 HOURS TEAM PERFECT CIRCLE COCA COLA,. The parties CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale - DGR001 Dennis Dragon 11m Bus - Hong Kong R970,.

1 18 Norev Renault R.S. 01 2015 Official Yellow Presentation Version 185135,.Siku Super 1046 McLaren M8F (CanAm-Predotyp) ca. 1 54 OVP,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Porsche 997 GT3 Cup, Carrera Asia Cup 2013 , Spark models,; Spark Model S5812 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.25 DNF LM 2017 GONZALES-TRUMMER-PETROV 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

VW Baja Bug (yellow white) 1969,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Signature Models 1949 Jaguar XK 120 1 18 Scale Diecast Metal Roadster Car,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144342 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,.Minichamps 1 43 - Aston Martin Rapide 2010 black,.Porsche 996 GT3 RS , Rally Lyon Charbonnieres 2007 , Sparkmodels,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Die Cast 1954 Corvette World Series Edition 1 18 Scale - New York Giants,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Ertl, 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air, Weinred silver, 1 18, Selten,.Lexus IS XE3 350 F-Sport Limousine Starlight black 3. Generation Ab 2013 1 4..,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3340 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC rd Monte Carlo 2012,.Schuco Porsche 356 A Speedster, black,.Dinky No 437 Muir Hill 2-WL Loader - Yellow (Original 1960's Picture Box),. The ScottsdaleMODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP N. D. O’YOUNG CARRERA CUP ASIA MACAU 2007 IN METAL,Midget Ii Van 1996 Spark 1 43 SJ031 Miniature,.1 43 Ixo Maserati Quattroporte,. Id.,Gaz Volga M24 Volkspolizei Police 1967 Green White MCG 1 18 MCG18015 Miniature,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mercury Park Lane Duro Top Año Fabricación 1959 whiteo gold 1,; 1 18 PORSCHE 917 10 Nurburgring 1974 Minichamps,2016 Porsche 991 (II) CARRERA S Tennis Grand Prix 16.04 24.04 1 43 Spark,.Rare Hot Wheels Legend 57 Chevy,. The ScottsdaleNorev Renault Supercinq GT Turbo - Tour de Corse 1989 - Ragnotti Thimonie 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MIB Limited Edition Authentic DeWalt Adult Collectible Diecast Metal Car Toy,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Trofeu Audi Quattro M.Wilson RAC TRO1615,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lesney Matchbox C 69 Lamborghinin Miura RESTORED MODIFIED TO RARE VERSION,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Renault Dauphine 1958 NOREV 1 18 NV185169 Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Minichamps Opel Kadett 1.9 GT E 1 43 VP,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, NEO MODELS AC Ace version Red 1955 - 1963 1 43 45006, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS - VW 1200 - 1983 - red - lim. Ed. 1 of 2.016 pcs, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 NEO Model Ford Taunus P7b Turnier Light bluee Metallic1968,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMclaren Mp4-12C Gt3 Street orange 2012 Minichamps 1 43 437121399 Model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK31 007 - 1953 Pontiac Sedan Delivery Modelex 1 Of 500,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheVolkswagen VW Action Figurerica Korps 2 Figures Rommel + Driver 1 43 Model RIO,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Diecast Masters 85235 CAT 613G Wheel Tractor Scraper Schürfzug 1 50 neu OVP,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Nissan GT-R LM Nismo LMP1 Test Car 2015 , Spark models,TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 56 - Cooper Bristol Mk1 1952,.Siku Super 2105 pinknbauer Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug, ca. 1 50, Sondermodell,.1 50 71011 International HX620 Tridem Tractor Diecast Masters Trailer Head,. The HuygheRed Line Hot Wheels Lot 12 cars all vintage 1968 thru 1990,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1941 PLYMOUTH COUPE YAT MING SHYNE STREET RODZ PURPLE NEW SEALED.MINT,CLASSICIC,.

GRAND PRIX MODELS - 1 43 FERRARI BREADVAN 1962 - UNBUILT KIT - GOOD CONDITION,.FORD MUSTANG cabriolet black 1964 1 2 1 18,.

MAISTO FORD GT 1 18 Scale Model Toy Gift DieCast Sports Race Play Car blueE,.Maserati Khamsin 1977 Grey Metallic Minichamps 1 43 437123220,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Kit Ferrari 275 GTB C ch.07185GT 1965 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMITSUBISHI PAJERO 4X4 LONG 98 ( european ) 1 18 voiture miniature SUN STAR 1211,.Muscle Milk Oreca 03 Nissan 2014 , Spark models,.

For example, in Partridge,Porsche 356 Cabrio 1950 bluee 1 18 Model SIGNATURE,. In Jorgensen, supra,Chrysler 300M Met.-Beige 2002 Neo Scale 1 43 Neo44985 Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 24 Franklin Mint 1955 '55 Chevy Corvette Roadster Congreenible bluee Free Ship,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,MEBETOYS A-38 MATRA 530 VIGNALE (Year 1969) SCALE 1 43 MC2298,. That is the same situation in this case.Schuco Pro.R 09004 - 1 43 Mercedes-Maybach G650 Landaulet, blue - Neu,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Best Model 9535 PORSCHE ABARTH 1000 KM PARIGI 1 43 Modellino,. Detroit Edison, supra.

SW0516; IVECO Type D, Tiefladesattelzug mit Baggerbett black Bau (99),.Wiking 043197 MAN TGM Feuerwehr pinknbauer AT LF Scale 1 43 NEU OVP,.Corgi Toys Oldsmobile Super 88 Solo für U.N.C.L.E 1 43 sehr gut, Ansehen ,.

Rare Porsche Dealer 914 JUBILE in Chrome. Minichamps 1 43 Diecast NEW,.