1 43 SRC10K 1961 FERRARI FERRARI FERRARI 156 120 KIT BY SMTS 615253

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 43 SRC10K 1961 FERRARI FERRARI FERRARI 156 120 KIT BY SMTS 615253
Diecast Car Model Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution X EVO X LHD 1 18 (bluee) + GIFT ,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Citroen CX 2500D Super Break Kombi Beige Serie I 1974-1985 1 18 Model Car Grou..,.Minichamps 1 43 Chaparral 2F Le Mans 1967,.Zündapp Typ 12, red, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,.Porsche 911 (991 II) Gt2 Rs Pacchetto di Weissach 2018 Bianco black 1 43 Spark,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1972 FORD MUSTANG TROJAN HORSE NHRA FUNNY CAR 1 18 MODEL CAR BY AUTOWORLD AW1122,.CAMARO Z28 1982 OFFICIAL PACE CAR 1 18,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.VW Volkswagen Bus T3 Multivan White Star weiss 1993 Diecast KK 1 500 NEW 1 18,.MERCURY - VINTAGE METALLMODELL - FIAT BALILLA - OVP - (MERC 2),. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.PEUGEOT 207 BERLINE NOREV black 1 18 184768,.1 18 PremiumX Porsche 928 S Turbo Artz estate 1979 darkgreen-metallic,.Schuco 1 43 - Opel Manta A Turbo bluee, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Minichamps BMW 1600-2 1 43 Ovp,.Ferrari 308 Gtb 1978 Be9314 1 43 Model Car Diecast,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 12 MG TF RED - No windscreen,.Morris Mini Traveller greene fluo De Agostini Dinky Toys 197,.

RIO RI414101 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA C.R.I. ITALIANA 1 43,.Ebro 1 43 Datsun type 17 Phaeton 1938 Ivory finished product,.1 43 Minichamps Ford Mustang Mach I yellow 1971 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Matchbox Superking K-149 Ferrari Testarossa red top in Box,.RENAULT PRAIRIE Version Civile LUXE blue PRESTIGE Kit Monté 1 43,.

SUBARU Impreza WRC Rallye 1998Dor Portugal Nightversion 1 150 Scala43 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Starter Kit à Monter 1 43 - Porsche Kremer K8 N°1 Le Mans 1996,.Minichamps Jeep Grand Cherokee in Red on 1 43 in Box,.MIB Limited Edition Authentic DeWalt Adult Collectible Diecast Metal Car Toy,CORGI 241 GHIA L.6.4 - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.Dinky Toys 157 Jaguar 2 tone in excellent plus all original condition,.

K-300 BASTION COASTAL MISSILE SYSTEM ZZ MODELL 1 72 RESIN P.E KIT,.Jada Toys 2004 Inital D Mazda RX-7 FC3S 1 24 Die Cast Metal Drift Car,.HPI Racing 8091 Alfa Romeo 155V6 TI ITC Suzuka N. Larini 1996 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 18 Maisto Nissan 1971 DATSUN 240Z Diecast Allory Force Control Car Model Gift,.

Neo Mercedes T80 Rekordwagen - silver - 1939 - 1 43,. We agree in part.

Western Models WP 120 Jaguar XJRS 1990 red 1 43 Mint in box all original,.WSI DAF - EUROPE FLYER - 1 50 SCALE - NOT TEKNO.,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S2376 - Toyota TS030 Hybrid Toyota Racing LM 2012,.V 1 64 HOTWHEELS PHIL'S GARAGE FERRARI 288 GTO 288GTO YELLOW MINT ON CARD ERROR ,.Schuco Mercedes Benz L6600 Tank Wagen - BP - Nr 03004 Mint in Box 1 43 Scale,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; AC COBRA 289 1963 black 1 18 Norev 182754 Mark II,.Mint Mini Champ 1 43 Car Maserati Mark 1974 World Limited 2,592,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, MARK43 PM4311R 1 43 HONDA Integra Type 98 Spec DC2 Milano Red,; 1 87 , Herpa 918367 Geiger MAN 4-achs Fahrmischer, Betonmischer,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 43 TrueScale Miniatures (TSM) Mini ALL4 RACING N.305 DAKAR 2011 TSM114351,.Citroen 2CV Fourgonette 1956 „Assistance Berliet“ 1 18 Norev,Mercedes AMG GT (C190) 2015 red, Modellauto 1 18 Maisto Exclusive,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev GT by Citroen 2008 - Electric bluee - 1 18,.

VW VOLKSWAGEN pretzel beetle + sportberger G2 Caravan 1 43 Schuco 450389100 NEW,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.1997- MATCHBOX PREMIERE - CLASSIC MUSCLE COLLECTION SET- SERIES 17 - 1 OF 25,000,.Audi R10, 24h Le Mans 2006 - LS217 Looksmart Models 1 43 - Rarität,.Peugeot 504 Coupe 1969 white, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT3 2018 - S7625,; Figma Bloodfront Front & BEYOND Claus · V · Line Herz Non Scale Figure,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, VINTAGE 1967 HOT WHEELS REDLINE blueE SILHOUETTE DIECAST CAR MATTEL,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

PARAGON MODELS 1 18 2012 BMW M5 F10M LHD SEDAN DIECAST MODEL CAR SAKHIR orange,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

NEO NEO45112 1 43 FIAT 1900 B GRAN LUCE COUPE 1957 BEIGE GREEN,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin - sx1 Mercedes 300SL Spyder Panamericana '52,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

BURAGO 1 18 33000 FERRARI 250 LM 1000KM NURBURGRING 1965 GREEN,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 Hours of Spa 2013 SB048,.Bmw 320 I orange 2005 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 43 NEO Model MG RV8 Roadster Dark bluee 1993,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Dinky Toys Bentley S2 Conv....... Minty ALL ORIGINAL,.

1 43 CL70K Jaguar XJS KIT BY SMTS,.RARE MATCHBOX Lesney Series No27 Cadillac 'Sixty Special' Grey Tyre Version,.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Mercedes-Benz L3000 PRE-12652,.BX351-1x AWM 1 87 H0 Bus Setra S 516 HDH Gruppenreise navi, NEUW+OVP,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.CHEVROLET CAMARO SS 2010 bordeaux 1 18,.

Auto World 1 18 Plymouth GTX Congreenible 1969 bluee Fire Metallic AMM1102,.Spark Model 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 R ADAC 24H Nurburgring 2014 Art.SG146,.Scale model 1 43 Ford Torino GT - red 1976,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Lamborghini LM002 (1984) Diecast Model Car 436103375,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Porsche 911 R 2016 1 43 Minichamps 410066232 991 NARDOGREY YELLOW 504pcs.,.BROOKLIN 1958 EDSEL CITATION HARDTOP - HANDMADE BRK 1 43,.Kyosho 1 64 Shelby Cobra 427 S C Karuwaza Limited USA SPORTS CAR 2010,.Leader Résine CEC 1 43 - Peugeot 403 Break Gendarmerie,.Lansdowne LDM89 1957 Aston Martin DB2 4 MkII Coupe Dark Green 1 43,.

Corgi 80004 Sentinel Platform Wagon Corgi blue 1 50, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Minichamps Aston Martin DBRS9 Nurburgring 2008 1 43 400081392,.Spark 1 43 Toyota Yaris Wrc Winner Rally Finland 2017 Art. S5169,. The PartridgeBurago 1 18 Scale 18-11041 - Lamborghini Huracan LP 610-4 - Polizia,.Politoys M 16, Matra Simca Sport 660, Mint in Box ab716,.MERCEDES AMG-GT3 JUNCADELLA MACAU 2017 FIA GT WORLD CUP 1 43 SPARK SA141,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AU983-1x Wiking H0 Bus Mercedes-Benz MB + Büssing 721 + MAN etc, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Opel Ascona B i2000 1980 Yellow White 1 43 NEO 43710,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 43 IXO Jaguar XJR12 XJR-12 Le Mans 1990 WINNER LM1990 LeMans GroupC JSPC ,.Mercedes-Benz Actros Eco-Curtainside 'H. Wragg' - 1 50 - Corgi,PartridgeMercedes 200 Pompiers Schrndorf 1965 1 43 Model 400037290 MINICHAMPS,.Porsche 911 997 Carrera 4S Coupe 2005 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 36576,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Force India Mercedes VJM05 Paul di Resta Formula 1 2012 1 43 410120011, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI CC05506 THE ITALIAN JOB 1998 ALL ORIGINAL AGE WORN ORIGINAL BOX AS SHOW,; New Burago Porsche Cayenne Turbo 1 24 White from Japan,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CONCEPT CAR CITROEN NUMERO 9 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Dodge Monaco green-met. 1978 Neo 1 43 NEO43510 Model, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeRD MARMANDE TRIUMPH SPORT LE MANS 1961,.

Ford Torino GT (1976) Diecast Model Car 400085201,.1964 1 2 Ford Mustang Congreenible 1 18 Die cast Replica (MIB No Straps), Clarke's negligent act.CORGI TOYS FORD ZEPHYR RED CROSS AMBULANCE OVP 1 43 CODE 3 UNIKAT,.Schuco 1 43 Mini Cooper S Steve McQueen Brown 450898500,.Burago 1 24 Scale Model Car 3518G - Renault R5 Turbo Monte Carlo Racing Car,.

Tarmac Works 1 43 Mitsubishi EVO LANCER EVOLUTION 6.5 Die Cast Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky Toys 30D Vauxall Saloon Issued 1946 - 1948,DINKY TOYS 36A LIMOUSINE AMSTRONG SIDDELEY,. In Noska,MINICHAMPS 1 43 Peugeot 306 Cabriolet 1998 red Métallique,.McLAREN F1 GTR Le Mans 97 Lark Nakaya PMA 1 43,.Ford Escort I TC ADAC Gp des Voitures de Tourisme 1968 Arundell 1 43,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD.3001 ALPINE A110 1600S - MONTE CARLO RALLY 1971, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Premium Classixxs 11209 VW TYP 147 FRIDOLIN 1 43,.CC13765 Corgi Hauliers of Renown Scania R Topline Harte Pet LTD Group 1 50,.TONKIN 1 53 SCALE INTERNATIONAL 9900 TRACTOR MODEL BN 700014,.SIKU 5603 Stable, Car and Vehicle Models,. Id., p 923.

Classic Metal Works 1 24 DADE CITY FLORIDA Ford Police Interceptor,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Fiat 238 Minibus 1965 Ambulanza Vigili Del Fuoco Fiorano 1970 RIO 1 43 RIO4537 M,Triple 9 - Honda S800 Racing 18 - T9-1800193,.LANSDOWNE MODELS 1957 WOLSELEY 15 50 SALOON - RED PURPLE 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 25,.SCHUCO 1 43 02266 - MERCEDES 170V PLANE - LOWENBRAU,.Mercedes Actros ''PTT'' (Eligor 1 43 112944),.Maisto 1 18 Scale - 1969 Dodge Charger R T Lime Green Diecast Model Car,.Hot Wheels REDLINE TWINMILL 1969 ANTIFREEZE VERY NICE ,.Code 3 Classics 1 64 Scale Model 12368 Virginia Beach Fire Dept Command Vehicle,. The parties RIO RI4407 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA LANCIA 1970 1 43,.

Deagostini Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.15 With 1 24 Japan Fast Shipping,.Porsche 911 (991 II) Gt2 Rs Weissach Pacchetto Anno di Costruzione 2018,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Sun Star Lancia Stratos Stradale - black - 1975 - 1 18,; Starter N7 Provence 1 43 - Panhard Junior 1955 bluee, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Autoart 1 18 Scale Model Car 75368 - Lotus Europa S - White,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, PEUGEOT 304 COUPE 1972 yellow SAFRAN MINICHAMPS 400112721 1 43 orange ROADSTER,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Kit 1 43 GORDINI TIPO 23S chassis 15S CARRERA PANAM 1952 RENAISSANCE 43-78,.1 18 Auto World Chevrolet Chevelle SS454 Citrus green NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1968 Fiat 500 Giardiniera Estate Positano Yellow 1 18 Norev 187724,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 DKW F89L Familiar, Güter-und,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Vintage PL 1 87 RUCH Robur L2500 pritsche plane 1970 plastic grey bluee near mint,.DeAgostini 550 MARANELLO 1996 1 24 Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.18 Japan F S,.Nissan Skyline GT-R R35 Brian´s Fast and the Furious 7 Coupe blue Ab 2008 1 18..,.AUDI Quattro Rallye Gr.B 555 Hongkong Peking 1985 Mikkola S-PRE Sunstar 1 18,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 24 1979 MARCH 792 F2 POLIFAC,. The ScottsdaleTSM 1954 Land Rover Series 1 88 Royal Review,Neo DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S - hellgreen - 1951 - 1 43,.1 18 Peugeot 309 GTI 16 1992,. Id.,Renault 16 1968 Grey Metallic NOREV - NO 185133 - Echelle 1 18,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Mist Brago 1 18 Lamborghini Aventador Lp 700-4,; Schuco Porsche 356 A Cabriolet with surfbo 1 43 450256900,Norev 181592 Citroen Break 21 1970 bordeaux grey 1 18,.Ixo model TRU003 UNIC ZU 122 1960 1 43 Modellino,. The ScottsdaleBrooklin 1 43 Scale BRK27 003 - 1957 Eldorado Brougham PCTS Special 1 Of 750,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Lotus 18 Monaco GP 1961 Cliff Allison Spark S1827 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Norev Citroen DS 19 Chapron Congreenible 1961 greymetallic,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Vintage 1978 Corgi Land Rover and Animal Trailer No. 30 Circus Jean Richard,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, OXFORD DIECAST 1 76 LONDON FIRE ENGINE APPLIANCES ANNIVERSARY MODEL SET 76SET31,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 43 scale resin model 1991 F1 Lamborghni 291,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, New 1 43 Racing43 Car Model Ferrari FXX N30 MS Monza 2006 EL112, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, RENAULT ESTAFETTE HOOVER 1961 car miniature 1 43 collection ixo, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SUNSTAR 1 18 AMERICAN COLLECTIBLES 1963 FORD GALAXIE 500 XL RACING SS1472,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMinichamps - Daniil Kvyat - Tgold red - STR9 - 2014 -1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, IXO - MAGIRUS DLK 2312 FIRE ENGINE GERMAN FIRE BRIGADE 1 43 SCALE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNissan GTR-R35 2008 Grey 1 18 - 188053 NOREV,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Lamborghini Aventador Lp700-4 2012 yellow Orion True Scale 1 43 Tsm11Fj015 Model,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Bburago 1 18 gold Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder,bluee Kenworth T660 Cab with Anhydrous Tanker by Die-Cast Promotions 1 64th Scale,.Art Model AM0025 FERRARI 500 TRC N.144 7th TIEFENCASTEL-LENZERHEIDE 1957 VON NEU,.Mattel 18 inch Long Model Car BCG11 - Batman 1966 TV Series Batmobile,. The HuygheRio 4329 GENERAL 40 HP GRAND PRIX 1902 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 18 paragon bmw m4,.

Circle K Sunks Kyosho 1 100 Honda Mini Model Car Collection Set of 18 Pcs,.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 - 2017 - grey,.

Willeme LD 610 T, Papeteries Vosgiennes, 1 43, Norev,.Wiking 1 43 043102 Feuerwehr - Drehleiter L32 Metz (MB Econic) - OVP NEU,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Italeri IT3882 SCANIA R560 V8 RED GRIFFIN KIT 1 24 Modellino,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeKyosho minicar McLaren 12C 3 units set,.Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 Haribo Racing Team , 24H Nurburgring 2016, Sparkmodels,.

For example, in Partridge,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 076771 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR - 24h LM 2007,. In Jorgensen, supra,BOX ALUM UNPAINTED 6.74 LX4.77 W,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Hot Wheels REDLINE 1969 Shelby Turbine 1 64 Diecast w Button Rare WOW,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Wiking Unverglast Porsche 356 mit Bodenplatte Nr.160 2C azurblue,. That is the same situation in this case.Vintage Dinky Supertoys Foden 8 Wheel Diesel Wagon,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark 1 43 CD Panhard n.53 Le Mans 1962 A. Guilhaudin - A. Bertaut S4710,. Detroit Edison, supra.

MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-43 MERCEDES BENZ HOLZTRANSPORTER OVP 1979,.Mercedes-Benz 260D Pullman Landaulet 1936 - dunkelred - 1 of 500 - Esval Models,.New Ebbro 44203 Lotus Europa S2 Red (Resin) 1 43 scale,.

Starter Oreca Dallara-Judd 2002 1 43 Beretta Comas Lamy 24h Le Mans (JO),.