Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals VILMER TEKNO DENMARK DODGE CAMION SILO,.AUDI 200 quattro 20V Turbo metallic dunkel red red 1990 NEO Resin N 43,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz GLA 45 AMG 2015 S4912,.RENAULT MEGANE RS 2017 yellow Sirius 1 18,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Nylint Mr Goodwrench Semi Tractor Trailer Large,.(V) triang spot on HUMBER SUPER SNIPE - 183,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Wiking 1 87 610 7 Spritzenwagen MB L 3500 von 1954-58 TOP,.Ertl 1 18 Idéal blue F-150 Ford Ranch King Camionnette D'Occasion Très Nice,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.PORSCHE 911 GT1 Lister Greasly Wallind G-FORCE STRANDELL FIA GT 1997 UT 1 18,.1970 DODGE CHALLENGER R T RED HAWAII FIVE-0 1 18 MODEL BY GREENLIGHT 13516,.SPARK 1 43 S1331 ABARTH 1000 SP 1968 blueE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
UT Porsche 911 GT 1 Rennsportwagen Fahrer Boutson Wollek, 1 18, X012,.Diecast Car Model Norev Citroen DS4 1 43 (White) + GIFT ,.SPARK Volkswagen Polo R WRC 1 43 VW712396,.Damon Hill 1 8 Helmet 1996,.
Renault 20 TS 1978 Algue Green metallic NOREV - NO 185265 - Echelle 1 18,.Verem 1 43 Scale Model Car 6303 - 1958 Aston Martin DB4 James Bond gold,.Kyosho 3174BK Porsche 934 5 Big Wing black,.Pontiac Grand Am Coupe - red grey met 44755 NEO 1 43,.2002 Corvette 'California Anaheim Angels' 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33462,.
Spark Model SG314 MERCEDES GT3 N.1 5th NURBURGR.2017 ENGEL-CHRISTOD.-BUURMAN-ME,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.New Burago 1 24 Lamborghini Murcielago Yellow from Japan,.1 43 SRC29K 1966 F1 COOPER MASERATI T81 PRIVATEERS KIT BY SMTS,.007 James Bond Suntory Collection Diecast Toy Car 8pcs Set Japan Mini Car 2012,Cp 43 alfa romeo romeo2 gelati cazzaniga sc1 43,.EBRRO 1 43 Nissan GT-R GT1 Fuji shakedown finished product,.
69 CAMARO EARNHARDT RED 1 18th. ACTION MUS. MACH.,.PILEN 1st SERIE DIAMANTE M-335 SEAT 600 ( FIAT ) - WHITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.Porsche 936 Spyder Joest DRM 1983 Warsteiner Leopold v Bayern Minichamps 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Matchbox Elite Marine Mayhem Rescue Sea Adventure Vehicle,.
Scale model 1 43 Volkswagen T3 DOKA-PRITSCHE - orange 1983,. We agree in part.
LION CAR OPEL REKORD RED NEAR MINT CONDITION REPAINT,.Aoshima Bunka kyouzaisya 1 24 Supercar Series No.26 Pagani Huairea Pach Chet,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.BBURAGO 1 18 SCALE FERRARI CALIFORNIA MODEL BN 16904WT,.Brooklin Models BRK17X 1952 Studebaker Commander Indianapolis Pace Car in bluee,.PEUGEOT 205 GTI black NOREV 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 87 Herpa MB NG Paule Schwertransporte SZ,.MNC519431390 - Voiture de la série Top Gear BENTLEY Continental Supersport de 20,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Eagles Race 1 18 Scale Diecast - 903008 Porsche 917K NoMonza Winner 1971,; Wonderful modelcar LANCIA HYENA ZAGATO 1992 - red - scale 1 43 - ltd.300,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
French Dinky No 39A Tracteur Unic et Semi-Remorque Porte Voitures Boilot.,.Matchbox Superfast Nr.20B Police Patrol Police yellow red black blacke Bpl.,FIRST GEAR 1 64 SCALE KOMATSU PC210LC-11 EXCAVATOR DIECAST BN 60-0326,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.HOT WHEELS 50TH ANNIVERSARY FAVORITES MIX B LOT,No Soft Corners,.
Tuk Tuk Taxi 1 18 Rare,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Cursor Werbemodell Mercedes Benz W123 Limousine 200D 300D 280E 1 35 in red OVP ,.\ CORGI TOYS 170 JOHN WOOLFE DRAGSTER blueE YELLOW MINT BOXED,.Herpa 290982 Sondermodell-Set 60 Jahre 2CV , 4 Kunststoffmodelle H0, NEU & OVP,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Team Honda Gresini Honda RC212V 2007 1 12 Toni Elias,; Mercedes-Benz AMG S 65 2016 - weiss - Spark - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minicar 1 43 Subaru Impreza Casio,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 orange 1 18 Welly Porsche Museum,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK15 005B - 1949 Mercury 2Dr Coupe - Met Green,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
F DINKY TOYS 537 RENAULT 16 LIGHT blueE EXCELLENT BOXED,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
GMC Vandura Van A-Team Bj.1983 - Oldtimer Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 18 Bburago Ferrari 550 Maranello blue Swaters Mica NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.RAMI () 1 43 - 1908 Brazier,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Somerville Models Minimarque 1 43 Scale 100A - Austin FX4 Taxi - Navy,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.LANSDOWNE MODELS 1 43 LDM 44 1948 AUSTIN A90 ATLANTIC CONgreenIBLE RED BOXED RARE,.
1 18 Honda Civic TUNERZ tuning fast furious - Hot Wheels - 3L 050,.McLaren F1 1995 Papaya orange High Mirrors 1 43 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,.Ferrari 250 Gtl Coupe 1964 Personal Car Jamiroquai bluee BEST-MODEL 1 43 BE9725,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo 78 Winner Sebring 1979 Akin Woods Budweiser Spark 1 43,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 365 GTC 4 1971 blue METALLIZZATO MODELLINO,.
Norev 187638 Porsche 911 RS Touring 1973 yellow black 1 18 Modellauto,.DOME S101 N°8 TEAM RACING HOLLAND 1°DIJON 2002 SPECIALGAMMA EBBRO BUILT UP 1 43,.M2 Auto Haulers Toys R Us Exclusives W Mustang Boss Limited to 3,500 Imperfect,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Spark 1 43 BMW 6-series M6 Team Schubert Winner Round 3 VLN 2016 Art. SG370,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Minichamps 1 18 McLaren MP4-12C GT3 'Street' 2012 red L.E. 1002 pcs.,.Alfa Romeo Ricotti 1915 Rio 1 43,.1 18 1972 Datsun 240Z,.Nikko 1 16 Scale RC Radio Control James Bond 007 Aston Martin Vanquish,.F1 LOTUS Ford Cosworth V8 72 Fittipaldi JPS World Champion Minichamps 1 43,.
1 43 FERRARI FXX 2005 blueE HANDBUILT RED LINE, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Honda Civic Ef-9 Sir Anno di Costruzione 1990 red 1 18 Tripla 9,.Benetton Renault B195 British Grand Prix Win 1995 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,. The PartridgeMATCHBOX THE NIGEL MANSELL COLLECTION FORMULA 1 1992 SET,.BATTLESTAR GALACTICA titanium set of 2,.Opel Ascona Voyage 1970 Feuerwehr Coesfeld 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1986 Wartburg 353S brown 1 18 MC Group 18078, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1998 Corvette - The Franklin Mint,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.NOREV879996 - Camion 4x2 WILLEME LD610 avec remorque grumière 1 essieu - 1 43,.Norev Norev Renault 5 Supercinq GT Turbo - Alain Oreille 1 18 - 185805 -,Partridge1 43 IKARUS 260 Stadtlinien Bus DDR Russische Soviet Bus Ungarn UdSSR USSR OVP,.Volkswagen VW Bulli T3 Multivan 1992 Metallic bluee 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Mercedes-Benz GLC X253 SUV silver Metallic Ab 2015 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit .., (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT3 Racing 2016 Winner Monza Ricci Vannelet Norev 1 18,; Tekno 71829 MAN TGX XLX 6X2 LHD Plain White 1 50 Scale,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Lot of 9 NEW IN BOX American Chopper Die Cast Model 1 18 Scale, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Renault Kerax Chasse Neige 2008 yellow 1 43 Norev 518842, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNOREV 1 18 PEUGEOT 205 GTI 1.9 1992 MIAMI blueE ART.184856,.
MVI Resin 1 43 K 58 Toyota Land Cruiser Remorque Pompier,.Kit Ferrari 250 GT Lusso Ch.4385 1963 - Tron Models kit 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.NEO46230 Alfa Romeo Giulia Super Giardinetta, red, 1967, 1 43 NEO,.KIT FORD VEDETTE CCC CLASSIQUES 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE MONTAGE USINE,.GMP Corvette Racing Transporter & Shop Set 1 18th scale set Limited Edit,.
Mclaren M8f Can-Am Series 1971 D.Hulme 1 43 Minichamps 530714305 New,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CAT CATERPILLAR 613G WHEEL SCRAPER W OPERATOR 1 50 MODEL DIECAST MASTERS 85235,Diecast Car Model Mazda MX5 MX-5 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,. In Noska,Cabriolet 504 Peugeot - Dinky Toys 1423,.Lamborghini Murcielago LP640 2006 Yellow 1 43 Model 436103920 MINICHAMPS,.NOREV - 1 18 - MERCEDES-BENZ L319 PORSCHE - 1960 - 183416,.Schuco 450883100 Ford Mustang 302, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Diecast Car Model 8th Generation Toyota Camry 2018 1 18 (White) + GIFT ,.Ferrari 250 California 1957 Yell.1 43 Model 0070 ART-MODEL,.JAGUAR XJS CABRIOLET 1988 black 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400130434 NEU,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD.3302 VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE 1998 - YELLOW,. Id., p 923.
DINKY TOYS (30W) HINDLE -SMART HELECS -BRITISH RAILWAYS,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, MODELLINO MASERATI GRANTURISMO MC GT4 SPERATI LA MAZZA TROFEO GRANTURISMO MC 201,1 18 GT Spirit Aston Martin V8 Vantage Volante 1986 darkgreen,.Jada Brian's Nissan GT-R (R35) Fast & Furious NIB 1 18 scale 2015 release,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 103 - Ford E93A Popular - bluee,.Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale B11PW43 - 1939 Mercedes Benz - Maroon,.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1954 Jaguar D-Type,.Vintage metal toy France model Citroen GS 1 43 Jet - Car Norev № 810 in box,.1933 CADILLAC V-16 CARS OF THE RICH & INFAMOUS COLLECTION MATCHBOX DIE CAST CAR,. The parties Aston Martin Vantage GT3 , 24H Nurburgring 2015 , Sparkmodels,.
Diorama Led Cable Light Unit 6 Balls White 2 Pieces,.JAMES BOND LOTUS ESPRIT & JAWS FIGURE SET MADE BY CORGI IN 2000 (XP),
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, FORD Sierra Cosworth RS Rallye Asturias 1989 Alonso Seur 1 150 Scala43 1 43,; AMT PRO SHOP 1955 CHEVY BEL AIR NOMAD 1 25 PREPAINTED PLASTIC MODEL KIT HTF, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Porsche 911 991-2 Gt2 Rs Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7624 Miniature,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MCG - 1 18 - LADA NIVA - 1976 - 18111G,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Sunstar Sun Star 1 18 Ford FOCUS Winner WRC Rally JAPAN 2007 HIRVONEN,.Art Model AM0161-2 FERRARI 166 MM BARCHETTA N.23 ACCIDENT LM 1949 J.LUCAS-HELDE',.National Mint an even 1 half 1 2 dozen, great deal.,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ferrari 860 Monza Rouen 1956 E. Castellotti Winner 1 43 Model 0228 ART-MODEL,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.CITROEN CX 2400 SUPER BREAK 1976 LIGHT GREEN PHASE I MODELCAR 1 18 NEUVE BOITE,.Vitesse 1 43 Mitsubishi Evo 9 Die Cast Model 29218R,.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX18 Mercedes 300 SL 1st Mille Miles 1952,.1 43 Diecast - ATLAS - Porsche 550 Spyder - 1955 - Little Bastard - James Dean,.Vintage Lesney Matchbox Petrol Tanker 1960’s,. The ScottsdaleSchuco Mercedes L322 & Ford FK 1000 Gaffel Kolsch Beer Delivery SHU05817,MoYShop Matchbox Best OF 2018 Globe Travelers 6 neue Modelle in OVP aus USA RAR ,.Mclaren Mp4-12C Roadcar 2011 White Autoart 1 43 AA56009 Model,. Id.,KK-Scale KKDC180073 VW Passat B3 VR6 Variant, 1988, darkbluee-metallic,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Minichamps F1 Formula 1 McLaren Ford 1971 M19 D.Hulme Monaco GP,; Lamborghini LM002 Museum Series (1984) Diecast Model Car 436103374,Ford Escort Mki Turnier 1968 Dark Green 1 43 Neoscale NEO44336 Model,.Hong Kong Limited Mini Cooper Christmas Canvas Top Red White 1 64,. The ScottsdaleNB BOITE VIDE MINIATURE DIE-CAST MODELS BUDGIE GIFT SET N° 12,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Herpa 308588 -1 87 MB Arocs Bigspace Schwerlast-Zgm mit Ballastp. - Cadsow (GB),; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Renault R20 Ts 1978 Light Green Met NOREV 1 18 NV185265 Model,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 356 B Speedster Racing Parlett Resin Schuco Pro R 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Steyr 220 Congreenible 1937 Beige Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO45520 Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 917 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration US Aqua,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mechwarrior Dark Age Battletech 1 55 Scale Mech Diecast 2 Models Used w o Box, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, CORGI TOYS 309 Aston Martin Competition Model excellent original condition, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SUN STAR 1 18 1954 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CONgreenIBLE DARK blueE CAR RARE F S,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRio RI4594 FIAT BALILLA AMBULANZA AFRICA 1935 1 43 Modellino,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 43 MC LAREN FORD M23 JAMES HUNT WORLD CHAMPION F1 1976 REMOVABLE ENGINE COVER,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheLancia Beta Montecarlo Gr.5 Test Version Varano 1979 R.Patrese BEST 1 43 BE9738,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.266 ERF FIRE TENDER ( Red Wheels Version ) VN MIB,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 18 Modelcar Group Rover 3500 V8 red red MCG18044 OVP,SPARK 1 43 S1597 TYRRELL 022 RD SPANISH GP 1994 MARK blueNDELL,.1 43 RL87K Jaguar E-type lightweight Sayer low drag coupe CUT7 KIT BY SMTS,.1 18 Norev Mercedes L319 Porsche Renndienst 1955 red,. The HuygheBENTLEY 1 43 SCALE LIMITED DIE CAST 2010 CONTINENTAL GT MODEL NIB,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheKyosho 1 43 J Collection Lexus Lx 570 White Pearl,.
Spark 1 43 Porsche 997 GT3 RSR No. 88 Team Felbermayr - Predon LM 2011 S3420...,.red Honda Nsx 1 43,.
Gaz 66 SSM 1 43,.Opel Kadett C Coupe Model Car Collector's Model Maxichamps Minichamps Oc11211,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Burago 1 21 Scale Diecast - 3338 Ford SVT F150 Lightning Waterscooter Yellow,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeHerpa LKW MAN TG-X XLX Flachbett-SZ m 2 Turmteilen LR 1600 2 Wasel 306928,.Citroen Dyane 6 green Jade 1 18,.
For example, in Partridge,1 18 GT Autos MB SLS AMG grey 045630,. In Jorgensen, supra,1969 FORD MUSTANG BOSS 302 High Detail 1 18 scale Yellow,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Hot Wheels - The Beatles Yellow Submarine - Limited Edition Set of 6 Diecast,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,2014 Brabus 850 E63 E-Class in Red Metallic in 1 43 by Minichamps 437034100,. That is the same situation in this case.EBBRO 44099 1 43 Cab Over bus Gunma bus Yellow White,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.FORD Fiesta WRC 2017 Rallye Monte Carlo Tänak MS-RT Nightversion Spark 1 43,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Mattel Hotwheels The Dark Knight Rises Camouflage Tumbler 1 18 Scale Collectors,.1 43 Minichamps VW 1200 Käfer 1947 British Car Hire 431051294,.PORSCHE 924 TURBO KOMBI break de chasse by ARTZ 1 43,.
Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1951 Jaguar C-Type,.