Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Norev Mercedes Benz AMG GT-C Roadster 2017 yellow Métallique 1 18 183451 7,.Volkswagen 1303 1972 Green metallic NOREV - NO 188523 - Echelle 1 18,.MAQUETA CAMION IVECO STRALIS HI-WAY EURO 5 ITALERI 1 24,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Duesenberg J 1935 New NOS Mintnoboxed Worldwide shipping,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.TSM Models 1 43 2013 Mini Countryman, Dakar Rally, Novitsky,.Mg Mgb Spider 1966 White SPARK 1 43 S4139 Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Spark 1 43 Scale S3329 - Citroen DS3 WRC Monte Carlo 2012,.Maisto Lillian Vernon 4-Car Luxury Car Set (Porsche BMW Jaguar Ferrari) 1 36 NIB,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lada Niva 5000 Beige 1 18 Ist Ixo Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiuellem Wun..,.PORSCHE 911 991 GT3 R Manthey 24h Nürburgring 2017 Krauth Müller Spark 1 43,.Vector WX3 M12 1999 grey metallic, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Spark 1 43 Venturi 260 SPC 1989 S2244,.Rio RI4543 MERCEDES SSKL N.87 WINNER MILLE MIGLIA 1931 RUDOLF CARACCIOLA 1 43 Mo,.RIO RI4239 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FIAT 1971 1 43,.BEKINS 1 64 Scale Kenworth T-2000 Die Cast Tractor Trailer 504 NEW,.
Bburago - FIAT 500L 1968 gold,.DAF 95XF SPACE CAB 1 50 LION-TOYS,.DINKY NO. 943 LEYLAND OCTOPUS ESSO TANKER - MINT BOXED,.Audi Tdi R18 Presentation December 2010 1 43 Spark S2515 Model,.Dinky Toys Airplane Lot 735 734, 736, 733, Gloster Javelin Shooting Star,.
SPARK Porsche 935 K3 Winner Le Mans 1979 Ludwig - Whittington 43LM79 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.BMW M6 GT3 Schubert GT Masters Krohn Deletraz Getec 2016 Minichamps 1 43,.Peugeot 205 GTI Griffe 1.9L 1990 - 1 18 NOREV - AUTO DIECAST MODEL AUTO CAR,.ASSISTANCE RALLYE LANCIA IVECO+LANCIA STRATOS N°4 1 43,DINKY TOYS Ref 512 LESKO KART,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 GT2 RS 2018 - S7624,.
Kit Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Pininfarina 1969 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.Alpine A210 N.57 9. Le Mans 1968 Resin Modell Auto in 1 43 von Spark,.WIKING 484 2 KRUPP TITAN THERMOS-WAGEN W621,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Citroen C4 Cactus 2014 Yellow NOREV 1 18 NV181650 Model,.
ASSISTANCE RALLYE RENAULT ESTAFETTE + R5 TURBO N°7 1 43,. We agree in part.
Spark 1 43 Scale S3025 - F1 Force India VJM04 Monaco GP 2011,.PORSCHE 911 993 GT2 RS Carrera Cup Super VIP RTL Shell 1995 Minichamps 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 Norev Renault Clio 16S 1991 greymetallic,.1 9 Predar Ducati 748 S.P. Motorcycle Bike In Yellow MIB,.Norev 187638 Porsche 911 RS Touring 1973 yellow black 1 18 Modellauto,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; AUTO WORLD 1 18 RACING DREAMS HAWAIIAN 1969 DODGE CHARGER R T DIECAST CAR AW231,.43 GNS 010 MODEL 1938 ALFA ROMEO 8C 2900B CABRIOLET ar,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, TROFEU RRAC13 - Ford Escort Mk.I António Peixinho Vila Real 1969 - 1 43,; Lledo Days Gone LAD1002 AEC Regent Bus 15th Anniversary Commemorative Display,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
SUNSTAR SS-6133 1 18 1931 FORD MODEL A COUPE VALLEY GREEN,.1 43 NEO Model Ford Taunus S TC2 2 doors White 1976-1979,DINKY 183 FIAT 600 SALOON CAR ORIGINAL & EXCELLENT IN DAMAGED ORIGINAL BOX,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Volkswagen Bulli Studia Concept Car año 2011 Norev 7E9099302BL9 Granate-Bla,.
1969 69 chevrolet CAMARO COPO 1 18 WHITE HOBBY ED AMERICAN MUSCLE ERTL,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MINICHAMPS VW PASSAT VARIANT SENEGALred 400054210,.1 18 SIGNATURE MODELS 1917 REO TOURING LIGHT blueE rd,.DANBURY MINT RARE 1957 CHRYSLER 300C CONgreenIBLE WITH INNER AND OUTER BOXES,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Norev 1 43 Scale 800404 - 1966 Honda S800 - Red,; 2010 Honda gold Wing Roja 1 6 Motor Max 76264,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 CL28K ASTON MARTIN DB4GT KIT BY SMTS,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
KYOSHO MERCEDES BENZ DEALER VERSION SEALED CLK DTM AMG CABRIO NEW 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
DANBURY MINT IN BOX BEAUTIFUL 1961 CHEVY CHEVROLET CORVETTE GASSER HOT ROD,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Art Model AM0156 FERRARI 750 MONZA N.2 2nd PALM SPRING 1956 P.HILL 1 43 Modellin,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Dkw F94 Kombi Universal 1955 Light Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO45091,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Norev 181564, Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet, 1961, royalblue, 1 18, NEU&OVP,.1 50 Corgi General Motors 4502 Pacific Electric Bus USA 98601,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Brumm BMAS36 FERRARI 512 BB 1989 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 64 diecast FIRST GEAR - DCP KENWORTH K-100,.
Lamborghini Veneno red pearl white line 1 43 Kyosho 05571RPW,.1 43 Premium Classixxs Magirus 290D Kipper grey 216877,.Best Model 9454 LOLA T70 SPIDER NASSAU 1966 1 43 Modellino,.UKBUS 0004 BUS EIREANN ENVIRO 200 1 76 SCALE MODEL BUS,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1 18 Norev Renault 12 TS 1973 orange 185211,.
Corgi 154 Ferrari F1, Excellent Condition in Original Box,.Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper - Washington Fire Co. No.1 - Delanco, NJ NIB ,.Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor Weiss - mit Licht und Sound - 1 18 Gree..,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Force MVI Kit Monté Résine 1 43 - Jeep GPA Ford Amphibie USA 1940 Militaire,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ebbro 44906 Costin Nathan Targa Florio 1970 No. 206 (Resin Model) 1 43 scale,.Volkswagen VW T3 Doka Pritsche 1983 orange 1 43 Model 400055261 MINICHAMPS,.Minichamps minicar 1 43BMW320i limited edition 2112 units,.Norev NV185742 SIMCA 9 ARONDE 1953 AMARANT RED 1 18 Modellino,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast - 75201 ERF Curtainside Eddie Stobart Ltd + Case,.
Matchbox MoY C2 ATM-09 Ford T Tankwagen kanadisches seltenes Modell OVP K12, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser 1999,.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM29 - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - Cream,. The PartridgeWiking Rollachser Magirus Feuerwehr Leiterwagen - orangered - frühe Version,.Corgi Classic British Sports Car Collection Of 8 Cars boxed+ Collection Plinth,.BBURAGO BURAGO 1 18 FERRARI 250 TESTAROSSA RARA NO BOX x,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, WEISE-TOYS 1001 Fendt Favorit 514C 1 32, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Bburago Ferrari 360 Modena Scottsdale BBR EDITION NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Diecast Car Model Toyota C-HR CHR 1 18 (Green) + GIFT ,.VW Karmann Ghia Siku V248 fast mint,PartridgeFiat 500 L 1968 - blue - NOREV - 1 18,.PREMIUMX 1 43 SAAB 9200I URSAAB 1947 9200 Die Cast Model RARE,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 410152491 BMW M4 Team RMG Marco Wittmann DTM 2015 - 1 43 NEU in OVP , (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MATRIX BMW 3200 SUPER CABRIO AUTENRIETH V8 - BROWN 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 38 37,; NORSCOT CAT 374D Display Diecast Model 1 50 Yellow Excavator 55274 Vehicles,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Spark 1 43 Scale S4502 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC nd Monte Carlo 2015, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ferrari 250 LM 1965 Le Mans yellow, 1 18 DIECAST Model HotWheels 29753, NEU & OVP, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 18 Norev Citroen 2CV Fourgonnette 1956 Berliet Nr. 181600 OVP,.
Fiat 238 Van Assistenza Corse Scuderie Filipinetti 1970 Red Rio 1 43 RIO4526,.GREENLIGHT 1 24 1967 Chevrolet Impala sport sedan Supernatural  [Hollyw, Clarke's negligent act.FERRARI 275 GTS Pinifarina Spyder red red Metall NEU Resine KK 1 500 1 18,.Porsche Panamera 4S 2016 Saphir bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207210G,.GOLIATH HANSA 1100 1958 1 43 Neo scale models NEO44365,.
VINTAGE SCHUCO GERMAN 1041 MIDGET WIND UP MICRO RACER MINT & BOX,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 32 John Deere Log Harvester - Die-Cast Vehicle - Siku 4059,Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture DRAG STRIP DEMONS CASE OF 10 FPY86-956F,. In Noska,AMIE 1 43 Return of Ultraman mat Bihaikuru stabilizer equipped with finished pr,.Mebetoys A-12 Porsche 912 metallic green made in 1 43 scale VGC rare,.POLITOYS M 516 Alfa Romeo Guilia Zagato TZ Diecast Car Near Mint 1 43,.Scale model (1 43) of the motorcycle IZH-Jupiter 5 USSR, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Norev 184710 1956 Peugeot D4A Cycles Peugeot 1 18 Model Car bluee Yellow,.Pontiac Firebird Trans Am Gta Coupe' 1988 Met. Dark Red 1 43 Neoscale NEO46023 M,.SPARK RENAULT 5 Turbo er Tour de Corse 1982 J. Ragnotti - Andrie S3862 1 43,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 1967 FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT500 AMM993,. Id., p 923.
Best Model BT9527 ABARTH 2000 S N.300 WINNER BOLZANO-MENDOLA 1969 A.MERZARIO 1 4,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, BAUER 54072-9 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE CHANGING COLOR MOBIL - RARE - NM CARD BLISTER,Fiat 500L Nuova Urmodell blue grey 1957-1977 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder o..,.Bruder Dodge Power Wagon with Horse Trailer RAM 2500 1 16 Toy Vehicle 02501,.Renault r.s. 01 - Oregon Team - no. 8 SPORT TROPHY CHAMPION 2015 ( d. Fum,.Corgi CC12001 John Mitchell Transport MAN Curtainside,.Corgi Fiat X19 and Power Boat Gift Set Boxed Vintage No 37,.SPARK Model 1 43 Suzuky SX4 Winner Pikes Peak 2010 Art. 43PP10,.DIECAST CAR & CASE 1968 FORD MUSTANG GT STEVE MCQUEEN GREENLIGHT 13523 1 18,. The parties DeAgostini 328 GTB 1985 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.24 Japan F S,.
RENAULT RS 01 INTERCEPTOR 2016 NOREV 1 18,.Kit pour miniature auto CCC Panhard Dyna X86 canadienne référence 119,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Jada 1 24 Scale 98399 - Transformers Metal Car 2016 Chevy Camaro - Bumblebee,; Best Model 9444 PORSCHE ABARTH TARGA FLORIO '62 1 43 Modellino, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Nissan Skyline 2000GT-R PGC10 JAF GP 1969 1 43 ignition HPI Resin IG0173,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Signature Ferrari California T Open 2014 White 1 18 Burago BU16904 Model,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Trofeu 1618 AUDI QUATTRO 4'TOUR AUTO '84 n.2 1 43 Modellino,.Tamiya 1 20 Lotus Typ 79 Martini 1979 - 300020061,.Schuco Piccolo Set 50 Jahre VW Bus ,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DINKY 110 ASTON MARTIN DB3S LE MANS RACING CAR GREY No 20 RESTORED mv,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.FRANKLIN MINT PRECISION MODELS VOITURE CORD 812 PHAETON COUPE 1937 1 24 eme,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK29 001 -1954 Kaiser Manhattan 4-Dr Sedan - bluee,.Pneumatici invernali 165 70 R14,.POLISTIL 2215 FIAT CROMA METALLIC GREY MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.Mercedes Benz E-Class 250T S123 1980 Red KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180092 180102 Miniatu,. The Scottsdale(V) triang spot on AUSTIN HEALEY 100 6 - 105,Umbau auf Basis Bburago Ferrari 250 Le Mans N.A.R.T. Team 1 18 in Vp. ,.Eaglemoss Set of 8 different miniature cars COLLECTION CHEVROLET 1 43 (ref-CH1-2,. Id.,Peugeot 504 Break 1976 1 18 Modelcar Group Mcg18035 Estate Cream,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MIN540844319 by MINICHAMPS TOLEMAN TG 183 1984 43,; 1 18 Hot Wheels WHIPS C3865 Ferrari 360 Modena blueemetallic - RARITÄT §,FLAKPANZER IV(WIRBELGIUM),1945 char,miniature tank 1 72 collection warmaster,.HOT WHEELS 2013 13TH ANNUAL COLLECTORS NATIONALS CONVENTION '67 SHELBY GT500 W+,. The ScottsdaleOxford Diecast - Top Gear Indestructible Hilux - RARE,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Franklin Mint 1 43 Scale Diecast FM201 - 1968 Dodge Charger - Copper,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Starter Kit to assemble 1 43 - Porsche 962 Wynn's IMSA 1986,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, LOT (6) New 1997 Hot Wheels Highway Haulers whoppers, super bubble 65743-93,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Simca 1000 LS 1974 Amarante Red NOREV - NO 185713 - Echelle 1 18,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1978 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, CORGI CLASSICS 1963 M.G.B. ROADSTER WITH WOODEN PLINTH Excellent Condition, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, ORIGINALE - DINKY TOYS - FRANCE - 2 CV VESPA 400, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 TECNOMODEL 1962 JAGUAR E TYPE ROADSTER Handmade Resin Model Box bluee,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSolido 1 19 VW Bus T1 yellow Weiss mit OVP (OR15,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Die cast 1 43 Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK28 - 1957 mercury turnpike cruiser,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePREMIUM CLASSIXXS Tatra 111 C White Red Benzina Tank 1 43 47032,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.RENAULT 11 Turbo Rallye Portugal 1984 Ragnotti Gr.A elf IXO Altaya 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Chevrolet Corvair Sports Wagon 1963 Red White 46525 Neo 1 43 New in a box ,Fiat 238 Van 1970 White Rio 1 43 RIO4519 Model,.Kyosho Original 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000GT-R 1971 KPGC10 2 door engine,.Lamborghini Countach LP400 Anno di Costruzione 1974-1978 black 1 18 Kyosho,. The HuygheMinichamps Lamborghini Miura P400 SV 1971 yellow 1 43 430103650,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheSpark Model S5091 PORSCHE 934 N.61 DNF LM 1978 G.CHASSEUIL-J.C.LEFEVRE-M.MIGNOT,.
1 43 NEO Model Audi 100 C3 typ 44 Taxi 1989,.Porsche 911 Turbo - 1 43 - Schuco,.
1 18 Acme 1968 Jerry Titus Shelby GT-350 Race car,.Mercedes-Benz 500 K (W29) Roadster Spezial 1935, red, Franklin Mint 1 24,. Nonetheless, on the facts of SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 TARGA 4S - 2017 - S4977,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeREVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST ARTEGA GT BOX SCUFFED,.MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18070BK,.
For example, in Partridge,AWM 1 87 MAN KK SZ GE Equipment Service TIP Trailer in PC-Box o.OVP (EH5355),. In Jorgensen, supra,CHEVROLET CAMARO SS 2010 bordeaux 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Matchbox Lesney 25 Beford van Dunlop NM Boite ( MBB),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Universal Hobbies UH4994 DEUTZ D60 05 2WD 1 32 Modellino,. That is the same situation in this case.Best Model 9410 PORSCHE ABARTH SEBRING 1964 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Dinky Toys 173 Nash Rambler Estate salmon pink with bluee flanks,. Detroit Edison, supra.
MINICHAMPS MASERATI MISTRAL 1963 NEU OVP 1 43,.Handmade 91 car display shelf for Racing Champions. Holds 91+- loose cars.,.Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes AMG F1 W05 Hamilton 410-140444,.
Ferrari 250 Testa Rossa 1958 - Shell,.