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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Citroen Citroen Citroen Ds19 Prestige Jacqueline Kennedy Visit In Paris 1961 Rio 1 43 RIO4517 Mo 8e9a9c
(S) crescent FERRARI 2.5 LITRE - 1286,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals NIB CROWN PREMIUM 1935 FORD SEDAN DELIVERY 1 24 Die-Cast TRUE VALUE DELIVERY,.WEISE-TOYS 2040 Unimog 406 Stotz 1 32,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 24 GREEN TEAM RACER LABEL,.Road Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 92608 1971 Jaguar E-Type Roadster Green,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Spark 1 43 OSCA MT4 LM 1954 S4737,.MODELLINO MASERATI GRANTURISMO MC GT4 2010 NERA IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Minichamps 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 2 1965 Red,.Voiture CHEVY CAMARO 350 Cooter Shérif Fais Moi Peur Métal 1 18 Dukes of Hazzard,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Herpa 309844 Scania CS 20 Hochdach Eurocombi Ekdahl Arctic Griffin 1 87 H0 NEU,.Marklin Gernany No.8008 Volkswagen Type 2 Split Screen Transporter Van,.MATCHBOX LESNEY YESTERYEAR Y1 1936 JAGUAR SS-100, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo n°34 Nurburgring 2011 1 18 • Minichamps 151111134,.Zakspeed 841 Jonathan Palmer Monaco GP 1985 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.2015 Ferrari F70 LaFerrari red-red 1 18 Bburago 16001,.Herpa MB 1848 SoMo HZ AMÖ München PC-Vitrine ltd nur 700x OVP 1604-30-03,.

Collector box of 5 Model Cars - 1 43 DINKY TOYS 24 55 MODELLAUTO CAR MB102,.Schuco 1666 ORDNER '03 CD+VW BUS PRISTCHE Modellino,.FIAT DUCATO 2007 1 43 NOREV 775005,.CORGI 246 CHRYSLER IMPERIAL GOOD ORIGINAL CAR MADE 1965-67 REPRO BOX & FIGURES.,.GreenLight 1 18 Chevrolet Impala Sport Sedan with Sam and Dean Figures 19021,.

Brumm BMS1727 FIAT 500 60° ANNIV.1957-2017 CON CRISTALLI SWAROSKI INCAST.NEI FAR,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Siku 4066 Crown Big x 580 Forage Harvester Scale 1 3 2 New °,.SHELBY COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - FORD MUSTANG SHELBY GT 350 R - SHELBY168,.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 JIM LINK CHEVROLET 20TH ANNIVERSARY,FORD GALAXIE CONgreenIBLE 1 18 1964 64 sunstar red 1 18,.Bizarre 1 43 Scale Resin BZ385 - WM P76 Peugeot Le Mans 1978,.

MINICHAMPS McLaren Ford MP4-1C 43 530834398,.DIECAST TOY CAR ERTL PLYMOUTH GTX CONVT. 1 18 CAMPBELL CLUB AMER. MUSCLECAR,.Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 Yellow 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Matchbox SF Nr.18B Hondarora verchromte Vorderradgabel top in Box,.

Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S0970 - Porsche 996 GT3 RSR Flying Lizard Le Mans 06,. We agree in part.


A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Matchbox regular wheels No 38 is the Vauxhall Victor estate SPW VNMB,.Land Rover Range Rover Evoque Baujahr 2011 baltic blue 1 18 Century Dragon,.FLAKPANZER IV(WIRBELGIUM),1945 char,miniature tank 1 72 collection warmaster,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; BUS STOP HALTESTELLE DIORAMA IN SCALE 1 43,.KK-Scale Ferrari 400 Superamerica - red - 1962 - 1 18,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 24 Dub City Bigtime Muscle 1970 Dodge Charger R T CC Candy bluee Diecast Rare ,; II 1 43 VITESSE 521.8 CITROEN 2CV LA 2CV PIN UP BIJENKORF AUTOSALON MIB 259 600,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 43 TSM McLaren MP4-12C GT3 '11 Spa Bell Goodwin Mullen TSM124374,.Diecast Masters 1 50 Trailer Head Toy Int'l HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor Car,Mikansue 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit - ROV1 Rover P6 (2000 or 3.5),. Pontiac School Dist, supra.NOREV Mercedes Benz 300 SL 1986 orange 1 18 183467,.

Ford Sierra Mira 1 24 Rara,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Norev 1 18 Citroen Concept GT Diecast Model Car White 181610,.Fiat 1400B President Francis Lombardi Taxi Di Milano 1956 1 43 Kess KS43010051,.SUBARU Impreza WRC Rallye Madeira 1995 Winner Liatti Pons Velur Trofeu 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Tekno 60591 Meiller Tipping Trailer 3-achs 1 50 NEW BOXED,; Minichamps West McLaren Mercedes MP4 13 1998 1 43 David Coulthard (GBR) (JS),. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43 PremiumClassixxs MB LP 608 Porsche Motorsport 12510,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Citroen Citroen Citroen Ds19 Prestige Jacqueline Kennedy Visit In Paris 1961 Rio 1 43 RIO4517 Mo 8e9a9cCitroen Citroen Citroen Ds19 Prestige Jacqueline Kennedy Visit In Paris 1961 Rio 1 43 RIO4517 Mo 8e9a9c

RIO RI4579 LAMBORGHINI MIURA ROADSTER BERTONE MOTOR SHOW BRUXELLES 1968 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

FORD Fiesta New WRC 2017 Rallye Tänak MS-RT Winner Castrol Spark 1 43,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Minichamps Ford Escort Mk1 RS1600 AVO Clubman Red 1 43 400688101,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 830006 - F1 Brabham BMW BT52,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Sun Star 1 18 European Collectibles 1984 Ford Escort RS Turbo Diecast Car 4961R,.1986 RENAULT SUPERCINQ GT TURBO RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 185208,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DINKY TOYS 1 43 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE NO= 112 - IN GOOD CONDITION,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.LOTUS 72C JOCHEN RINDT 1970 GERMAN WINNER LMT ED TO 1500 1 18 QUARTZO 18271,.

FIAT PANDA 45 POLIZIA R395 BRUMM+ GIULETTA POLIZIA PROGETTO K 271 MAI USATE ,.Saller Modelle 1 87 A8728 Unimog U411 Feuerwehr Drehleiter (Brekina-Basis),.Minichamps 400800034 1 43 WILLIAMS FORD FW07 EMILIO DE VILLOTA SPANISH GP 1980,.Renault L'Supercinq Gt Turbo R5 Red 1986 1 18 Norev 185208 Phase,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Norev Citroën DS3 WRC 2012 1 18 Loeb Elena Rally d'Alsace,.

Volkswagen VW Passat B3 Variant Baujahr 1988 blue 1 18 KK-Scale,.Fiat 519S Limousine 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4382 Modellino Diecast,.Norev 188520 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN 1303 1972 RED,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Scalextric C3891 VW Volkswagen Campervan Car,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.LAND ROVER DISCOVERY (L462) 2017 1 43 TSM MODEL (FUJI WHITE),.Dacia Duster Pompier SDIS 28 Eure & Loire ALARME - ALA 0007 - Echelle 1 43,.Borgward RS 1500 Schauinsland Nr 33 resin modelcar 46250 Neo 1 43,.Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S - Spark 1 43 in Box 30634,.Daihatsu Mira Walk Through Van 1992 SPARK 1 43 SJ043 Model,.

NOREV 188331 Audi A4 DTM 2009 - N1 Audi Sport 1 18, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Norev Renault R.S.01 Version Test black 2015 1 18 185136 11,.Hotwheels Redline Maserati Mistral 1969 Mattel Hong Kong aqua redliner 109008,. The PartridgeArt Model AM0097 FERRARI 225 S VIGNALE 1952 RED 1 43 Modellino,.DINKY ACTION KIT MODEL No.1022 FERRARI 312-B2 VN MIB,.Bruder Land Rover Defender with Trailer, JCB and Construction Worker 1 16,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, SSM LKW 1 43 KAMAZ 65115 Muldenkipper, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Vita4one Racing BMW Z4 GT3 24H Nurburgring 2012, spark models,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Renault R5 Supercinque Gt Turbo 1986 Light bluee Met NOREV 1 18 NV185207 Model,.Spark Model TOYOTA Yaris E. Lappi GAZOO Racing WR 1 43 S5959,PartridgeOPEL ASCONA B 400 greySMANN ACROPOLIS 1982 LIM. SCHUCO RFS11 1 43,.SPARK MERCEDES BENZ GE 230 PAPAMOBILE 1980 POPE PAPA 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 30 31,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BMW James Bond Edition 2000 3 Car Set, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, MERCEDES BENZ SLS AMG 2009 blueE SPARK S1025 1 43,; Norev 1 43 Plastik Blech Peugeot 230 bluegrey,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Autoart 54671 - 1 43 Lamborghini Sesto Elemento (2010) - Carbon Grey - Neu, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, RENAULT 5 GT TURBO RALLYE COTE D IVOIRE 1990 OREILLE 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePorsche 919 Hybrid Porsche Team Bernard Webber Hartley Spark S4638 1 43,.

1962 COOMBS JAGUAR MARK 2 3.8L RACING 18 MODEL CAR BY MODEL ICONS 32101,.Tenariv Kit à Monter 1 43 - WM Peugeot Le Mans 1986, Clarke's negligent act.Ebbro 45141 HONDA FIT 3 HYBRID Attract Yellow Pearl 1 43 scale,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 718 CAYMAN GTS 2018 - S7618,.Citroen DS21 Chapron Lorraine 1969 blue 1 18 Norev,.

MINI Genuine Countryman Diecast Miniature Car Model Toy 1 18 80432447940,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ferrari 340 Mexico Spider 1952 Red 1 43 Model 0203 ART-MODEL,Spark Models 1 43 Scale PP002 - Norma M20 - Pikes Peak 2013,. In Noska,VOISIN C27 AEROSPORT 1934 Spark 1 43 S2706,.F1 RIAL Ford ARC2 V8 Cosworth GP Brazil 1989 Danner STP Spark 1 43,.M2 Volkswagen Bus Deluxe 1960 Red and White 1 24 Limited Edition CHASE 300 Units,.DCP LENTZ FREIGHTLINER CASCIDIA EVOLUTION DAY CAB REEFER TRAILER 1 64 34071 truc, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Kadett C Caravan 1974 Lime Green 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.Skyline Gt-R R33 Novelty 1 64 Kyosho Beads Collection,.Citroen Sm Mylord By Henry Chapron Cabriolet 1971 NOREV 1 18 NV181730 Model,.Ertl, 1955 Chevrolet Bel Air, Weinred silver, 1 18, Selten,. Id., p 923.

Spark 1 43 - Porsche 917 PA Spyder 1969 Test Car,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DINKY TOYS 322 DISC HARROW RARE SELTEN IN EXCELLENT CONDITION BOXED,Porsche 911 991 GT3 RS Riviera blue Ab 2013 1 43 Minichamps Modell Auto mit od..,.Solido Ferrari Type 500 TRC 100 serie near mint condition,.+ NOREV JET-CAR SOLDAT SPANISH BOX 845 CITROEN CX 2200 YELLOW MINT BOXED RARE,.Spark 1 43 Scale S2069 - Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 3.8 Test Paul Ricard 1993,.Mclaren MP4 12C Spider 2012 orange Metallic, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.Vintage Matchbox Models of Yesteryear Lot of 20 - NIB,.SOLIDO RED AND WHITE PANEL VAN VW Beetle BUS 1 18 SCALE NEW IN THE BOX ,. The parties Rolls Royce Corniche Coupé Dark bluee 1972 (TSM 1 43 114316),.

Mercedes Benz Sl-Class 300Sl Cabriolet (R107) 1986 Inca Red NOREV 1 18 NV183467,.2015 Mercedes-Benz AMG GT C190 V8 Turbo yellow 1 18 Maisto 36204,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1973 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 hellyellow blacke Schrift 1 43 Minichamps WAP,; PORSCHE 911 Turbo Cabriolet 1987 Ivory 1 18 Norev 187661 G-Modell, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]


Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, RD MARMANDE TRIUMPH SPORT LE MANS 1961,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Porsche 911 991 Targa 4S 2017 bluee SPARK 1 43 S4977 Miniature,.Peugeot 206 CC, green, 1 18 - WELLY,.DINKY Toys Jaguar E Type 2+2 - Purple - In Case,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,World Cup 32016 Drive D 400 1 3 2 NEW BOXED,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 5 Türer red 1972-1983 1 18 KK-Scale Modell Auto mit ode..,.Corgi OOC OM41305 Wright Fusion Articulated Bendy Bus Dublin FAULTY,.Norev référence 158 CITROEN DS 21 - 1 43 plastique,.1 18 Signature Models OLDSMOBILE SUPER 88 red - RARITÄT §,.TOGI Alfa Romeo 159 GP F1 - PRIMA SERIE - NO BOX ,. The ScottsdaleAudi A5 RS5 F5 II Coupe Misano red 2. Generation Ab 2016 1 43 Spark Modell Aut..,Peugeot 302 Darl ´ Mat Cabriolet 1937 bluee Metallic, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.MB0590 Terex 3307 Muldenkipper, Max Bögl (856),. Id.,NEO Porsche 968 Turbo S Purple NEO43835,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SIMCA Aronde 1962 GREY 1 18 NOREV 185717 Cardinal P60 Montlhery Speciale,; Schuco Borgward Traktor (08946) - 1 43,Minichamps BMW Sauber F1 08 - R Kubica - A+ A,.Spark 1 43 Nissan GT-R LM NISMO LMP1 Manchester City 2015 S4561,. The ScottsdaleEmp; Made Friction drive Toy Plastic Merc artic lorry circus Animals.[Reduced ],Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1972 Surtees TS14, No.7, Italian Grand Prix in 1 43 Scale by Spark S4000,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Hot Wheels Porsche lot of 25 1 64,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi Heritage Col 1 50 - Berliet GLR mit Semi-Citerne 'Shell',; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DeAgostini 458 Challenge 2010 1 24 Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.21 F S,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, GreenLight 1 18 The A-Team (1983-87 TV Series) - 1983 GMC Vandura 13521,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Kyosho 1 18 BMW 3 series grijs metallic mint., (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MINICHAMPS 1 43 MASERATI GRANTURISMO MC GT4, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 35 PANZER V - PANTHER D DRAGON PREMIUM ÉD + ADD ON,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSpark Alfa Romeo 8C F. Cortese 1 43 S3879,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 484H Vintage Norev 59 Renault Alpine A110 bluee 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheGama Mini Mod 1 47 Mercedes Benz 220S Taxi black,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CORGI TOYS 233 Heinkel Economy Car excellent in complete original box,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Schuco 50171058 Piccolo 3er Set Fratelli d`Italia, mit CD Ltd. 1000 OVP (y5520),Brekina DAF DO2000 + FT2600 MAMMOET Sonder-Set - 99264 - 1 87,.Kyosho Original 1 43 Lexus Is 350 F Sport White Nova Gf. Japan,.Ertl 1-64 diecast semi LUHR Jensen and sons NIB,. The HuygheSpark Models 1 43 Scale S1275 - Peugeot 905 Spider Winner European Cup 1992,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheCORGI 236 AUSTIN DELUXE SALOON A60 MOTOR SCHOOL CAR - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.

MINICHAMPS 1 43 - F1 FERRARI 1996 LAUNCH VERSION - M. SCHUMACHER,.Trofeu 1 43 Scale 513 - Ford Escort 1850 TC 1st London-Mexico '95,.

UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH4232 1 32 NEW HOLLAND T6.140 WITH 740TL FRONT LOADER,.1 43 Spark - S5951 Ford Fiesta WRC Monte Carlo 2018 S. Ogier,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CORGI Eddie Stobart - CC13201 - MODERN - DAF XF Super Space Cab - MB,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMERCEDES 300 SE Lang 1965 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400035200,.Citroen Gt Salon De Paris 2008 White Met NOREV 1 18 NV181610 Model,.

For example, in Partridge,Motormax 1 18 Scale diecast - 73144 BMW Z4 E89 Roadster bluee,. In Jorgensen, supra,KK-SCALE 1 18 MERCEDES 540K AUTOBAHNKURUER 1938 NERA MODELLINO,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Citroen Mehari 1983 Ataca Yellow Norev 1 18 NV181525 Model,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1489 - Corvette C6-R Luc Alphand Adventures LM 2008,. That is the same situation in this case.Burago BU76101 FERRARI 488 GTB N.25 THE GREEN JEWEL 70th ANNIVERSARY 1 18 ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Welly NEX 1 18 BMW X6 White Mini Car Display Miniature Car,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Peugeot 404 Coupe 1967 white 1 18 Norev 184831 neu & OVP,.ZIL 130 MMZ 4502 bluee SSM 1058 1 43,.Alpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 White with red stripping NOREV - NO 185303 1 18,.

CORGI Eddie Stobart - CC13415 - MODERN - MAN TGA XXL Curtainside - MB,.