1 18 Rallye Rallye Rallye Subaru Impreza WRC 2003 P.Solberg 16ac9b

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 18 Rallye Rallye Rallye Subaru Impreza WRC 2003 P.Solberg 16ac9b
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MCG Mercedes Benz 460K Nurburg 460 460 K (W 1 18 18033,.PORSCHE 924 Carrera GTS 1980 weiss white NEU Minichamps PMA 1 43,.Hot Wheels Leo Mattel India Chevy Monza in bluee in blisterpak,.LUMYNO 1 43 Nissan Rasheen Type I From japan,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Corgi CC10704 Scammell Highwayman Flatbed Trailer & Cradled Load, NEU & OVP,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S0970 - Porsche 996 GT3 RSR Flying Lizard Le Mans 06,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CORGI BMC MINI COOPER S MONTE CARLO RALLY No 177 Good Condition,.Jada 1970 Dodge Charger R T 1 24 scale used no box 2004 release HTF,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Citroen 2CV Dolly Weiss grey 1949-1990 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne in..,.KS43014050 - MASERATI 3500 GT FRUA COUPE' 1961 METALLIC blueE ED.LIM.PCS 250 1 43,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 Schumacher World Champ NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 Tempo Hanseat 3-Rad Furgoneta Fulda Neumático Von,.Norev NV74730 PEUGEOT 407 ELIXIR 1 43,.NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 MG TD Arnolt Continental Sports 1953 White Art. NEO44611,.Porsche 911 (991) Carrera S Red 1 18 Model 18047R WELLY,.

Schuco 1 43 Mercedes Benz LP 608 Metzeler OVP,.Corgi Toys 1 36 Working LAND ROVER LWB + HORSEBOX TRAILER WEATHERED Car MIB`02,.1977 MERCEDES 350SL COUPE OPEN CONgreenIBLE blueE METALLIC 1 18 BY SUNSTAR 4673,.Porsche 911 Targa 4 S 2017 bluee 1 43 Model S4977 SPARK MODEL,.Maisto Pro rodz 1 18 1971 Chevrolet Chevelle 454 Congreenible Classic car,.

AUDI AUDI S6 Plus, 1 43, Nogaroblue on 999 Pieces Limited 5031300113,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1 43 Ixo Museum Museum Tatra T77,.Renault Tipo X Taxi 1907 Green 1 43 Model RIO4548 RIO,.MO Rare predotype RENAULT 19 phase 1 toit ouvrant 3 portes 1 43 Heco modeles,1 43, Mercedes Benz 230-280 SL, red, sport 2 door, soft top,.Dinky Toy No 289 is the model of the London Routemaster bus VNMB,.

1959 Impala congreenible 1 18 ROAD SIGNATURE YAT MING NICE DETAIL see pictures,.Hi-Story HS194BL 1 43 MAZDA ROADSTER RF (2016) blueuri Flex Mica diecast,.THE A TEAM 1983 GMC VANDURA 1 43 DIECAST MODEL BY GREENLIGHT 86515 TV SHOW CHASE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Franklin Mint - 1997 Corvette B11WW95 Neu,.

1 18 Triple 9 Collection Toyota 2000 GT red red Nr T9-1800184 OVP,. We agree in part.

1 18 Artisan Collection The A-Team 1967 Chevrolet Impala Sedan,.1966 BMW 2000 TI Typ 120 Policia 1 18 MC Group 18042,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1953 Ford Crestline Sunliner Coupe red-black 1 18 Welly 12525,.Corgi CC15211 MAN TGX Flatbed & Load, Collett,.CORGI 236 AUSTIN DELUXE SALOON A60 MOTOR SCHOOL CAR - VERY GOOD in original BOX,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Marsh Models 1 43 Kit 1966 Corvette G.S. Roadster Sebring - New in box MM13A,.1 43 RL111K ASTON MARTIN DBR1 Le Mans winner KIT BY SMTS,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, SUN STAR Mercedes Benz 220 SE Cabriolet 1958 (me 1 18 3557,; Spark Model S5243 TOYOTA 88C N.37 24th LM 1988 P.BARILLA-T.NEEDELL-H.OGAWA 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1960s.MATCHBOX,LESNEY.20,USA Chevrolet Taxi CAB YELLOW BPW mint in box.ORIGINAL,.1 50 Corgi Dukes Transport Limited Renault Tractor unit. Edition number 0633,Opel Admiral Hebmuller 1938 Olive Beige 1 43 NeoScale NEO43235,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.PORSCHE 911 TARGA 1957 green MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

Schuco 07783 Güldner G75 A Traktor ohne Dach Baujahr 1965 in red 1 32 NEU,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.NOREV187411 - Voiture de compétition PORSCHE 962 C 24 Winner ADAC Eifelrennen Nu,.Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper Washington Fire Co. No.1 Ltd Ed. 1561 of 2000,.GAMA 2105 BMW M3 E36 - RED 1 24 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Vintage - ALFA ROMEO GIULIA Super 1300 - 1 43 Mebetoys A-3,; CHAUSSON APU53 RATP BUS 1953 GREEN BEIGE 530030 Norev 1 43 New in a box ,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Datsun blueebird U910 (bluee Metallic),; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Weise-toys Red SAME Fortis 190 Infinity Tractor Vehicles Collection 1035 1 32,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Mercedes 450SEL W116 1 43 Minichamps,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Eligor Evrat Kit Assembled 1 43 F1 Lotus 79 Ford Martini GP 1979 Andretti,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Bizzare BZ334 NISSAN 24 ORS N.14 M.CARLO 1984 1 43 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WP 125 1992 DODGE VIPER RED,.Ferrari F12 Berlinetta 2012 Yellow 1 43 Fujimi FJM1343013 Model,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bastian 51494 Kibri 10494-1 LIEBHERR LTM 1800 mit Wippspitze Bausatz 1 87,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Solido 1 18 appx Scale diecast - 8031 Volkswagen Combi Vitre 1966 red white,.

Bizarre BZ431 1 43 Resin Talbot Lago T26 GS, '51 LeMans, Team Eugene Chaboud,.Best Model BT9669 FIAT ABARTH 850 ZAGATO N.82 WINNER 500 KM NURBURGRING 1960 1 4,.Mercedes L911 Postbrauerei 1 43 Model PREMIUM CLASSIXXS,.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK56 001 - 1964 Ford Mustang Indy Pace Car 1964 1 Of 2000,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Norev Peugeot 205 GTi 1.9 1992 1 18 Miami bluee,.

Moissonneuse batteuse Farm Boy Playland,.SIKU 1627 - MAN LKW - Koffer-Sattelzug - Bodycote - Werbemodell - NEU&OVP - 1 87,.Diapet 1 40 NISSAN SKYLINE GTS 2-Door Sports Sedan Model Car G-51 MIB`85 RARE,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, EBBRO 1 20 KIT IN PLASTICA MCLAREN HONDA MP4-30 2015 EARLY SEASON ART 013 4800,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Norev NV185143 RENAULT ALPINE A310 1977 YELLOW 1 18 Modellino,.1 43 CL51K Aston Martin V8 Vantage Oscar India KIT BY SMTS,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 AMERICAN MUSCLE 1968 OLDSMOBILE 442 W-30 DIECAST CAR AMM1084,.Minichamps 437032502 BRABUS 6.5 (500E W124) 1993 bluee , 1 43, Spur 0 Neu OVP,.Mohs Ostentatienne Opera Sedan 1967 gold - MX41306-011 - Matrix 1 43,.

AutoWorld 1 18 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona LA & orange County Diecast AMM1091, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ebro 1 43 NISSAN FAIRLADY Z High Way Patrol 1969 finished product,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING TOY FAIR 2000 CAMARO SET,. The PartridgeSpark Model Benetton B194 J. J. 1 43 S4482,.Rio Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 4154 - Mercedes Benz 770 USA Army 1945 - Green,.DieCast Promotions Peterbilt 379 & Chrome Reefer DCP,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Neo Vacel Vega Excellence 1 43 mit Box Unbespielt, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 RSR LeMans 2006,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 Goliath Goli Cajones Wäscheverleih Berlín Von 1957,.Ferrari 250 California ISA 1959 1 43 Red + White Roof Model 0245 ART-MODEL,PartridgeMERCURY 1 43 - FIAT 128 RALLY NO= 22 - VERY RARE - GOOD CONDITION,.CORGI 1 50 - 72003 BERNARD TYPE 110 FOURGON - LUSTUCRU,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AD467 NOREV 1 43 RENAULT FUEGO TURBO DES AUTOS A COLLECTIONNER MINIATURES, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Rio RI4552 MERCEDES SSK N.3 WINNER IRISH GP EIREANN CUP 1930 R.CARACCIOLA 1 43 M,; Best Model 9409 LOLA T 70 COUPE SPA 1967 n.2 1 43 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Greenlight 1 64 1967 Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 Heinrich Chevy-Land 13210-A Chase, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, VW Beetle 1200 Export (Politie Netherlands 1951) Diecast Model Car 431051291, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeDinky 437 Muir Hill 2WL Loader, Near Mint in Excellent Original Bubble Box,.

Hot Wheels Honda Lot Of 18 Cars. All Short Cards Type R, Civic EF, & CR-X.,.Norev 1969 Porache 911 T 1 18 Model Car 187630 Dark Red, Clarke's negligent act.PORSCHE 935 MORETTI 1000 MILES PORTLAND 1978 1 43 SPARK US041,.SMART Fortwo 2015 black white 1 18 Norev 183430 Baureihe 453,.Hi-Story HS146RE 1 43 Nissan SUNNY 1500 SUPER SALOON (1987) Super Red,.

Western Models 1 43 1978 Brabham BT46 Niki Lauda F1 Grand Prix,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Dinky Toys F n° 553 Peugeot 404 en boite,Soviet russian Zis 5 V 1942 WW2 War 1939 - 1945 Miniclassic Hand Made 1 43,. In Noska,19x 2019 Matchbox '18 JEEP WRANGLER JL UNLIMITED NEW,.FERRARI SF 16-H F1 SEBASTIEN VETTEL 2016 BBURAGO 00986 1 18 FORMULA ONE,.1969 Dodge Charger RT Car 1 18 Maisto Diecast Modified Vehicle Toy Gift,.Spark 1 43 Matra Simca MS 670 B, 3rd '74 LeMans GITANES DECALS APPLIED S3554, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Burago 1 21 Scale Diecast - 3338 Ford SVT F150 Lightning Waterscooter Yellow,.1 18 Minichamps Citroen 2CV 1976 orange 150 111504,.Porsche 911 (993) Carrera Coupé Año Fabricación 1993 silver 1 18 Norev,.KESS MODEL 1 43 Alfa Romeo 2600 Berlina 1962 bluee Cobalto Art. KE43000170,. Id., p 923.

Brooklin Models BRK 41A 1959 Chrysler 300E Congreenible Car Red,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Ebbro 45152 Toyota Prius Red Mica Metallic 1 43 scale,BUS SAVIEM S53M TRANSCAR NOREV 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,.Art Model AM0348 FERRARI 290 S N.T TARGA FLORIO TEST 1958 L.MUSSO 1 43 Modellino,.Maisto Executive Edition Aston Martin DB7 Vantage 1 18 Scale Diecast Car Wd Base,.Citroen Dyane 6 green 1967-1983 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiue..,.Start Scale Models Gaz 66 1 43,.CITY VITESSE 1 43 SCALE - MORRIS LD150 VAN LAKELAND PENNINE LAUNDRY & CLEANING,.AUDI Coupe B2 Typ85 5 Zylinder gold brown met 1981 NEO Highenddetail Resin 1 43,. The parties Greenlight Gas Monkey Garage 1956 Ford F100 only 100 made CHASE Car,.

BMW X5 E70 SUV black 2. Generation 2006-2013 RC Funkauto - inkl. Batterien -..,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1956 - Porsche 997 GT3 RSR Flying Lizard LM 2009,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Bmw 3-Series 318 (E21) 2-Door 1975 Red KK Scale 1 18 KK180041,; Solido Peugeot 403 bluee mécanique et démontable, avec son moteur - Jouet ancien, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Brekina 50765 MB O 305 HHA Schnellbus Doornkaat __ H3779,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Verem 1 43 Scale Model Car 6303 - 1958 Aston Martin DB4 James Bond gold,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Best Model BT9068 ALFA ROMEO TZ1 N.40 ACCIDENT LM F.MASOREO-J.ROLLAND 1 43 Model,.1 50 Cat D6K XL Engineering Diecast Vehicle Model-High Line Series Toys Gifts,.MINICHAMPS OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE FEUERWEHR COESFELD 400045890,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Tenariv Kit à Monter 1 43 - WM Peugeot Le Mans 1986,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.EBBRO EB45597 NISSAN NV350 CARAVAN SCHOOL BUS 2012 YELLOW 1 43,.Danhausen Mercedes Benz 500K 1935-1936 12 cm en métal silveré socle 1 43 RARE,.SUZUKI Jimny Collection 1 64 Japanese Car Capsule Toy set of 4 f s Japan,.Matcbox Models Of Yesteryear 1 43 Scale YSH2 - London Omnibus 1886 - Oakey's,.Porsche 356 A Cabrio Beige 1 43 Model 2569 SCHUCO,. The Scottsdale2019 HOT WHEELS LOT OF 15 WHEELIE CHAIR AARON WHEELZ SPECIAL FEATURE DIECAST,Peugeot D4B Ambulance 1963 White NOREV 1 18 NV184699 Miniature,.CHEVROLET CORVAIR Coupé black 1963 1 18 SUNSTAR 1484 voiture miniature collection,. Id.,MODELLINO FORD ESCORT I TC ALAN MANN RACING GP TOURING CARS NURBURGRING 1968 IN,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev Mercedes Benz AMG GT-C Roadster 2017 yellow Métallique 1 18 183451 7,; Poznan Poses Ikarus Busset 4 Piece Set 1 87 H0 UZ4 Å,Highway 61 1 43 Scale 1968 Dodge Dart High Gloss Red Resin model car,.Mercedes C-111 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Yellow,. The ScottsdaleCORGI TOYS No 237 OLDSMOBILE SHERIFF'S CAR.1962-66. EXCELLENT BOXED,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Dinky 1 43 Scale Diecast DY-903 - Classic British Sports Cars Series 2,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 069100 - 1990 Porsche 911 Turbo 964 Met Purple,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Renault Alpine A110-50 blue 1 18 Norev neu + OVP 185147,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Bburago 1 18 gold Lamborghini Miura (1968) (color may vary),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, NZG 1 87 SCALE HAMM 3412 HT COMPACTOR MODEL BN 674,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TEAM SLOT CAR 11103 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA GTA YELLOW L12.5cm - UNUSED IN BOX, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, AUTO WORLD 1 18 1968 FORD MUSTANG S S COBRA 50TH DIE-CAST WHITE AW247, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Schuco 450774000 - VW Beetle' RALLYE 53,Colour White with farb-streifen,1 3 2,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMassey Ferguson 135 Tractor 1 16th Universal UH2698U Farming Model 180mm,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CODE 3 F.D.N.Y. YANKEES SEAGRAVE PUMPER ENGINE 68. LIMITED EDITION. NEW.,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 18 Norev Porsche 911 RS 2.7 Touring 1973 white green,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Model Car Group. Rover P6 3500 V8 Red model car 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,SPARK SCUDERIA Tgold red STR12 GP Australia 2017 Carlos Sainz Jr S5038 1 43,BRITAINS 9529 MF135 MASSEY FERGUSON 135 FARM TRACTOR'. VINTAGE. 1 32. EXCELLENT,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 117 - Ford Anglia Tourer Top Down - Beige,.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX21B Mercedes 190 AMG Circuit GrA 1990 2 Vers,. The HuygheNew Holland L225 Skidsteer 1 16 Ertl 13816,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAT088 MW Conquest 1 43 - 57' Chevrolet Belair,.

CORGI TOYS FORD MUSTANG LARGE & LITTLE OVP 1981,.Herpa 1 87 310369 Jubiläumsset mit zwei Modellen 50 Jahre Spedition Anhalt ,.

Spark Model S5455 HONDA CIVIC EF3 N.100 WINNER GRP3 JTC SUZUKA 1989 U.KATAYAMA-E,.Wolga GAZ M24 Limousine Beige Taxi 1967-1992 1 18 Model Car Group Modell Auto ..,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky Toys 192 De Soto Fireflite made in England 1 43 scale Near Mint,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeF.B. Model FB047 M ALFA ROMEO 8C 2900A SPIDER 1 43 Modellino,.AUDI RS5 no.53 DTM 2016 (Jamie green),.

For example, in Partridge,Minichamps 410130102 1 43 RED BULL RACING RB9 FINAL GP BRAZIL 2013 RED BULL WEBB,. In Jorgensen, supra,New - Fire Engine Metal - Collectable,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Hot Wheels 2012 Ed El Segundo Education Foundation Super Rare,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 NEO Jaguar Mark IX Creme White 43143 Resin Mint in BOX FREE US Shipping ,. That is the same situation in this case.1 64 DCP WELLBORN FOREST FREIGHTLINER EVOLUTION W DRY VAN TRAILER,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.1 43 Toyota Cgoldlla Wrc 1997 Oriole,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1 43 NEO Model Ford Taunus S TC2 2 doors White 1976-1979,.PORSCHE 911 GT2 REPSOL Orleans Saldaña Castro LE MANS 1995 1 43 SPARK S5512,.Bburago 1 24 Scale Jaguar Xkr-s Diecast Vehicle (colors May Vary) - 124 Xkrs,.