Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals AUTOWORLD AW209 1 18 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG 289 INDY 500 PACE CAR DIECAST MODEL,.UT MODELS 1 18 PORSCHE 911 TURBO TYPE 993 red METALISE,.FORD 1949 cabriolet blue 1 18,.PORSCHE 917 20 PINK PIG LE MANS 1971 1 43 SPARK S1896,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Top Model 1 43 Scale TMC136 - Ferrari 121 - Le Mans 1955,.Spark Model Porsche 911 Targa 2015 1 43 S4933,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.SOLIDO 1 43 - 4602 1011 FERRARI 312 P 1969 - C W TIN COLLECTORS BOX,.Belle Alfa Roméo ALFETTA GT de Fabrication MERCURY ,référence 306 + boite,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Bohemia TCHECOSLOVAQUIE n° 60A TATRA 75 Cabriolet fermé résine 1 43 rare,.GAZ VOLGA M24 1972 Volkspolizei Police - 1 18 - MCG,.Herpa 121736 DAF XF SSC Euro 6 Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Henglein , PC - 1 87, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
Best Model BT9683 FERRARI 250 LM N.136 14th TARGA FLORIO 1965 A.NICODEMI-F.LESSO,.Lamborghini Miura S 1969 gold 1 43 Model 436103000 MINICHAMPS,.SOLIDO SERIE 100 112 D.B. DB PANHARD LE MANS MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN RARO,.NOREV Renault 4 Fourgonnette grey 1 18,.
Aston martin AR1 SPARK 1 43 miniature,.Reproduction Dinky RAC Rider with Motorcycle and Side Car,.STEWART Sf-3 GP EUROPA 1999 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.New Holland T6.175 Version Fiat Terracotta - limited 1000,.FINEWORK Chgold Q size Ferrari Dino 246 GT HG Resin Kit,.
● RARE HTF PLAYART FASTWHEEL 1 64 HONG KONG UNPUNCHED CAR AMBULANCE RESCUE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.1996 Red Corvette Coupe Maisto 1 16 scale model,.blueE MAX NHRA 1971 Mustang Funny Car Auto World Collectible,.MINICHAMPS 430 062328 Porsche 356 C Coupe 1963 black 1 43,1967 Corvette Marina bluee 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32272,.TEKNO SCANIA TOPLINE REFRIGERATED TRAILER 1 50 SCALE BRAND NEW DEALERSHIP,.
Polistil 1 24 Scale Model Car 03146 - Lancia Beta Monte Carlo Rally,.Hotwheels Elite F1 Ferrari F2003-GA M. Schumacher 2003 World Champ. 1 43 X5514,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46275 DKW MEISTERKLASSE UNIVERSAL TYP 89S METALLIC-HELLGRUN ,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Spark Porsche 911 RSR (991) C. Ried 1 43 S4237,.
FORD Taunus TC2 Ghia (2 doors) Neo scale models 1 43 NEO45137,. We agree in part.
NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 309 GTI 16 - 1991 - 184881,.Audi S5 Cabriolet Modellauto 1 43 Tofanawhite - 5011615331,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Bburago MINI COOPER 1969 1 16 Scale Model Gift Die Cast Sports Race Car GREEN,.Norev 183451 Mercedes AMG GT C ROADSTER YELLOW 2017 Scale 1 18 NEW °,.1 18 ANSON FERRARI 328 GTS DIECAST METAL MODEL CAR 30308 -RACE CAR RED,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Minichamps Williams Martini Mercedes FW38 F. Massa Brazil 2016 - 1 43,.Mercedes Benz S class 600 SEL Brabus W140 Limousine 1 43 Herpa Limited Red,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Giocher BRVDF FIAT BRAVA STR. VIGILI DEL FUOCO 1 4,; Porsche 718 RS60 sebring 12 hours 1960 Minichamps 1 43 IN BOX,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
LANCIA Beta Montecarlo Turbo Gr.5 DivII DRM 1980 Heyer Fruit Loom Spark 1 43,.RON O'DONNELL'S 1970 PLYMOUTH CUDA DAMN YANKEE LTD 750PC 1 18 AUTOWORLD AW1164,1 43 Ferrari Dino 246GT Red Open-close edition Kyosho 05081R,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1980 Red BEST 1 43 BE9678 Model,.
MBE 1 76 Scale Model Bus MB106 - Dennis Dragon Duple Citybus - Hong Kong,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Mebetoys A20 - Lamborghini Misura P400 Scala 1 43 Die cast,.OM45312 - BOVA FUTURA - STOBART,.Herpa 121910 Man Tgx XXL E6c Refrigerated Semi-Trailer Transports Müller Ho 1 ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Neo Ford Fiesta 1600 Gr.2 - RHD Rally Monte Carlo 1979 - 1 43,; Ford Country Squire 1960 Wooden Red 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Norev NV187585 PORSCHE 917K N.43 5th 1000 KM SPA 1970 H.LAINE-G.VAN LENNEP 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
NOREV 1 43 SCALE - CITROEN TRACTION 22CV - PRESENTATION BOX - Light bluee,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Renault Juvaquatre Van 1951 Beige NOREV 1 18 NV185260 Model,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
7497 Feuerwehr - pinknbauer AT LF 1 43 Wiking Art. 043197,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
(V) triang spot on HUMBER SUPER SNIPE - 183,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Vtg 1960's Tonka Toys USA Pink Surrey JEEP w Canopy parts repair,.Matchbox models of Yesteryear y-17 Hispano Suiza 1938 issue 9 Excellent v rare,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.BULGARIAN MATCHBOX MERCEDES-BENZ 230SL 230 SL CABRIO orange W ECOLOGY TEMPA,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 43 CHRYSLER 300 C 1955 - HANDMADE BROOKLIN BRK 19,.
LAND ROVER RANGE ROVER EVOQUE GREY 2 DOORS 1 18 BY WELLY 11003,.Matchbox VW lot promised to one buyer,.Matchbox Lesney Y7-1 1918 Leyland 'Jacobs' Van In Type 'A' Box (ISSUE 2),.PORSCHE 917K 1971 MARTINI INTERNACIONAL RACING van Gijs v. Lennep NOREV 1 18,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.
Schuco 1 32 Traktor Fendt 211 V Vario, green 450781700,.Mint Minicar Kyosho Original 1 64 Lamborghini Silhouette Red,.MD43224 MODELER'S 1 43 TOYOTA 86 meets New Theatrical Version Initial D,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 59 - Dusenberg 3 Ltr GP 1921 - Cream,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 24 BBURAGO BURAGO MAX VERSTAPPEN RED BULL RB14 TAG HEUER JUMBO 2018 RARE RARO ,.Rietze Auto Modelle H0 62700, 40213 & 60183 - 3 autobuses,.Hot Wheels Redline Demon in Olive Collectors Quality Condition,.1 50TH DIECAST MASTERS INTERNATIONAL HX620DAY CAB TANDEM 71008 Trailer Head,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3362 - Mini JCW WRC th Monte Carlo 2013,.
Kyosho 1 64 Ferrari Fxx-K Ev Height Short Aluminum Deep Rim Body Red, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Lotus Elan S3 FHC 1965 Spark S2221 resin 1 43,.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE FERRARI CALIFORNIA OPEN TOP WHITE BBURAGO 16904 1 18,. The PartridgeJADA ROAD RATS 47' CHEVY FLEETLINE 2 CAR SETS NEW ,.Art Model AM0083 FERRARI 500 TR N.55 DNF MONZA 1956 P.CARINI-F.BORDONI 1 43 Mode,.1 50 Siku Lorry With Trough Tipper - 150 3537 Actros Fliegl Model Scale,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Dinky Toys GB n° 449 camion Ford Johnston Road Sweeper neuf en boite MIB, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Elysee Resin 1 43 - Renault Juvaquatre Break Glazed Green,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.DINKY 149 CITROEN DYANE - EXCELLENT in original BOX,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3340 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC rd Monte Carlo 2012,PartridgeAtlas Editions Dinky Toys Diecast Model Car 507 - Break Simca 1500 MIMB,.IXO Altaya 1975 M.A.N. Saviam 32-256 Schwerer-Hauber ,1 43 RARITÄT,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo n°34 Nurburgring 2011 1 18 • Minichamps 151111134, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark Model S5911 DS VIRGIN RACING A.LYNN 2017 N.37 Rd9 NEW YORK FORMULA E 1 43,; VERY RARE 80's GREEK KiBi WIND UP CITROEN DS 21 POLICE SLJ COPY VGC w BOX,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, RARE DIAPET YONEZAWA TOYS HONDA CIVIC GF grey METAL REF 346 = G16 MADE IN JAPAN, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Ducati 748 1 18 Scale Moto Collection 14, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBrago Toy Mini Cooper 2001 DiecastM odel Car Kit Replica 576,.
Dinky Toys GB Military SB 1 43 - Army Wagon with Trailer Medium Gun 692,.DTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Lucas Auer 1 43 Neu OVP, Clarke's negligent act.PLAYMOBIL Ecto-1 Ghostbusters. REF 9220,.1 18 ERTL 1970 FORD MUSTANG MACH 1 SHINING STARS SPECIAL EDITION OF 5000,.Hot Wheels 2014 Collectors Nationals VOLKSWAGEN T1 DRAG BUS Fast Ship 7A,.
Spark 1 43 Audi A4 S4 2016 White Art. S4887,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Peugeot 404 Coupe 1967 Apink White NOREV 1 18 NV184831 Model,Spark Model S5513 PORSCHE 911 GT2 N.55 DNF LM 1996 J.P.JARIER-J.PAREJA-D.CHAPPEL,. In Noska,FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 CORD 812 de 1937 COMME NEUF + CERTIFICAT et DOCUMENT,.Wiesmann Roadster Mf5 2007 Metallic gold 1 43 Neoscale NEO44601,.A28 Handmade Iron Decoration Collectibles Simulation Motorcycle Model K,.1999 RED Ford Mustang Cobra SVT 1 24 Diecast Model 1999-2004, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Corgi 221Chevrolet New York Taxi cab,.REVELL 1 32nd SCALE SHELBY GT-350 JERRY TITUS SLOT CAR RE 08371,.Kode 9 Tokyo Motor Show 2015 bluee Spark 1 43 SJ040 Model,.Ferrari FXX K RED SCALE 1 18 Von Bburago,. Id., p 923.
Fiat 238 Ambulanza Falk Denmark 1 43 Model RIO,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, RAI'S 1 43 Toyota Crown JZS155Z Kanagawa Prefecture Police Department Japan,Hot Wheels 20th Convention Dinner '69 Firebird Trans AM Yellow Real Riders 1 68,.Norev CIJ 1 43 - Berliet Stradair Benne Tilting,.Ferrari Laferrari Año Fabricación 2013 black Mate 1 18 Bburago,.Dodge Charger 1969 Hot Wheels 1 18,.Porsche Panamera 4S Diesel 2016 Dark bluee Met HERPA 1 43 WAP0207230G Miniature,.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO44605 ABARTH 1000 GT 1963 MONOMILLE RED 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin Model Car S2132 - Jaguar D - Le Mans 1955,. The parties FERRARI 250 LE MANS PININFARINA IN METAL. POLITOYS - M. 1 43. REF 525. ITALY.,.
40 Lledo 'Days Gone By' & Matchbox etc model cars with 3 wooden display units,.1 64th DCP Kenworth W900 Day Cab w Brenner Food Grade Tanker Trailer,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MINI DINKY 16 FORD MUSTANG - WHITE L7.0cm - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN GARAGE BOX,; Schuco 7242 MB CLC KLASSE COUPE blueE 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Bizzare BZ20 VM P 76 N.86 LE MANS 77 1 43 Modellino,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 Minichamps Maserati Mistral 1964 Red 437123430,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 1 18 187427 Norev,.Majorette Full Set of 6 ZAMAC Limited Edition Serie 5 New Diecast Car 2019 FEB,.bruder Bruder Lamborghini R8.270 DCR tractor BR03084,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Two Caledonian Mini Club Limited Edition Models - CP82223 and Lledo Mini Mart,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.VINTAGE 60's DINKY TOYS MATRA SPORTS M 530 WHITE MIB,.1 18 KYOSHO MERCEDES CLK 240 SONDERMODELL LEDER goldMET.,.Mint in Box MATCHBOX Reg Wheels 2C 2-C MUIR-HILL DUMPER RED CAB GREEN DUMP LAING,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo GELO Loos Le Mans 1979 Schurti Heyer Shell Spark 1 43,.MERCURY FIAT 124 - RED + BROKEN WHITE INTERIOR 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,. The ScottsdaleJoy Toy No 161 Bedford Car Transporter + 4 cars (Made in Greece) NEW ,400031032 MINICHAMPS 1 43 SCALE MERCEDES-BENZ SL CLASS 2001 METALLIC RED,.DINKY 416 FORD TRANSIT MOTORWAY VAN MINT ORIGINAL ON PLINTH WITH DAMAGED COVER,. Id.,Spark Model S4652 BR01-NISSAN N.37 32th LM 2015 M.ALESHIN-K.LADYGIN-A.LADYGIN 1 ,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, GREENLIGHT COLLECTIBLES - 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE - GULF 1967 - 12994,; Tracteur Scania S730 V8 Ivory White ELIGOR - EL 116203 - Echelle 1 43,Alfa Romeo Tipo 33 3 1970 Le Mans in 1 43 Scale,.Minichamps 1 43 Opel Ascona Voyage Station Wagon Fire Engine 1970 Art.400045890,. The ScottsdaleUH Renault 5 Turbo Coupe Europe Europcar 1981 4550 Universal Hobbies 1 18,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, KAZ MMZ-4502 Kolhida green-grey SSM 1293 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Rio 4348 FIAT 128 CROCE pink CELESTE 71 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Shelby Collectibles Shelby Terlingua Mustang (black yellow) 2008 1 18 OVP ,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PORSCHE 911 996 Carrera Cabriolet 1998 red 1 18 MIRA 06930 voiture miniature,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Ferrari 488 Gtb red 1 18 Bburago Signature,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Motormax 1 48 Scale Diecast Aeroplane 76336 - P-51 Mustang, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Schuco 1 43 Scale Model Car 04354 - BMW 320i - Polizei, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Audi R8 V10 Plus Coupe Weiss neuestes Modell 2. Generation ab 2015 1 18 Maisto..,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeERTL DIE-CAST 1 64 INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR OLD MILWAUKEE LIGHT BEER TRAILER,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Tatra 815 V26 - yellow bluee,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHOT WHEELS 30 YEARS COMMEMORATIVE BOX 1968 Deora 1977 57 Chevy 1973 Sweet 16,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 027 - 1935 Dodge Van ITT Kruse 1 Of 750 White,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,1 18 Modelcar Group Rover 3500 V8 Police MCG18045 OVP,Corgi Toys Gift Set 2 Land Rover With Rices Pony Trailer selten rar rare o3,.Antigua miniatura 1 43 Mira 4007 Seat 1200 Rallye. Made in Spain.,.Veba Heating Oil Raab Kärcher Setra Bus Stettnisch 5014 Adgreenising H0 1 87 Å,. The HuygheNissan Leaf Toho Taxi - J-Collection Kyosho 1 43 in Box 35773,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheVitesse 1 43 Scale VCC99065 - 1997 Austin Mini Moke Cagiva - Yellow,.
MEBETOYS A-37 A37 A 37 NSU RO80 RO 80 METALLIC GREY MINT CONDITION RARE SELTEN,.CORGI Renault 16 TS (Maroon Metallic) 1 43 Scale Diecast Model NEW, RARE ,.
CONRAD MERCEDES BENZ RACE CAR TRANSPORTER RENNABTEILUNG 1034 1 43 UNBOXED,.WIKING 470 LKW BÜSSING 4500 PRITSCHE W439,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Schuco Piccolo Zündapp KS 601 + Steib S 350 Sidecar Green Elephant 05062 BNIB,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeVolkswagen BULLI Bering Monroe 1 43 Vitesse L065 RARE ,.Maisto 36813 1 18th Premiere Edition - Cadillac,.
For example, in Partridge,Hot Wheels Jaguar Racing R1 2000 1 18 Johnny Herbert (GBR),. In Jorgensen, supra,CHEVROLET CORVETTE Z06 POLICE 1 18 C5,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.2006 RCCA Tony Stewart Home Depot Martinsville Raced Win 1 24 1 of 150,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,PORSCHE 935 Turbo Interscope Radial Winner Daytona 1979 Ongais Ha Spark 1 43,. That is the same situation in this case.Porsche 911 Carrera 2 4 1992 van Minichamps in Box 1 43 18754,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.NEO MODELS Ford Taunus 17M P3 Coupe 1962 1 43 46200,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Record Models 1 43 Scale J01 - Ford GT40 Le Mans 1969,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Mercedes W198 300SL Roadster 1957 White 1 43 Minichamps-200,.Rio RI4306 FIAT 501 OPEN REPUBBLICA DI SALO' 1944 1 43 Modellino,.
Spark 1 43 Scale S3314 - VW Polo WRC Champion French Rally 2013,.