Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Renault Megane R.S. 2017 Yellow, Model Car 1 18 Norev,.ROVER Vitesse Team ATN DTM Champion 1986 Thiim toshiba Gr.A Minichamps 1 43,.Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast CP99116 - Royal Mail 3 Piece Gift Set,.Alte Feuerwehr Modellauto Blechauto 40 cm Oldtimer Feuerwehrauto,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.ART MODEL AM0320 FERRARI 500 MONDIAL PROVA 1954 RED 1 43,.MAISTO 1999 FORD MUSTANG GT COUPE 1 18 MET GREEN BLK INTERIOR,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Mercedes 500 SEC (W126) Magic Top BB Tuning 1985 white, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale,.BBURAGO - 1 18 - FERRARI CALIFORNIA T CLOSED TOP - 2014 - 16902S,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Mercedes Benz L319 Van Deutsche Post Grey NOREV 1 18 NV183417 Model,.Solido 126 Mercedes Benz 220 SE Coupe made in France 1 43 scale,.1967 CITROEN ID 19 BREAK MONTE CARLO blueE 1 18 DIECAST CAR MODEL BY NOREV 181591, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1 18 Norev Mercedes C-Klasse T-Modell bluee DEALER NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.MMP EBBRO HONDA ACCORD CVCC - METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 22,.Neo Audi 200 quattro 20V - metallic-dunkelred - 1990 - 1 43,.HOT WHEELS 2017 31st ANNUAL COLLECTORS CONVENTION VOLKSWAGEN DRAG BUS 1844 2800,.
1 43 Minichamps Alfa Romeo 8C 2900B,.Dinky Toys Vintage Model Car 218 - Lotus Europa - bluee Yellow,.Maserati Quattroporte 4.9 1983 bluee Sera Met Kess Model 1 43 KS43014013 Model,.MINICHAMPS VW PASSAT VARIANT SENEGALred 400054210,.Maserati 6Gcs 1947 Red Jolly Model 1 43 JL0648,.
SPARK VOLKSWAGEN Polo WRC 2nd Rally Australia 2016 Ogier - Ingrassia S4971 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.MERCEDES 300 SEL 6.3 (W109) 1968-72 1 43 MINICHAMPS,.1 18 PORSCHE 917 10 Nurburgring 1974 Minichamps,.PORSCHE 935 Turbo Kremer K3 Le Mans Haldi Hesnault UFO Spark Resin 1 43,BMW Z4 M Coupe no.69 ADAC 24 H Nürnburgring 2009,.FIRST GEAR 1 50 SCALE CASE IH STEIGER 485HD DUAL-WHEELED TRACTOR BN 50-3191,.
Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270062 - 1961 Jaguar E-Type - Carmin Red,.Jaguar E-type Roadster 1970 1 43 • 1 43 MATRIX MX11001-042,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F1 PREMIERE 2003 M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
FERRARI 512 S SURTEES 1970 NURBURGRING ELITE HOT WHEELS T6259 1 18,.
1 43 Toyota 2000Gt Open Top 1967 Ebbro,. We agree in part.
New 1970 Dodge Charger Elite Edition \The Fast & Furious\ Movie 2001 1 43 Diecas,.HPI 8133 Alfa Romeo 155 TS Tamburini 1994 SuperTurismo 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1967 Mclaren M4B Brm Course de Champions en 1 43 Echelle par Spark,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 410 120114 - F1 Sauber C31-Ferrari,.Spark 1 43 - Mercedes SLS AMG 2010 blue métallisé,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 43 Aston Martin One-77 2009 Spark S2160 MINIMAX resin car model 1 43 scale,.Corgi CC 11507 1 50 scale AEC MkV 8W Platform & Container - SUTTONS OF CORNWALL,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Toy Old 1 43 Norev Renault 16 Years 60 Bel Condition No. 3,; 1 18 Ertl TORINO COBRA green - RARITÄT neu OVP ,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
1 43 Lotus Exige S 2012,Spark,.1 76 Hong Kong Bus Model- DBAY Dennis Dart Plaxton Pointer 9.2m Dbay121 3 2 7 8,69 CAMARO IN RED & FLAMES MUSC.MACH.MIB1 18,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Bentley T2 (dark green) 1977,.
Spark Model S4410 MERCEDES 300SL N.7 DNF LM 1956 PRINCE P. METTERNICH-W.VON EINS,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Herpa 1 87 Scania Topline Mai Logistik Walter Rosner 121262 Rarität,.EARLY DINKY TANKER ESSO VG BOXED NICE EXAMPLE,.1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2002 150 GP Wins M.Schumacher NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, CODE 3 1 50 JOHNSON SECURITY MERCEDES LORRY ROYAL MAIL POST OFFICE,; BMW 3-series Compact Minichamps 1 43 431020071,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Art Model 271 FERRARI DINO 246 SP FRIBURGO 1 43 Modellino,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
Corgi 60th Anniversary OM46613 New Routemaster NBFL London United LT71 Rt 9,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
PORSCHE 911 930 Turbo 3.3 Liter Coupe olive green green 187575 Norev N 18,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Siku V292 Binz Rettungswagen Super Serie Zinkguss ovp V Serie,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31638 Lamborghini Murcielago Metallic Grey,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.SPARK RENAULT 5 Turbo er Tour de Corse 1982 J. Ragnotti - Andrie S3862 1 43,.Diecast Car Model Toyota Yaris 1 18 (Red) + GIFT ,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Matchbox DareDevil Challenge Scream n Demons 70s Motorcycle Jump DareDevil Box,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1974 Rover 3500 V8 Beige 1 18 MC Group 18046,.
1 50 Diecast International HX520 Day Cab Tandem Tractor-Cab Only Collect 71003,. Herpa 307697 Wind Turbine redor Transport goldhofer FTV 300 Trans A D M sprl,.Vintage Original BOXED Corgi Toys No.208 JAGUAR 2.4 LITRE SALOON White,.Neo Jensen Healey MkII - green - 1972 - 1 43,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Citroen DS3 Cabrio 2013 - 1 18 - Norev,.
ISCALE MERCEDES BENZ W196 F1 MOSS 2ND BELGIAN GP 1 18 OVP NEU,.F1 BRM P153 V12 Repco South Africa GP 1970 Rodriguez Shell Spark 1 43,.Tameo kit McLaren Mercedes MP4-10 1995 1 43 Brundle Hakkinen (JO),.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1935 Bugatti Type 57 Galibier Model Car in 1 43 Scale by IXO MUS058,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Norev BMW M 535i E12 gold 1980 1 18 183268,.Dodge Cgoldnet Hot Wheels Redline Resto-Conversion Spoilerized Pink,.Bburago 1 18 Ferrari F50 Diecast 16004yellow,.CAMION SIMCA CARGO FOURGON ISOTHERME ET REMORQUE PINDER EX72917 CORGI 1 50,.MERCEDES BENZ 190 SL 1955 blue NOREV 1 18 183400,.
Spark S3802 1 43 1952 Bentley Mark VI Standard Steel Sports Saloon, Green Met, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Americana 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit - 13 Chevrolet Styleline 1950,.S5458 SPARK 1 43 Honda Civic EF3 Group A 1988,. The PartridgeMini Racing Kit à Monter 1 43 - Porsche 936 C Le Mans 1986 Brunn,.CEF Replex ACMAT 4x4 TPK 4 20 Pompiers Feuerwehr Metall (JS1817),.Porsche 956 Test F1 Tag Engine 1986 White Spark 1 43 S3410 Model,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, BMW 2002 Turbo Gr.5 Pole 1000km Kyalami 1977 Ertl Ludwig Rodensto Spark 1 43, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3024 Chevrolet Corvette 1957 Red Model Car,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.France Jouets FJ Dodge 6x6 Mannschaftswagen US Army 1 43 N MIB OVP 1411-11-38,.Starter Kit à Monter 1 43 - Nissan ZX Turbo GTP Miami GP 1989,PartridgeNEO Chevrolet Corvette C1 1959 1 43 45997,.Alezan 1 43 Scale Resin Built Kit 270 - 1996 Alfa Romeo 145 Quadrifolio Sport,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEO Borgward RS 1500 43 46250, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Porsche 962 IMSA h Sebring 1985 - 1 43 - Minichamps,; Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 White 1 18 - 182771 NOREV,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Nex 1 18 Scale 1963 Volkswagen T1 Bus Splitscreen Red Cream Diecast model Car, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Premium ClassiXXs Zündapp Typ 12 - red - 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMercedes Benz L319 1955 Limited Edition in scale 1 18,.
(B) matchbox lesney superfast PONTIAC GP SPORTS COUPE - 22,.Corgi 1 50 Scale Diecast 17602 - Sunter Bros Scammell Constructor + Low loader, Clarke's negligent act.MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18070BK,.NEW JERSEY POLICE-GARDEN STATE PARKWAY-ROAD CHAMPS-CHEVY-POLICE SERIES 1 43,.Dacia Duster Crs Secours En Montagne Gendarmerie Cynophile ALARME 0011 - 1 43,.
Volkswagen Kafer Beetle Stoll Coupe 1952 2 Tone Cream NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO47055 Mod,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, CORGI JOBLOT INCLUDES CORGI BOND CARS ,SPARK - LOTUS XI 14TH LE MANS 1957 43 SCALE S4399,. In Noska,PORSCHE 911 TURBO (964) 3,6L 2009 white WELLY 1 18,.Alpine Renault A110 1600S 1971 White 1 18 - 185303 NOREV,.Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 bluee NOREV 1 18 NV184832 Model,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse 2002 1 43 Japisblue (JS), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Mercedes Benz 170 S Cabrio Spark 1 43,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MECCANO d PETROL TANK WAGON RESTORED NM ,.2016-2019 HOT WHEELS NISSAN SKYLINE DREAM SET II - 1 1 Special Set 17 Cars ,.CORGI TOYS CITROEN SAFARI BREAK WILD LIFE CODE 3 UNIKAT,. Id., p 923.
BoS-Models 1 43 VW Dannenhauer und Stauss Cabrio, dunkelred 1951,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, BMW Alpina B7 Turbo (E12) Red Spark S2803 resin 1 43,PORSCHE 962 962C 956 II bluepunkt Joest 1000km Nbr 1987 Wollek Ludwig Norev 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes F1 W05 No.44 Winner Italian GP 2014 Hamilton S3141,.KK-Scale BMW 733i (E23) - metallic-dunkelgreen - 1977 - 1 18,.Weise Toys 2027 Unimog 406 Deutsches redes Kreuz (1971 – 1989) (2014),.Porsche 356 A Cabrio Beige 1 43 Model 2569 SCHUCO,.1 43 Minichamps Opel Blitz 1,75t Pritschenwagen Schultheiss Bier 439 051024,.PONTIAC Trans Am K.I.T.T. The Knight Rider K.A.R.R. KARR. Film HW Mattel 1 43,. The parties Spark Model S5863 AUDI S1 EKS RX QUATTRO N.15 WRX OF PORTUGAL 2017 R.NITISS 1 43,.
Fiat 238 Antincendio Pista Fiorano Ferrari Anni 70 1 43 RIO 4537,.1 43 Mitsubishi Galantupe Ftogsr 1973,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, VW T3 Bus Multivan 1992 blue metallic Modellauto 1 18 KK Scale,; 1 50 CONRAD 68153 0 MAN TG-M LKW 2 ASSI CASSONE CON TELONE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
DINKY TOYS RANGE ROVER POLICE SERIE 1 BUBBLE BOX MINT,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Saab 99 Rob Eddie No. 3 by Brooklin Models 1 43 mint in good box green handmade,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)SPARK Porsche 936 J DRM 1982 B. Wollek SG075 1 43,.Conrad Excavator 984 Litronic in Dark Yellow on 1 50,.VINTAGE 1978 CORGI JUNIORS 78 BATCOPTER HELICOPTER VEHICLE MOC CARDED VARIATION,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,FERRARI 599 GTB échelle 1 18eme NEUVE,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Lansdowne Models 1 43 Scale LDM26 - 1953 Jowett Javelin Deluxe - Athena Grey,.BIZARRE ALFA ROMEO DISCO VOLANTE COUPE 1953 - RED 1 43 - GOOD ON PEDESTAL,.Herpa 310215 Jubiläumsset mit zwei Modellen 80 Jahre Spedition Wandt 1 87,.MATCHBOX LESNEY SUPERFAST VINTAGE blueE PORSCHE 928 No.59 VNM IN VNM L BOX 1981-2,.Corgi Toys 286 Jaguar XJ12C 99% mint in box all original condition rare colour,. The ScottsdaleCAT 906H Wheel Loader Model 85213 1 50 scale Mechanical Loader Toy Hobbies,Rio RI4418 VW BEETLE N.262 CARRERA PANAMERICANA 1954 J.WIERS-R.WIERS 1 43 Modell,.Revell 07651 LONDON BUS KIT 1 24 Modellino,. Id.,Hot Wheels Sweet Rides Complete Set 6 6 Valentines Day Mattel 2013,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, KIT TAMIYA 1 20 FERRARI SF70H 2017 ART. 20068,; Herpa Sondermodell Scania CS 20 HD V8 Kühlkoffersattelzug – Müller Cristallo ...,NEO MODELS Mitsubishi Lancer Turbo 2000 1 43 45256,.ERTL 1969 Baldwin Motion Camaro 1 of 2500 Hobby Edition Diecast 1 18 Scale w box,. The ScottsdaleLotus 18 nd British GP 1960 John Surtees Spark S1825 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MINI COOPER green Sun Roof 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Jingshang 1 43 Nismo R34Gt-R S-Tune 2016 Limited Edition Products,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPARK Ligier JS P2 - Judd By Lombard Racing V. Capillaire E. Maris J. Colema,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minialuxe 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Car 151 - Citroen DS 19 - Red White,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Volkswagen T3A Van 1979 Carro Funebre Con Bara Hearse Premium 1 43 PREM18430 Mod,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, CITROEN DIANE DINKY TOYS SANS BOITE, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, FORD Focus ST 2011 limousine red red met 1 504 SP limited Minichamps 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 2010 Ford Focus RS WRC08 Rally Bulgaria 1 18 Sun Star 3951,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAUTO WORLD 1 18 MUSCLE CARS 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS - 50TH ANNIVERSARY AW239,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Rio RI4220 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHOGAN WINGS HOLH37 1 200 LUFTHANSA A350-900 RETRO D-AIXA WITHOUT LANDING GEAR,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.BX244-0, 5 x Roskopf Rmm 1 87 H0 Oldtimer MB post + Union-Bier etc. , Nip,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Spark 1 43 Scale S3787 - Volkswagen Polo R WRC th Monte Carlo 2014,New Audi R8 V10 Plus White Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Maisto 38,.1954 Chevrolet Belair Congreenible Yellow 1 18 SunStar 1712,.Ertl American Muscle 1953 Corvette 50th Anniversary Collection Car 1 18 HOBBY ED,. The HuygheBburago BU16001R FERRARI LA FERRARI 2013 RED 1 18 Modellino,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheJOHNNY LIGHTNING AMX RAMBLER COLLECTION,.
GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE 1977 PONTIAC FIREBIRD TRANS AM MODEL BN 19025,.1 50 DIECAST MASTERS 71007 INTERNATIONAL HX620 DAY CAB TANDEM TRACTOR IN WHITE,.
Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Lègende 2018 Set 517864 1 43 Norev,.Porsche 356 a 1500 Gs Carrera Gt Anno di Costruzione 1957 blue 1 18 Sun Star,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky Matchbox 1 43 - Mercedes Diesel O 3500 Omnibus Reisebüro Ruoff,.
Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 EBBRO 44579 nismo fes limited model car nissan leaf nismo rc Carbon F S NEW,.Ferrari 275 GTB 4 NART Spyder 1967 yellow Speichenräder KK Scale 1 18 Neu,.
For example, in Partridge,VTG 1969 HOT WHEELS SHOW HOSS II MUSTANG BELL CHAMPION FUNNY CAR HONG KONG,. In Jorgensen, supra,Ferrari 365 California Spyder 1966 Red 1 18 Model KK SCALE,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Norev Jet Car 824 Ferrari 246 GTS made in France 1 43 scale NMIB,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 50 Caterpillar Cat 320D L Hydraulic Excavator 85214 Diecast Model Collection,. That is the same situation in this case.ANSON 1 18 30333 DODGE 1997 CONCEPT CAR orange,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Minicar 1 43 Subaru Impreza Casio,. Detroit Edison, supra.
MINICHAMPS STEWART FORD 1998 HSBC - No 19 VERSTAPPEN 1 43 RARE - EXCELLENT IB,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast Jaguar E Type Coupe 1961 Race Car SELTEN N M,.Limousine Nissan Skyline 2000 GT 1972 white DISM 1 43,.
Lada Niva 1981 Green MCG 1 18 MCG18111,.