NOREV MERCEDES BENZ 450 SEL 1976 INCA orange 1 18 183459 dfdb6e

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
NOREV MERCEDES BENZ 450 SEL 1976 INCA orange    1 18  183459 dfdb6e
Scale model 1 43 Opel Rekord C, No.201, 1967,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Citroen DS3 1 18 Norev,.MASERATI MC12 GT1 Matteuzzi Perazzini RACING BOX GT ITALIA 2005 300p BBR 1 43,.1 43 UNIQUE MINICHAMPS DSM 1969-73 PORSCHE 914,.Citroen GS Basalte 1978 black red 1 18 Norev 181626 neu & OVP,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Spark Model S43LM83 PORSCHE 956 N.3 WINNER LM 1983 HOLBERT-HAYWOOD-SCHUPPAN REPR,.Best Model BT9693 PORSCHE 356B ABARTH N.35 10th (WINN.CLASS) LM 1960 H.LINGE-H.W,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1978 white, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight Collectibles,.Spark Model S4791 BRABHAM BT49 RICARDO ZUNINO 1980 N.6 7th silverINIAN GP 1 43 M,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Delage D8 120 Letourneur 1938 bluee 1 43 Spark S2707 Model,.Porsche 911 Targa 2013 red 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 410062440,.MERCEDES-BENZ 220 S 1956 White dark grey 1 43 MINICHAMPS 430 033006, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Hot Wheels Red Edition & Treasure Hunt Lot of 34 Brand New RETH1,.Spark Model S4424 PORSCHE 934 N.68 DNF LM 1978 POULAIN-FEITLER-HOLUP-DOREN 1 43,.Austin Powers Shaguar (Jaguar) Boxed RCERTL 1 18 Die Cast Car Rare,.MCG - 1 18 - OPEL MANTA MATTIG - 1991 - 18095YBR,.

MATCO TOOLS GARY SCELZI 2001 WINSTON T0P FUEL DRAGSTER WITH CASE NHRA,.Spark 1 43 Scale S5615 - Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid Paris Dakar 1988,.KADEN DODGE WC -52 1 24,.FORCES OF VALOR FOV861003 1 700 USS MISSOURI OKINAWA,.1975 1978 Audi B1 80 GTE green blacke Haube 1 18 KK diecast,.

1 18 Norev Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 Targa 1987 blueemetallic,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DAF 55 red 1971 NEO 43341 1 43,.1 43 Spark Porsche 997 GT3 RSR IMSA Matmut LM 2011 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.NOREV - 1 18 - PEUGEOT 504 CABRIOLET - 1970 - 184826,1986 Alfa Romeo Spider 3 Seie 2 mit Softtop silver 1 18 KK Scale Diecast,.MOTEUR V8 FORD 427 FE AC COBRA SHELBY 1 6,.

MINICHAMPS BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GTC SPEED CONgreenIBLE ST.JAMES RED 436139061,.Resin Car Model TSM Model Pagani Huayra Pacchetto Tempesta 2016 1 43 (Red) +GIFT,.MARK43 1 43 MUGEN Civic Type R (FN2) Milano Red Resin Model PM4347MR,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


NOREV MERCEDES BENZ ( MB ) 300 CE 1990 BORNIT METALLIC NEU & OVP 1 18,. We agree in part.

Volkswagen Beetle 1200 Cabriolet Hebmueller 1949 KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180112 Model,.1 64 Dcp Cabover Kenworth,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Mercedes-Benz amg gla 45 (bluee) 2015,.X 1 18 UT MODELS MCLAREN MC LAREN F1 GTR XP1 orange NEAR MINT CONDITION,.SPARK 1 43 - S1902 PORSCHE 997 RSR TEAM SEIKEL MOTORSPORT LM 2007,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Politoys 510 Opel Kadett Coupe in very near mint condition super model,.1 18 Norev Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue 185210,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, MCG18044 by MCG ROVER 3500 V8 1974 1 18,; Provence Moulage Kit à Monter 1 43 - Nissan R86 V N°32 Le Mans 1986,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

2012 Porsche 991 Carrera in White in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.Hot Wheels HWX5498 FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 N.89 LM 2011 FAMBACHER-SIMONSEN-KEEN 1,1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.FORD EXPLORER XLT blue 1 18 2015,.

Facel Vega Fv1 Congreenible red Neo 43406 Neu in OVP 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1981 CHEVY CAMARO Z28 T-TOP W GREENLIGHT 12906 1 18,.Corgi Toys 1 43 JAGUAR AUSTIN HEALEY MGA FORD CORTINA ALPINE RALLY 4-Car Set MIB,.1 18 Norev Peugeot 309 GTi 16 1991 blueemetallic,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, NEO MODELS Borgward Hansa 2400 1955 1 43 43452,; DINKY A RILEY SALOON SEDAN, GREEN WITH GREEN HUBS, NICE ORIGINAL,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, CONRAD - METALLMODELL - MAN - PRITSCHEN-LKW + HÄNGER - OVP -1 50 BOXED,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

NOREV MERCEDES BENZ 450 SEL 1976 INCA orange    1 18  183459 dfdb6eNOREV MERCEDES BENZ 450 SEL 1976 INCA orange    1 18  183459 dfdb6e

PREMIUM CLASSIXX PREM12510 MERCEDES LP608 PORSCHE MOTORSPORT 1 43 ,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

UCC SAISOKU NO TUBASA Collection Complete Set 8pieces Japan Free Shipping ,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

James Bond 007 Corgi Toys die-cast Aston Martin & Oddjob Figure set 1997 NIP,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Ixo 1 43 - Saviem SG2 Alpine Renault Service Race Assistance,.1957 Mercedes 330c by Franklin Mint, B11UG29,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Fiat 238 Van 1970 White Rio 1 43 RIO4519 Model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 43 Minichamps BMW 328 CI Coupe E46 - 431028326 VERY RARE ,.

Corgi Priestman Shovel, Good Condition in Original Box,.The Fast and Furious 1 64 scale Mitsubishi Eclipse by Revell issue diecast,.TAXI CAB 1961 PLYMOUTH YELLOW JO-HAN PLASTIC,.V 1 64 HOTWHEELS RACER 60 YEARS FERRARI F40 F 40 WHITE MINT ON CARD RARE,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.1968 Oldsmobile 442 Burgundy 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32558,.

Matchbox Lesney No 23 Trailer Caravan mint in box all original condition BPW,.HESKETH 308 JAMES HUNT PRIMERO WINNER DUTCH GP 1975 1 43 SPARK S2239,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Admiral B 2.8L I6 Auto 1974 Green 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Rio 4246 FIAT 238 ABARTH RIVER TEAM 1972 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.CC13769 Corgi Scania Highline Feldbinder Tanker Dowse Haulage Diecast HGV Model,.AOSHIMA; movie Mecha series No.6 1 24 Knight Rider Knight 2000 KITT From Japan,.Herpa Umbau Modell LED Beleuchtung Klumm MAN TGA XL 26.430 Tandemkoffer HZ,.Hi Story 1 43 Mazda Roadster 2015 Seoul Red Premium Metallic New,.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS SK-24 orange ROOF & REAR DOORS CROWE CONTAINER TK,.

A.M.R AMR 1 43 Jaguar XK150 - white, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.EBBRO 44798 SUPER GT 2011 Honda CR-Z MUGEN Legend Cup 2011 No.6 KUpinkWA 1 43,.Fast & Furious Set 12 Modellautos Dodge Ford 1 55 Mattel FCF60 wie Hot Wheels,. The PartridgeMiniChamps 1 43 - Set Legally Blonde 2 - Audi TT roadster + Smart cabriolet,.VINTAGE DIECAST--1969 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS396--1 18 SCALE--10 LONG--ERTL,.SPARK 1 43 S0396 ALFA ROMEO BC 2004 RED,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Norev Renault 6 in Yellow on 1 43 in box, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Norev C36100 RENAULT 100KGS AMBULANCE MUNICIPALE Modellino,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1 18 Kyosho Morris Mini Cooper 1275S RHD dark green bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.MAQUETA CAMION IVECO STRALIS ACTIVE SPACE ITALERI 1 24,PartridgeMclaren 720 S 1 43 Limitiert black Tsm Models Neu Ovp,.BROOKLIN MODELS CHEVROLET NOMAD ESTATE 1955 BRK 26 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BMW 1 SERIES M COUPE ACS 1 SPORT COUPE 2011 black METALLIC 1 43 MINICHAMPS, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 43 Spark Toyota 88C Turbo Le Mans 1988 Needell Ogawa Barilla S5243,; 3 X LLEDO CORGI VANGUARDS TRIUMPH HERALD CARS SALOON CONgreenIBLE DAMSON VA05012,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Porsche 911 Targa 1 18 UT Models Diecast Car Carrera Model Car Birthday Gift, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Matchbox Superking K-53A Hot Rod Fire Engine red top in Box, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1930's Barclay AMBULANCE with LARGE RED CROSS dime store lead soldier slush mold,.

Bentley - Five Corgi 1927 Model 9001 Toys,.HOTWHEELS - DC Comics - 75 years of BATMAN - Complete set of 8 cars - BATMOBILE, Clarke's negligent act.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST blueE ARTEGA GT,.Neo 43273 PORSCHE 930 TURBO SE FLATNOSE blue Modellino,.CHEVROLET Corvette C3 Sebring 1972 Heinz Johnson L88 Resin TSM 1 43,.

VW 1302 LS Cabriolet, yellow 1 18, REVELL,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi Santa Pod Dragster, VNM in Original Box,MAISTO 1 18 31078 BMW 645 Ci - DARK GREY,. In Noska,MERCEDES UNIMOG U300 green SCHUCO 03264 1 43,.Lamborghini Murcielago Lp640 Green Met. Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431032 Model,.Rio 4405 MERCEDES 11 40 '24 OPEN 1 43 Modellino,.Schuco 450292900 1 43 Hanomag L28 mit Kreidler NEU OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Moskvich 422 Van Post 1954 (DiP 1 43 140102),.1 64 Peterbilt 351 w 40' Trailer, By First Gear West Coast Fast Freight 60-0491,.FERRARI EVOLUTION 250 GT BERLINETTE,CLASSIC COLLECTION,'' NEW IN THE BOX''MINT,.McLAREN MP4 13 GP AUSTRALIA 1998 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,. Id., p 923.

CITROEN 2CV 50 ANS DE LA 2CV 1948-1998 NOREV 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DINKY TOYS 322 DISC HARROW RARE SELTEN IN EXCELLENT CONDITION BOXED,Citroen GT - Electric bluee - NOREV - 1 18,.Matchbox cars (40) from around the year 1960,.YONEZAWA TOYS N° 210 NISSAN R 382 ECHELLE 1 40 EPOQUE AMR,.Kyosho 1 43 Diecast Car Lexus Is 350 F Sport White Nova GF. Japan 193781,.SPARK Ligier JS P2 - Judd By Lombard Racing V. Capillaire E. Maris J. Colema,.Autographed JEFF BURTON Team Caliber CITGO Diecast Collector 8.5 NIB VG ,.Porsche 718 Boxster GTS 2018 Dark Grey 1 43 SPARK S7619,. The parties 1982 KENNER POWER MOVERS SPACE SHUTTLE W BOX TOY VINTAGE RARE,.

Ebbro 1 43 Formula Nippon Team Malaysia 2000 A. Yoong from Japan,.9 x 1 43 Diecast Citroen model cars,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Model 1 18 VW Beetle YELLOW Emma Swan 22cm C'ERA UNA VOLTA Greenlight,; RARE VINTAGE DINKY TOYS DESOTO FIREFLITE NO. 192 TWO TONE GOOD PLAYWORN COND., (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Volkswagen T3 Multivan Minibus bluee Star 1993 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180202 Model,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1963 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Laurel Green 1 18 Sun Star 1483,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)SOLIDO COFRADIS 0003 CITROEN CX 2400 SAMU - WHITE 1 43 - VERY GOOD IN BOX,.Hanomag L28 Pritsche mit Goggomobil (Goggomobil-Service),.Spark Model SG419 MERCEDES GT3 N.47 24 H NURBURGRING 2018 BAUMANN-MORTARA-JUNCAD,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,VINTAGE 1969 HOT WHEELS REDLINE POWER PAD HOT PINK W DARK INT.USA BASE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Ferrari 365 GTC4 - silver - KK Scale 1 18 - KKDC180283,.Corgi 04303 - James Bond 007 Car - Aston Martin DB5 Piers Brosnan goldeneye 1999,.Spark 1 43 Aston Martin Rapide S No. 100 - 24 Hours of Nurburgring 2013 SG098,. P011 - Brumm Ferrari 126C2 GP - San Marino 1982 - Villeneuve - 1 43,.1 18 NOREV Renault Caravelle 1965 whitehe,. The ScottsdaleSIMCA HUIT CANADIENNE 1948 IXO 1 43 I105,Matchbox Superking K-27A Camping Cruiser yellow top in Box,.CORGI 58007 BEATLES POP GROUP WHITE NEWSPAPER TAXI LONDON CAB DIECAST MODEL CAR,. Id.,BEST MODEL BT9526 FERRARI 308 GTS 1978 WHITE 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Fendt 313 Vario mit Frontlader,; 1999 Racing Champions Mac Tools Mark Martin Zerex--1 24th scale,65 Nova Gasser Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized Yellow Deep Dish,.LAMBORGHINI LM 002 LM002 1984 silver 1 43 MINICHAMPS 436103370 NEU,. The ScottsdaleScalextric C2606 Dallara Indy Collectors Club 2004 Edition In Display Case MB,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Star Wars Episode VIII Force Link Class B Vehicles with Figures 2017 Wave 1 Asso,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Eagle Chevrolet Deluxe Congreenible 1941 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VW Beetle 1967 Sao Paulo Brazil Police New 1 18 Scale Greenlight 12853,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 24 Jada DUB Bigtime Muscle 1965 Shelby Cobra 427 (bluee) Metal-Boxed New ,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, CORGI Toys VW 1500 KARMANN GHIA VGC,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Mint Kyosho Mini Champs 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo Lp 560-4, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 18 Norev Peugeot 404 Saloon 1965 darkgreen, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Chevrolet Nova Open Congreenible 1963 Saddle Tan 1 18 Model 3975 SUN STAR,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePANZERHAUBITZE 2000 German SPH w Add-On Armor MENG 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Hot Wheels 1 18 Scale Diecast - 29750 Ferrari 333 SP Plain Red,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCorgi s - BRM - Light Green - Box B,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.KINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE RED NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 019422 - 1981 Audi Quattro - Metallic Red,PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 4S Type 993 1995 blue SPARK S2092 1 43,.B9956 Handmade Iron Decoration Collectibles Simulation Fighter Model,.1 18 Lancia 037 Rally Tour de Corse 1983 1er Markku ALEN Ixo Altaya Neuf Boite,. The HuygheSpark 1 43 Triumph TR3S Spider Team Standard h Le Mans 1959 Art. S1395,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheAlfa Romeo 8C Competizione black 2004 (Spark 1 43 S0394),.

Norev Renault Caravelle 1964 - Finlande blue Metallic 1 18 - 185151,.Tekno - Metal Model - DAF - Tractor with Plane - Ovp - 1 50 - (,.

Aston Martin DB3 S Le Mans 1955 T. Brooks - J. Riseley Spark S2422 1 43,.1 50 WSI Iveco Stralis Highway orange 3-Achs ZM 04-1159,. Nonetheless, on the facts of HOT WHEELS 32nd COLLECTORS CONVENTION DATSUN blueEBIRD 510 WAGON 5970 6000,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 43 Spark Oreca 07 Gibson Le Mans 2018 Duval Vaxiviere Perrodo S7014,.Norev 184710 1956 Peugeot D4A Cycles Peugeot 1 18 Model Car bluee Yellow,.

For example, in Partridge,Volkswagen Beetle Police Radio Patrol Car 1968 GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN51118-0033 M,. In Jorgensen, supra,1996 Hot Wheels Treasure Hunt 12 58 Corvette 1 25000 W.W. Mint On Mint Card,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.VINTAGE 1967 ORIGINAL HOT WHEELS REDLINE SILHOUETTE CAR USA APPLE GREEN RARE,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 2016 black metallic 410 066021,. That is the same situation in this case.Meri Models 1 43 1990 Lola Lamborghini Aguri Suzuki British Grand Prix,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BBURAGO BURAGO 1 18 1 16 FIAT 500 F CARABINIERI POLICE ABARTH GIACOSA lr d n and,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Mercedes-Benz 250 D Lang (V124) brown grey metallic 1 43 NEO,.Lotus Xi N.41 16th le Mans 1957 A.Hechard - R. Masson 1 43 Echelle par Spark,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - C10 BMW M3 E30 DTM Warsteiner Hayne,.

CCCP ICVO11TK GAZ M-20 Pobeda blind van resin conversion Ukraine 1 43 2009 MIB,.