TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5
Skid Vitesse Peugeot 306 maxi total 1000km de la reunion 1 43 SKM99057,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MARK43 PM4317W 1 43 HONDA NSX-R NA1 Championship White,.1 18 Norev Renault 12 Gordini 1971 blue 185210,.DINKY SPAIN 1450 SIMCA 1100 POLICE CAR - EXCELLENT in original BOX,.Matchbox Models Of Yesteryear YYM37635 1935 Leyland Cub Motor Pump Fire Issue 1,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.DINKY TOYS 207 TRIUMPH TR7 RALLY No 8 - WHITE - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Tekno 70100 Classic Dual Axis Box Trailer 1 ,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.90043 AUTOart 1 18 Liberty Walk Special Display Case From Japan F S New,.DCP 1 64 SCALE PETERBILT 379 60 BUNK WHITE RED TOP, FENDERS, AND STRIPE,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Citroen Sm Mylord By Henry Chapron Cabriolet 1971 NOREV 1 18 NV181730 Model,.Greenlight 1 43 Scale Diecast 86435 Gulf Porsche 917K Steve McQueen Chase car,.VINTAGE DIAPET YONEZAWA NISSAN R 382 1 40 RED COMME NEUF EN BOITE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

JADA 1 24 Scale 97195 - Fast & Furious - Letty's Plymouth Barracuda,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 916 - S7615,.Porsche 993 Carrera RS 1 43 Scale Model Car Spark S3459,.Hot Wheels Ferrari 328 GTB, Testarossa and Enzo Lot of 3 1 43 Red,.

1975 Hot Wheels Dune Daddy (Redline) (Green) (Hong Kong),.Corgi Toys 1 36 Working LAND ROVER LWB + HORSEBOX TRAILER WEATHERED Car MIB`02,.MINICHAMPS Red Bull Racing Renault RB6 S. Vettel Brazilian GP 2010 1 18 NEUOVP,.A.S.S WIKING ALTER VW KÄFER CABRIO TYP 2 AZURblue GK 33 3B CS 304 2ED 1.W TOP,.Porsche 911 Turbo - 1 43 - Schuco,.

MATCHBOX SPEED KINGS K-43 CAMBUSTER MIB,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Hachette Honda 1300 Coupe 9 1 24 Special Scale Japanese Car Collection Vol 43,.Minichamps 410066221 Porsche 911 (991) R Baujahr 2016 in white 1 43 NEU,.Mercedes 350 SL Cabrio (R107) 1986 gold metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,1966 Ferrari 365 California Spyder red 1 18 KK KKDC180051,.Piumini TRAMPIO SKYLINE No.22 1990 (Yellow) Japan Import,.

HERPA Belgian Air Force No. 31 Squadron solo display paint FA - 123 132,.Renault ESTAFETTE 1965 Beige 1 18 Norev 185174 Hi-Boy Petit-Panel CARAL Bus,.CONRAD - METALLMODELL - MAN TRANSPORT - BETONMISCHER - OVP - 1 50 -(7.BM-164),.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

1 24 Special Scale Japanese Cars Collection Vol.05 Subaru 360 1958,.

Kyosho Original 1 43 Lexus Is 350 F Sport Exceed bluee Metallic New,. We agree in part.

Cars & Co 1968 Moskvitch 408 German Police Volkspolizei 1 43 Moskwitch Moskvich,.FDS 1 43 scale White Metal - 23may2018D Ensign N177 -1977 Racing car,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Dinky Riley Saloon 40A Early series. Grey. Excellent Condition.,.EBRRO 1 43 ARTA skyli From japan,.CODE 3 F.D.N.Y. ENGINE-ONE SAULSBURY HEAVY RESCUE 4. LIMITED EDITION.,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1957 STUDEBAKER goldEN HAWK APACHE RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR 6153,.Schuco 04084 BMW 328i Touring Taxi,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, EFE RT LONDON TRANSPORT AUSTRIAN AIRLINES ROUTE 81B 1 76 10104C,; Opel Kadett E GSi 1987 silver, Modellauto 1 18 Norev,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 43 AUTOart Bugatti EB 16.4 Veyron grey SHOWCAR NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.VW Karmann Ghia - Porsche 911 Turbo 1990 - 2010 Minichamps 1 43 NEU OVP,Lansdowne Models LDM.26 Jowett Javelin Deluxe 1953 Athena Grey 1 43 Box Brooklin,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Fiat 18BL Croce Rossa Esercito Italiano 1915 4320 1 43 Rio Made in ,.

Citroen C4 Cactus SUV green yellow Metallic 1. Generation 2014-2018 1 18 Norev Mo..,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.NEO MODELS Mitsubishi Lancer Turbo 2000 1 43 45256,.PORSCHE 911 RSR Max Moritz DRM Norisring 1975 Stenzel Foto Quelle 32 Spark 1 43,.Norev 187574 Porsche 911 930 Turbo 1977 olive green 3,3L 1 18,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, RARITÄT UT Models Merdes-Benz C-Class D2 Privat , silver, 1 18, TOP ,; Brago Ferrari Porsche 1 43 Total 4,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, INTERALLIED MODELER'S MD43202 1 43 Keisuke Takahashi RX-7 FD-3S Finished Goods,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5TSM Model Model Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing 64a3a5

1 43 Minichamps F1 Formula 1 Red Bull Racing TAG Heuer RB12 D.Ricciardo 2016,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Corgi 1 50 scale 16501 Scammell Highwayman ballast + trailer & caravan Carters,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Best Model BT9514 ALFA ROMEO 33.2 N.86 15th NURBURGRING 1969 VACCARELLA-DE ADAMI,.Norev 1 43 Scale Model Car 270563 - 1980 Ford Capri III - orange,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DINKY TOYS 188 JENSEN FF NOT ATLAS,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Spark Model Oreca 01-AIM O. Panis 1 43 S4551,.

Fiat 238 Van Abarth River Team 1 43 Model RIO,.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS K-43 MERCEDES BENZ HOLZTRANSPORTER OVP 1979,.1 43 NEO DODGE 600 Congreenible, 1984,.Premium Classixxs 13301 VW LT28 BOX VAN DARK RED 1 43 Modellino,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.MERCEDES BENZ 280 CE 1980 W123 1 18 NOREV (blueE METALLIC),.

1 18 Bburago Signature Series Ferrari California T Hardtop closed,.CITROEN 2CV WORLDCHAMPIONSHIP FOOTBALL 1974 VITESSE 1 43,.1 18 Sunstar Mercedes Benz E320 E Klasse Taxi mit OVP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Action 1 24 NASCAR Dale Earnhardt Jr. Budweiser Born on Date Daytona Win,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Hot Wheels Aggera R Nfs Loose Mint Red,.Brabus 600 183 250 minichamps1 43,.VW Passat B3 Variant VR6 (1991) 1 18 KK Scale KK180073,.Politoys 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Zagato Quattroruote 532,.7836 John Deere 6250R 1 32 Wiking,.

Bugatti Veyron Edition Centenaire Red & Chrome 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK25 002A - '58 Pontiac Bonneville Met Gunmetal - Yel Box,.Hot Wheels 1 64 Car Culture 2018 B Case Team Transport Set of 4 FLF56-956B,. The PartridgeWESTERN MODELS 1 43 WMS 12 MG TF RED - No windscreen,.1 18 Norev Alpine Renault A110 S1600 1971 blue metallic 185300,.MCLAREN MERCEDES MP4-17D 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 COULTHARD 1 18 MINICHAMPS DEALER,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Johnny Lightning Commemorative bluee Chrome 8 Car Set 2 Rare(BH011), although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 18 Norev Opel Kadett E GSi 1984-1991 white,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Corgi 1 50 Ltd Edn CC12916 Scania Topline Curtainside Montgomery Trans Ex Shop,.1 43 Spark - 43LM92 Peugeot 905, No.1, Winner Le Mans 1992,PartridgeOriginal Porsche 911 964 965 Turbo Speedyellow Minichamps Modellauto 1 43,.Politoys 530 - Ferrari 275 GTB - Scala 1 43 Die cast,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, RIO RI4520 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FERRARI CH POZZI LE MANS 1978 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, METTOY WALKIE-TALKIE MILITARY ELECTRONIC - GREEN - EXCELLENT CONDITION - IN BOX,; Redline Hotwheels Antifreeze 1969 Lola GT70 oc15188,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1 18 Road Signature - 1960 Chrysler 300f White White - Rarity - Nip, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Dodge 600 Congreenible red metallic resin modelcar 44995 Neo 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePremium Classixx PREM18327 MERCEDES Lo2750 HOLZVERGASER BEIGE 1 43,.

RARE, DY-28 Triumph Motorshow 1992 - creme, Dinky, Code 2, w.Box,.Art Model AM0213 FERRARI TRC 500 N.132 8th TARGA FLORIO 1959 CAMMARATA-TRAMONTAN, Clarke's negligent act.NEW DIECAST TOYS CAR NOREV 1 18 MERCEDES-BENZ C-CLASS DTM 2011 G. PAFFETT 183584,.Ferrari 512 BB Shilhouette Prova 1978 red red 1 43 Best,.PORSCHE 356A 356 Coupe 1500 GS Carrera GT 1957 bluee blue Sunstar 1 18,.

Porsche 911 991 Carrera Coupe - Spark Porsche Museum 1 43 in Box 30304,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Laurel & Hardy Vintage 1923 Ford Speedster 1 24 Danbury Mint,Spark 1 43 Oreca 07 Gibson Team CEFC Manor TRS h Le Mans 2017 Art. S5812,. In Noska,Fire Brigade models 1 72 Scale - FBM15 Road traffic collision modern C Figures,.Fiat Abarth 1000 Gt Monomille 1963 Red NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO44605,.2003 Dodge Viper WHITE 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33496,.Hot Wheels 20 Car Gift Set with Chevelle, Ferrari, Mustang Mach 1, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.LATUDE PANHARD DYNA JUNIOR - GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION - 1,.Bburago 1 18 Diamond Nissan GT-R (2009) (Colours may vary),.MAISTO 1 18 36115 JEEP WRANGLER RUBICON BRUSH FIRE UNIT,.Neo Models Arnolt MG in White 1953 44611 1 43 NEW Resin,. Id., p 923.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 750028 - F1 March Ford 751,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, RIO RI4239 FIAT 238 ASSISTENZA FIAT 1971 1 43,Schuco Hanomag L28 Kreidler - 1 43,.Pegaso Z 206 barajas 1 43 Ixo Altaya,.Bentley Continental Supersports 2009 White Metallic, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.Dinky toys 34 C Austin Loudspeaker van 1948 boxed 492,.Ferrari 330P Spa 1965 M. Parkes 1 43 Model 0292 ART-MODEL,.Porsche 911 Carrera Rsr Mid-Ohio 3 Hours 1977 1 18 Norev 187427 Follmer,.CARNEL 1 43 Nissan Patrol GRAN ROAD LIMITED Y61 2004 Sakai, Osak... Japan Import,. The parties Alfa Romeo Spider 3 Serie I 1983 red - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.

WIKING 470 LKW BÜSSING 4500 PRITSCHE W439,.SPARK HESKETH 308 Winner Dutch GP 1975 James Hunt S2239 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, EXCELLENT SPARK 1 43 RESIN 1956 MERCEDES-BENZ 300SL GULLWING IN RED S4959,; NOREV 1 18 2012 Renault Megane Throphy Diecast Model Car Pink Yellow (185113), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

PORSCHE 911 GT1 Boutsen Wollek CHAMPION Motors USRRC MID-OHIO 1998 UT 1 18,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 1 18 187630 Porsche 911 T Coupé (1969) - dunkelred,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)VINTAGE DIECAST--JAGUAR XK120 CONV--REMOTE CONTROL--PLASTIC--VERY RARE,.5 Kinsmart Ford F100 Diecast jgm15,.DAF CF Aggregate Tipper 'Charlie Lauder Transport' - 1 50 - Corgi,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Code 3 Classics 1 64 Scale Seagrave Engine Model 12302 Fire Dept New York,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.BMW 2002 Ti Rallye Jägermeister Stiller Olympia TR Scala43 1 100 pcs 1 43,.Chrysler Lebaron Congreenible (Red) 1990,.Porsche 911 RSR , 24H LeMans 1994 , Spark models,.Toyopet Skb Kiyoken Van bluee Yellow 1 43 Model 44572 EBBRO,.DINKY 197 MORRIS MINI TRAVELLER ORIGINAL AND BOXED NOT ATLAS,. The ScottsdaleMAYBACH ZEPPELIN 1932 WHITE blueE blue WEISS L. E. 528 PMA 436039408 1 43 NEW OVP,PORSCHE 917 20 PINK PIG LE MANS 1971 1 43 SPARK S1896,.Bugatti 41 Royale Weymann 1929 Rio 1 43 Rio4227 Model Diecast,. Id.,Porsche 911 Targa 2013 Red Minichamps 1 43 410062440 Model,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Wonderful PR-modelcar VW BEETLE GSR 2015 - sunflower yellow - 1 43,; Mebetoys 6624 - Fiat Abarth 3000 - Scala 1 43 Die cast,1935 Bugatti Type 57 Galibier Model Car in 1 43 Scale by IXO MUS058,.1 43 Rial ARC1 van de GP van Japan in 1988, Spark,. The Scottsdale1 18 Honda Civic TUNERZ tuning fast furious - Hot Wheels - 3L 050,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, BERLIET GAK VAN WAGON PASTA DELIGHTS PERFEX 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Caparo T1 (2007) Resin Model Car S0629,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Autodrome 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - AD1A Mercedes Benz 180SL 1975,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi 1 50 scale CC20304 Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor Pride of the south,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, VW SCIROCCO R 1K8 2.0T 2017 RISING blueE 19” CADIZ 1 43 SPARK (OEM DEALER MODEL),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark 1 43 Porsche 991 GTS 2015 (bluee) S4938, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Solido 1 43 - Coffret Gendarmerie - Peugeot 205 - 504 Break - Hélicoptère, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, EBBRO 44391 1 43 Honda CR-Z Red From japan,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSchuco 7302 PORSCHE CAYMAN S YELLOW 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, EBBRO 1 43 MAZDA redARY COUPE RACING 1970 SPA FRANCORCHAMPS 24 HS 43537,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBest Model BT9598 FERRARI 330 GTC COUPE' 1966 RED MET.1 43 Modellino,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 RSR MATMUT FELBERMAYER 24H LE MANS 2009 IN METALLO MIN,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,GEMINI JETS 1 250 - AJAAL022 DOUGLAS DC-3 AMERICAN AIRLINES,1 18 Welly Porsche 911 997 Gt3 Rs orange,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3, 24H Spa 2015 , Sparkmodels,.Chgold Q Victory Guide color Special Japanese Technic and Data Book,. The HuygheDINKY TOYS 162 FORD ZEPHYR 2 TONE blueE CLEAN ORIGINAL VINTAGE GO DOWN THE PHOTOS,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMinichamps 1 43 Scale 2012 - BMW M3 Team Bigazzi Laffite,.

PARADCAR PEUGEOT 406 - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 4+5,.Kit Ferrari 212 Ghia Eagle ch.0137 1952 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.

Spark Model Rondeau M 379 C 43 S2268,.Kyosho 1 43 Ferrari Dino 246 Gt white 05081W Open-close edition,. Nonetheless, on the facts of PredAR MYTHIC BIKE COLLECTION 1 9 SCALE CAGIVA 500CC M BOXED,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLION CAR DAF 3300 RALLY PARIS-DAKAR 1983 342 COLOUR YELLOW + BOX SCALE 1 50,.NZG Modelle 1 50 Scale WHEEL-TYPE LOADER CAT 988 B (Art Nr. 167),.

For example, in Partridge,Porsche 911 Plain Body 1982 White, Model Car 1 18 Ixo Models,. In Jorgensen, supra,DODGE ARIES K-CAR red AMERICAN EXCELLENCE NEO 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Rio 4216 FIAT 238 AMBULANZA 1 43 CROCE GIALLA,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,CORGI Eddie Stobart - MODERN - MAN Curtainside - MB,. That is the same situation in this case.MÄRKLIN BV – ARAL Tankwagen Made in Germany 8000,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BROOKLIN MODELS 1941 CHRYSLER NEWPORT INDY PACE CAR 1 43 BRK8A,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Ford F100 1953 Texaco with Gas Pump 1 18 - 12991 GREENLIGHT,.EMEK 71795 MAN TGS LX Holz-Haengerzug 1 25,.French Dinky Toys 29D Autobus Parisien Somua Panhard Very Near Mint - no Box,.

Vitesse Chevrolet Corvette 1973 1 43 Aubriet Depince 24h Le Mans (JS),.