Minichamps 1 43 43 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee 597e7d

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Minichamps 1 43 43 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee 597e7d
Mercedes 1908 Ambulanza 1 43 Model RIO,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals MCG 1 18 Lada Niva 1976 - hellgreen,.BoS 1 43 Scale 43315 Fiat Ghia 2300 S Coupe Red Resin Model Car,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 1955 CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIES 60 Diecast Car 12923,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 Peugeot 306 Cab 1998 green Green Intérieur Beige,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Bugatti Veyron Edition Centenaire Minichamps 1 43 400110851 Diecast Model,.1 43-TRON BEE BOP-1990 LANCIA HYENA LUSSO-RED-NEW MIB,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.ALFA ROMEO GTV6 2.5L black 1 18,.Renault 4 1965 - Copenhague bluee NOREV - NO 185241 - Echelle 1 18,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.CLASSIC METAL WORKS 1969 CHEVY CAMARO SS396 HARDTOP w DISPLAY CASE 1 24,.1997 MATCHBOX PREMIERE COLLECTION SET- SERIES 14- 1 OF 25,000 - MIB,.FERRARI FXX-K RED SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY BBURAGO 16907, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Porsche 911 991 Carrera Coupe - Spark Porsche Museum 1 43 in Box 30303,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Best Nr 3000G Mercedes 190E Evo 1 Street Pearl Grey Met,.Dinky Toys 217 Alfa Romeo O.S.I. Scarabeo in Red Exceptional Original & Superb,.Premium ClassiXXs Tatra 111 C - weiss red - Benzina - Tankwagen - 1 43,.

Porsche 911 R 2017 white - Spark 1 43 - BRAND NEW,.AIRFIX HOBBY KITS Ford Fiesta modellismo vintage 70' lotto,.Fast & Furious Set 12 Modellautos Dodge Ford 1 55 Mattel FCF60 wie Hot Wheels,.Renault Dauphine 1958 NOREV 1 18 NV185169 Model,.Benetton Renault B195 British Grand Prix Win 1995 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,.

Minichamps 1 43 - Lamborghini Urraco orange,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Kyosho Lotus Europa Special The Circuit Wolf 1 43 Diecast Last One,.Pegaso Z-403 monoscocca IXO FOR Hachette 1 43 New Boxed Ht3 µ,.EBBRO 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 45313 Red 2014,MODELLINO PORSCHE 904 GTS 1964 blue IN PLASTICA MINICHAMPS,.CITROEN 2CV Dolly, Green White , 1 18, Norev,.

SunStar 1225 MITSUBISHI PAJERO LONG 3.5 V6 1998 DARK GREEN 1 18 Modellino,.AUTOWORLD AMM1146 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH SATELLITE SEBRING PLUS MCACN PURPLE,.Porsche911Gt3Cap 2004 Minichamps 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Universal Hobbies UH4079 VALTRA T SERIES 2011 METALLIC blueE 1 32 Modellino,.

Minichamps 1 43 PORSCHE 956K WINNERS 1000KM BRANDS HATCH 1983 430836611,. We agree in part.

Fiat 1400B President Francis Lombardi Taxi Di Milano 1956 1 43 Kess KS43010051 M,.Porsche 911 991 Carrera Coupe - Spark Porsche Museum 1 43 in Box 30304,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Chevrolet Camaro Z 28 1979 silver, Fast Times at Ridgemont High, Modellauto 1 18,.1969 Brabham Repco F1 Green Redline Hot Wheels Diecast Hong Kong 1 64,.Mercedes-Benz W123 230E E-Klasse Limousine grey 1975-1986 limitiert 1 von 500 ..,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; FRENCH DINKY TOYS 821 MERCEDES UNIMOG ORIGINAL BOX VERY NICE L@@K,.1 50 CORGI CC12105 RENAULT PREMIUM FELDBINDER TANKER RUGBY CEMENT (S21),. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Pilen M282 Indra Rallye Rally car,; Porsche 911 (930) Turbo 3.3 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Aoshima Bunka Kyozaisha 1 24 The Best Car GT Series No.104 Subaru BRZ 2012,.Lada Niva 1981 Green MCG 1 18 MCG18111 Model,Matchbox Die-Cast Collectible - 1916 Ford Model T Fire Engine,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.HOT WHEELS 32nd COLLECTORS CONVENTION DATSUN blueEBIRD 510 WAGON 5970 6000,.

CORGI 448 B.M.C POLICE MINI VAN WITH ORIGINAL HANDLER AND DOG,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Dinky pre war Royal Mail van 34b ( thin axles ),.70s Hot Wheels Redline Sand Drifter RARE GREEN ALTERNATE GOOD SHAPE ALL ORIGINAL,.Danbury Mint - 195 Ford Fairlane Crown Victoria - Never on Display - Box, Papers,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Bentley Flying Spur W12 2012 Dark bluee 1 43 Kyosho 05561NX NEW,; DINKY TOYS JOUET CITROEN 2CV DYANE 1413 - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Best Model BT9012-2R JAGUAR E TYPE COUPE' 1962 RED 1 43 Modellino,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Minichamps 1 43 43 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee 597e7dMinichamps 1 43 43 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee 597e7dMinichamps 1 43 43 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee 597e7dMinichamps 1 43 43 43 Scale Diecast - 400 120431 Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 G.S 1930 bluee 597e7d

Dinky-toys coffret et son camion N°521 tout d'origine 60 70 ( NO COPIE ),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

MODELCARGROUP MCG18074 FORD COUNTRY SQUIRE 1960 WOODEN RED 1 18,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Chrysler 300M Met.-Beige 2002 Neo Scale 1 43 Neo44985 Modellino,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

SCHNÄPPCHEN WOCHEN ALTE WIKING, BREKINA, HERPA, ETC. MODELLE ANSEHEN R6061,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 18 Norev Simca Aronde Montlhery Speziale 1962 greymetallic,.CHEVROLET CORVAIR Coupé black 1963 1 18 SUNSTAR 1484 voiture miniature collection,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Benetton B193B Monaco GP 1993 Riccardo Patrese Spark S4773 1 43,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi Classics No 12905 Scania Topline and flatbed trailer Yuill and Dodds New,.

1937 Tatra 87 black 1 18 MC Group 18069,.Spark Model Porsche 911 GT3 RSR (997) IMSA 1 43 S4232,.MARK 43 1 43 Mazda Roadster (NB 8 C) RS II (2000) Stripe Decal Classic Red,.Ebro 1 43 NISSAN FAIRLADY Z High Way Patrol 1969 finished product,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Chgold Q TAKARA 70's Sports Cars Set SUBARU SKYLINE blueEBIRD BELLETT MAZDA NEW,.

1 18 Welly MB SLS AMG (C197) GTA Serie silver metallic,.Bmw 318i (e21) 1975 Green 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.HOT WHEELS 2010 SUPER TREASURE HUNT OLD NUMBER 5.5 FACTORY SEALED W+,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Spark 1 43 Corvette C6 ZR1 Le Mans 2012,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Lamborghini Countach LP400 Anno di Costruzione 1974-1978 black 1 18 Kyosho,.Corgi Toys 1 36 Working LAND ROVER LWB + HORSEBOX TRAILER WEATHERED Car MIB`02,.Johnny Lightning 21958 1 18 CHEVROLET CAMARO HARD TOP DUKES OF HAZZARD COOTE,.Opel Kadett C2 Limousine red 1973-1979 Triple 9 1 18 PremiumX Modell Auto mit ..,.Corgi, CC 12206 Scania tractor unit, MacFarlane transport ltd, boxed,.

Porsche 911 CARRERA S White Endurance Racing Edition 2016 Spark 1 43 Brand New, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.NEW Ertl American Muscle 1 18 1969 Chevrolet Camaro Indy Pace Die Cast Car 69,.DODGE W200 Power Wagon Red 1964 1 43 NEO 46715,. The PartridgeTayside Police Set-Ford Sierra and Defender,.1 18 SIGNATURE MODELS 1917 REO TOURING LIGHT blueE rd,.UT Models 1 18 Scale diecast - 25OCT2017G Mercedes C AMG F1 Safety Model Car,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Dinky b - Triumph 1800 - bluee - C NB, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Gozo bus Bedford 1948 green Malte miniature,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.LANCIA ECV 2 1988 WHITE 1 43 BIZARRE BZ410,.Sunbeam Alpine Tiger Mkii 1960 Red SPARK 1 43 S4063 Model,PartridgeSPARK AUDI Sport Quattro Winner Pikes Peak 1985 Michele mouton 43PP85 1 43,.Nsu Prinz 4 Polizei Streifenwagen 1964 Ed.Lim.Pcs 156 1 43 Kess Model KS43023001,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 076771 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR - 24h LM 2007, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, FERRARI CALIFORNIA T CLOSED TOP RED SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 BY BBURAGO 16902NEW,; Premium ClassiXXs VW T3a Kasten - Bestattungswagen - silver - 1 43,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Brand Niki Lauda Hachette Ferrari Collection, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, BERLIET STRADAIR Réédition CIJ Norev (pas Atlas idem Dinky Toys), (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSpark 1 43 - Hummer H 3 T 2008 cuivre,.

Norev Peugeot 205 GTi 1.9 1988 - black 1 18 - 184854,.1 18 1991 Lancia delta hf integrale 16v N.1, 1st rally san remo SUNSTAR sun3119, Clarke's negligent act.Volkswagen Beetle Kafer 1951 With Trailer bluee Schuco 1 43 SH3894 Model,.Corgi Chevrolet-Superior 61 Ambulance, New In Box,.1917 REO TOURING BURGUNDY 1 18 BY SIGNATURE MODELS 18105,.

Premium ClassiXXs 1 18 Volkswagen VW T3 Audi Sport ,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Fiat 238 Pirelli Servizio Rally 1971 1 43 Model RIO,Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Caldera red - TSM-Model - 1 43 - TSM430148,. In Noska,Brooklin Models 1 43 Scale Model Car BRK30 - 1954 Dodge Royal 500 - Unboxed,.LOOKSMART 1 43 AUDI R10 WINNER 24H LE MANS 2006 ART. LS217,.1 18 SunStar - 2006 Rally Deutchland - Citroen Xsara Gardenmeister Honkanen,.KK-Scale Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2 - metallic-hellblue - 1972 - 1 18, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1991 RENAULT CLIO 16S NOREV 185234 1 18 DIECAST CAR,.1 43 Spark Porsche 964 Speedster Turbolook 1993 yellow bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.1996 Hot Wheels JC Whitney Volkswagen VW Drag Bus Warshawsky Ltd Edn 1 10,000,.Jada 1970 Dodge Charger R T 1 24 Scale original 2002 release used no box HTF,. Id., p 923.

HOT WHEELS 1 18 ELITE FERRARI 250LM SEBRING DAYTONA 1965 DIECAST blueE T6262,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, DINKY TOYS 322 DISC HARROW RARE SELTEN IN EXCELLENT CONDITION BOXED,MARK43 PM4316SY 1 43 Datsun Fairlady 2000 SR311 sport wheel yellow,.Spark B66961245 1 43 MERCEDES C-CLASS COUPE AMG TEAM HWA N 5 DTM SEASON C.VIETOR,.Motor Max 1 18 Scale Model Car 50043 - Aston Martin DB9 - Bordeaux,.NOREV185138 - Voiture sportive ALPINE A 110 Première Edition de 2017 - 1 18,.2004 Revell '1964 Ford Mustang Congreenible - Offical Indianapolis 500 Pace Car,.Spark Model SB163 MERCEDES GT3 N.89 NC 24H SPA 2017 PERFETTI-FONTANA-BADEY-BASTI,.Minichamps 436069270 PORSCHE 911 TURBO S (993) - JUBILÄUMSMODELL 1998 - blueE Mas,. The parties PRD200 PremiumX 1 43 Ford Bronco II Jeep Fire 1990 Feuerwehr,.

Land Rover Range Rover black 1 18 marca Welly,.Kit Ferrari 212 Marzotto Weekendina Giardinetta 1952 - Tron Models kit 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1 50 Char Blinde AMX-30T France Vehicle diecast model Solido 209 1 1965,; WESTERN MODELS 1 43 ROVER 800 STERLING k4 AVEC SA BOITE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

LLEDO 1955 VW T2 Van Coca-Cola (bluee) 1 64 Scale Diecast Model ULTRA-RARE ,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Schuco 1 43 Art.03527 Mercedes Benz LP608 Pritsche Plane Feuerwehr Oberhausen,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Spot-on No 157 is the model of the First edition Rover 3 litre car Very good,.1 43 Minichamps Bentley Continental GT V8 2011 bluemetallic,.1 18 1962 Volkswagen Microbus (bluee) Auto Haus Greenlight 12852,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Bburago 16010 Ferrari Fxx-K black Scale 1 18 Model Car New °,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.(VG) matchbox lesney superfast MERCURY RAT ROD DRAGSTER - 62 RARE DECALS,.Rare Ancien Norev Plastique n° 34 - VEDETTE DEPANNEUSE Garage de Paris,.McLaren F1 1995 Papaya orange High Mirrors 1 43 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,.1 43 Brabham Alfa Romeo BT46 , N. Piquet, Canadian GP 1978 , Minichamps,.Opel Manta B Mattig Manta Manta 1991 yellow blue, Modellauto 1 18 MCG,. The ScottsdalePANASONIC TOYOTA TF103 2003 FORMEL 1 F1 PANIS 1 18 MINICHAMPS 100030020 RARE,Herpa 310062 MAN TGX XLX Teletrailer-SZ Windradflügel Gatto Wind Scale 1 87,.Anson 1 18 Scale Diecast - 30325-w Porsche 911 GT1 Le Mans 1996,. Id.,Ford Gran Torino 1976 Starsky & Hutch red white, Modellauto 1 18 Greenlight,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car WAP 020 125 17 - Porsche 911 GT3 RS - Green,; Oshkosh Front Discharge Mixer 1 34 19-2964 First Gear,Porsche 911 Coupe’ 996 Red 1998 Minichamps 1 43 400061181 Model,.CONRAD METALLMODELL MERCEDES PUMI PUTZMEISTER BETONPUMPE OVP 1 50 7.BM-147,. The ScottsdalePuma Gtv 033 1985 With Alfa Romeo Engine White Limited 175 pcs 1 43 Model,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 87 Herpa Wings Danziger Luftpost Junkers F.13 019361,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Corgi Priestman Shovel - orange Yellow (Early Box) - B B,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Ebbro 1 43 Calsonic Impul GT-R Fuji 300km Winner Super GT500 2008 from Japan,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 13 1998 1 18 David Coulthard (GBR) (JS) DV,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Camion eligor lbs Renault premium Dci transport Mory Group semi fourgon,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Vintage Lesney Scammell 6x6 Tractor & 200 Ton Crane Transport Trailer Diecast, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, TARMAC WORKS HOBBY 64 1 64 PORSCHE 930 RWB Porsche 930 RWB Rauh-Welt Begriff, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1969 Holden Monaro HT GTS 350 Bathurst 32 Scale Classic Diecast Model Car,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFord Usa Shelby Mustang Ii Cobra Ii 1976 White bluee Greenlight 1 18 GREEN12880T,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Spark Model S5663 KTM X-BOW GT 2016 PURPLE 1 43 Modellino,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMERDECES-BENZ 300 B (W186 III) 1955 blueE MINICHAMPS 1 43 NEW,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Hot Wheels Lot of 12 '70 Ford Mustang Mach 1 Variation Classics Since 68 Holiday,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Spark Model S5825 ORECA 07 GIBSON N.39 44th LM 2017 GUIBBERT-TROUILLET-WINSLOW 1,1 43 2009 SUBARU IMPREZA WRX STI HATCH 2.5 IN RED BY J COLLECTION JC078 DIECAST,.Pirate Models 1 76 Scale White Metal Kit - 406 Q1 Trolleybus,.TOYOTA Celica GT4 GT-4 Rallye Gr.A Sainz 1000 Lakes Repsol 1990 IXO Alt 1 18,. The HuyghePRECISION MINIATURES 1 43 WHITE METAL - 1964 FERRARI 250 GT BERLINETTA LUSSO,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 G. HORION SUPERCUP 2006 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.

Brumm BMAS41 FERRARI 312 PB N.3 WINNER TARGA FLORIO 1972 MERZARIO-MUNARI 1 43 Mo,.Starter 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - SX21B Mercedes 190 AMG Circuit GrA 1990 2 Vers,.

DINKY TOYS MODEL No.210 ALFA ROMEO 33 TIPO LE-MANS VN MIB,.TSM Model 1 43 Scale TSM144343 - 2012 Mini Countryman All4 Racing,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Corgi Police Mini Van - bluee - Box B,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMinichamps Le Mans 24 Hours Endurance 2005 Audi R8,.Mazda RX-8 [2003] 1 24 Die-cast Model Hachette Japanese Cars Collection Vol.56,.

For example, in Partridge,Hi-Story HS146RE 1 43 Nissan SUNNY 1500 SUPER SALOON (1987) Super Red,. In Jorgensen, supra,NEO NEO45760 1 43 LA SALLE SERIES 50 COUPE 1937 DARK RED,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Schuco Micro Racer Porsche 356 Montagekasten - green-grey (01774),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 820027 - F1 Ferrari 126 C2 1982,. That is the same situation in this case.NEO SCALE MODELS NEO43972 LLOYD ALEXANDER STATION WAGON 1958 BEIGE 1 43,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 9-3 KGPW MERRYWEATHER MARQUIS FIRE ENGINE,. Detroit Edison, supra.

CORGI 236 AUSTIN DELUXE SALOON A60 MOTOR SCHOOL CAR - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.Enzmann 506 Cabriolet (Based on VW) red (1957),.1985 HYMER MOBIL Type 650 HymerMobil CAMPER 1 43 scale model IXO,.

1 50 DM Caterpillar Cat 972M Wheel Loader Diecast Model,.