Rio RI4377 FIAT 1100 103 N.2254 N.2254 N.2254 MILLE MIGLIA 1955 O.MORELLI 1 43 Modellino b6fc43

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Rio RI4377 FIAT 1100 103 N.2254 N.2254 N.2254 MILLE MIGLIA 1955 O.MORELLI 1 43 Modellino b6fc43
Mattel Hot Wheels 1 18 F1 WILLIAMS FW28 Nico ROSBERG Diecast MIB, 2006,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BURAGO 1 18 - COD. 3005 BUGATTI TYPE 59 (1934) - blueE,.DV7091 ELIGOR 1 43 MAN TG XXL 460 A Ref 111979 TRACTEUR SEUL,.Mercedes LP 608, red, Circus Roncalli , 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,.RARE DIAPET YONEZAWA TOYS HONDA CIVIC GF grey METAL REF 346 = G16 MADE IN JAPAN,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Burago 1 18 Ferrari F50 (1995) red - 3362 - Die-Cast Scale Modell Auto NEU OVP,.Greenlight Collectibles 12949 1 18 1955 Cadillac Fleetwood Series 60,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Corgi US50808 Seagrave K Pumper Washington Fire Co. No.1 Ltd Ed. 1561 of 2000,.MAN TGX XXL ITALERI 1 24 PLASTIC KIT,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Lot of 81 Hot Wheels No other brands,.Coffret Renault F1 Team Megane rs Norev 1 43,.Lexus Lfa 2010 White Top Gear Minichamps 1 43 519431660 Modellino, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 43 Spark - 43LM83 Porsche 956, No.3, Winner Le Mans 1983,.MAJORETTE - KOOL KROMES - FERRARI F40 1 64 DIECAST RED CHROME UNOPENED BOX,.1 43 TRAX TR24C Ford Falcon XTGT,.Kess Alfa Romeo Alfa 90 Quadrifoglio Dark Grey Metallic 1984 KE43000190 Ltd 250,.

Bburago BU16001R FERRARI LA FERRARI 2013 RED 1 18 Modellino,.COLLECTOR'S CLASSICS-CHEVROLET 1955 DIECAST 1 43 CAR--WITH CERTIFICATE--NO 09756,.Tarmac Works 1 43 Mitsubishi EVO LANCER EVOLUTION 6.5 Die Cast Model,.Matchbox Superfast Nr. 46B Stretcha Fetcha red Unfallrettung dt. Modell in Box,.Mercedes-Benz 300 Green, 1955, 1 18 Norev,.

Cadillac Series 75 Long Limousine 1959 Sovering gold Met Kess 1 43 KS43020002 Mi,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Dinky Toys 162 Ford Zephyr Saloon 2 tone in very very near mint condition SUPERB,.MODELLINO AUDI V8 F. JELINSKI DTM 1990 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Schuco Fortschritt ZT 303 tractor red whit 1 32 450775100,Mebetoys 1 25 military Willys Jeep Art.7687,.Norev Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 519150 - Renault Celtaquatre - Beige Brown,.

SunStar SS4472 CITROEN XSARA N.8 M.SHOW 2006 1 18 Modellino,.DC Corgi USA - 1 16 Batman The Robin Cycle - 77407 in OVP,.SPARK MODEL S2811 ALPINA CSL (E9) orange 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.


Spark 1 43 BMW 635 CSI N.1 winner Macau Guia race 1983 SA052,. We agree in part.

MINICHAMPS OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE FEUERWEHR COESFELD 400045890,.Ford 17 M (P2) Turnier 1958 Yellow White 1 43 NeoScale NEO44551 Model,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.POLISTIL 1 25 - FX2 MARCH FORD 721 STP - RONNIE PETERSON,.Universal Hobbies - Renault 5 Turbo Red Scale 1 18,.Iso Grifo 7 ltr. 1968 yellow in Klapp-Box 1 43 Minichamps 436128220 neu & OVP,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Peugeot 206 RC red 3 Türer 1998-2012 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indi..,.Herpa 090377 pinknbauer Panther Berlin airport fire department 1 87 modeling,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, CORGI MODEL No.80305 GARRETT 4CD ROAD TRACTOR & TRAILERS MIB,; Original Jaguar Modellauto E Pace Yulong White 1 43 50JEDC279WTY E-Pace Weiss,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Jada 2007 Mercedes-Benz S550 AMG NIB 2007 release 1 24 scale no longer made HTF,.1 18 Shelby Collectibles Shelby Cobra 427 S C - “After the Race”,NOREV181634 - Voiture de rallye CITROEN C3 WRC N°7 Winner Spain de 2017 équipage,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev 155329 1 43 CITROEN C3 & C3 AIRCROSS 2017 RED (SET OF 2 MODELS),.

Jada Ford Mustang GTR Concept 1 24 scale used no box 2006 release,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Ferrari FXX K 18 - Bburago,.Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4 15 2000 1 43 Mika Hakkinen (FIN) (JS),.Ford Ka - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34251,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, SPARK Scuderia Tgold red STR8 No.19 2013 Daniel Ricciardo S3062 1 43,; Neo Ford Gran Torino Sport - hell-yellow - 1977 - 1 43,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, BROOKLIN BRK98 1939 LA SALLE 2Door Touring Sedan 1.43 NB,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Solido 1 18 Scale - 8162 Aston Martin DB9 2004 Dark green,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Welly 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18024W Porsche 911 GT3 Yellow,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Norev 184880 PEUGEOT 309 Gti red 1987 scala 1 18 MODELLINO AUTO NUOVO °,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 Scale model Audi pinkmeyer 2000, aluminium, 2000,.SPARK LOTUS 72C Winner GP US 1970 - Emerson Fittipaldi S5345 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.BATMAN BATMOBILE - Lot of 15 - Hot Wheels & Matchbox (See Description),. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.IDEAL TOY CORP. Mercedes-Benz 220s Kunstoff Auto ( 60er ) USA ca.13cm (K29),.

NEO MODELS Ford Escort MkII RS Gr.2 1 43 45232,.Russian Made 1 43 Scale diecast - R1 Lada VAZ 2105 Red USSR Car,.EBBRO 44099 1 43 Cab Over bus Gunma bus Yellow White,.New Majorette Platinum 1 18 Porsche 911 Twin Turbo 23 cm Metallic Red,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Ford Transit 1965 Daimon 1965 Red 400082261 Minichamps 1 43 New ,.

1 18 FIGURE PAUL WALKER- BRIAN O'CONOR PAINTED FAST AND FURIOUS 3.75 , NO CAR,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 ARTISAN COLLECTION - 1971 VOLKSWAGEN TYPE 2 BUS 19012,.Citroen DS19 40thAnniversary 1955-1995 Vitesse Mint Limited Edition,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Limited Edition 1 of 1000 Chrome Minichamps Porsche 911 1 43 Dealer Item,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Verem Resin Military Army 1 50 - DUKW,.DINKY TOYS 1405 OPEL REKORD COUPE 1900 - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.Opel Kapitän 1959 Ocean Green Alabaster Grey 1 43 Minichamps 430040007 NEW,.Spark Model S5075 CHEVROLET CORVETTE C3 N.1 ACCIDENT LM 1970 J.BOURDON-J.C.AUBRI,.Porsche 996 Gt3 Rs 2003 White W Red Stripes 1 43 Spark S4473 Model,.

1 43 Minichamps Mercedes 230E 1990, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.EBBRO 1 43 Subaru WRX STI 45313 Red 2014,.1 18 RENAULT CLIO WILLIAMS 1993 PHASE 1 FASE 1 NOREV 185230,. The PartridgeCorgi Major n° 1128 Pelleteuse PRIESTMAN CUB Power Shovel ancien jamais servi,.Ebbro 1 43 KURE Skyline GT-R R33 JGTC 1996 M. Kondo T. Suzuki from Japan,.Corgi Toys 301 Triumph TR.2 Sports Car 1956-61 NR.MINT ,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, UH Renault 5 Turbo blue 1 18 limitiertes Modell 1 1000, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Audi Tts Roadster 2008 Metallic Bordeaux 1 43 Neoscale NEO46410 Model,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Minichamps 400370012 1 43 MERCEDES W125 GP GERMANY 1937 CARACCIOLA LIMITED EDITI,.Auto Art Gateway 60422 DODGE VIPER COMPETITION COUPE 1 43,Partridge1 18 Minichamps, Reynard, Max Papis, Arciero-Wells Racing Team,.TEKNO 854 Yellow Bus Made in Denmark 1 43 Scale Diecast,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEO SCALE MODELS 1 43 Saab 9000 CDE 1989 Champagne Met. Art. NEO44595, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark Model SG344 AUDI RS5 N.51 12th DTM 2017 N.MULLER 1 43 Modellino,; BBR PJ286 1 43 2002 Ferrari Enzo Handmade Resin Model Car Kit,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, CORGI CLASSICS THE BEATLES COLLECTION 1997 AEC ROUTEMASTER BUS DIECAST, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, SPARK Lotus 18 No.9 2nd British GP 1960 John Surtees S1825 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeJada 1967 Shelby Mustang GT 500 NIB 1 18 scale 2006 release HTF,.

Mac Due MCG18087 CITROEN CX 2200 SUPER BREAK SERIES 1 1976 MET.GREEN 1 18 Modell,.Citroen Ds19 Prestige Jacqueline Kennedy Visit In Paris 1961 Rio 1 43 RIO4517 Mo, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Autoart Contemporary Saturn SUV Rust,.Mercedes Benz L319 Fruba 1957 Light Gr 1 18 183419,.Ertl 1-64 diecast semi LUHR Jensen and sons NIB,.

F1 LOTUS Renault T97 Turbo Ayrton Senna 1985 Olympus elf NEW Minichamps 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Spark Porsche 911 RSR Ebimotors Le Mans 2018 Nielsen Babini Maris S7040,RENAULT ALPINE GT4 2+2 blue PARADCAR 72 1 43,. In Noska,Spark Lotus 109 Alessandro Zanardi 1 43 S1671,.Ford 5000 Tractor Carlos Alberto reutemann Brands Hatch 1972 1 43 rare,.Greenlight 1 24 Scale Car 84041 - Steve McQueen 1968 Ford Mustang GT Bullitt,.DORNIER,PFEIL DO33A-1GERMANY,1945 aircraft miniature 1 72 collection, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Tyrrell Ford 007 J.P. Jabouille 1975 1 43 Model 400750015 MINICHAMPS,.NEO MODELS Osca 1600GT Zagato 1962 1 43 45186,.SPARK Sauber C31 No.15 2nd Malaysian GP 2012 Sergio Perez S3033 1 43,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 PORSCHE 962C WINNER SUPERCUP NURBURGRING 1986,. Id., p 923.

SunStar 1 18 Scale - 3968 1963 Chevrolet Nova Laurel green,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo,Jada 97168 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Brian's Toyota Supra,.AUTO WORLD 1 18 OLDSMOBILE 1968 442 W-30 DIE-CAST BRONZE AMM1084,.Solido Trans kit BAM 1 43 - Porsche 911 934 Le Mans 1976 No.65,.MODELLINO PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP N. D. O’YOUNG CARRERA CUP ASIA MACAU 2007 IN METAL,.MG B Roadster Hard Top bluee white Spark S4138 1 43,.GESCHA LIEBHERR 961 HOCHLOFFELBAGGER - YELLOW 1 50 - GOOD CONDITION,.Maisto Mercedes CLK-GTR GT1 1998 1 18 Tiemann Gounon FIA GT (MCC),. The parties Siku Farmer 3251 Massey Ferguson 8260 Xtra Traktor, Plogmaker, 1 32, Werbemodell,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1931 FORD MODEL A COUPE VALLEY GREEN 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY SUNSTAR SS6133,; MERCURY INNOCENTI MINI 90 - 120 SUPERBE JAMAIS JOUE color greenE RARE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Old school Redline BMX Full Chromoly Stamed Handlebars Great Survivor Condition,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1955 CHEVROLET BEL AIR ERTL COLLECTIBLES 1996 EXCLUSIVE DIE CAST COLOR 1 18,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)JADA 99734 1 24 CADILLAC 1963 SCARFACE WITH TONY MONTANA FIGURE,.Mercedes W196 Monoposto 43 Premium Classixxs neu & OVP,.Formula F 1 Surtees T. S. 9 Corgi 1 36,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,CORGI 1.50 MODEL SCANIA T MONTGOMERY TRANSPORT,NORTHERN IRLAND MIB CC12839,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Hi-Story HS174RE 1 43 MITSUBISHI STARION TURBO 2000 GSR-X (1982) Safari Red,.Maisto M38135 1 18 Scale the Audi R8 Die-cast Model (colours May Vary) - R8,.Pro Drive 1 43 Subaru Wrc 2001 Portugal Rally,.Wiking 958 1 Magirus 235D Aral-Tanksattelzug Papieraufkleber 1606-26-64,.Best Model 9481 LANCIA BETA MONTECARLO MUGELLO 1980 Modellino,. The ScottsdaleDeAgostini F50 1995 1 24 Scale Model Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.6 Japan F S,Tekno 60590 Meiller Rundmuldenauflieger 3achs 1 50 New Boxed,.Rare Minichamps 180 000073 BAR Honda 2000 Showcar Ricardo Zonta Scale 1 18,. Id.,NEO MODELS Opel Ascona B Gr.2 No.18 Conrero Rally 1 43 45241,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AUDI S6 A6 Plus Avant Quattro 1996 green green Kombi V8 Resin Highend Spark 1 43,; 1 43 Matrix Ghia 230S Christmas Edition with brown ribbon 2014 red,WIKING 144 PKW MERCEDES 220 COUPE 55 W231,.1 43 BO8BK 1970 CHEVROLET CAMARO TransAm KIT BY SMTS,. The ScottsdaleFerrari Dino Competizione 1 43 KingStar KS103,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, ALPINE A310 1 18° IXO ALTAYA,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Spark Models – 1 43 Scale – Porsche Cayman GT4 2016 Scale Model Replica,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Motor Dodge 426 Hemi V-8 1 6 Liberty Classics 84023,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Diapet 1 30 Scale Diecast SV-17 - Toyota Celsior 4000 - Pearlescent White,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Range Rover Evoque 5 Türer Weiss mit blackem Dach Ab 2011 Triple 9 1 43 Ixo ..,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, HONDA RA099 J. VERSTAPPEN PredOTYPE 1999 Minichamps BIANCO 1 43, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Trofeu TFMNP121 MITSUBISHI LANCER EVO VI N.54 RET.R.PORTUGAL 2000 P.LEAL-R.CASSA, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Norev C31540 VIVA GRAND SPORT MECANIQUE CIJ NOREV Modellino,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSpark Morris Cooper Monte Carlo 1963 S1190 1 43 Resin,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Used no brand Spinning reel 3000 beautiful goods Japan sale Free shipping,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSchuco 1 43 04239 Porsche 1997 Set of 3, Boxster, 911 Turbo & 911 Carrera,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.PORSCHE 911 GT3 WALKER SUN START 1290 1 18,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,BMW 507 Cabrio silver 1956-1959 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne individiu..,Spark 1 43 - Chevrolet Corvette C6 RS roadster 2010 yellow,.WEISE-TOYS 1034 SAME Fortis 190 (2013 - ) 1 32,.Maisto 1 18 MERCEDES BENZ SL63 AMG White Display Miniature Car,. The HuygheHerpa MAN TGX XLX Euro 6c Flachbett SZ mit 2 Turmteilen Wasel - 1 87,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe3 Cab Units & Trailer,.

Bugatti Veyron Edition Centenaire Red & Chrome 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.Ebbro EB44444 NISSAN GT-R N.24 FUJI 2010 1 43 Modellino,.

Mercedes LO 2750, yellow black, Dunlop, 1 43, Premium ClassiXXs,.Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Ferrari 365 GTB 4-BERLINA-1969 in red Red 1 18 Techno Giodi N M BOXED,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge2013 French Dinky Toys Atlas Edition Diecast No. 29D Autobus Parisien,.Dinky 970 jones fleetmaster crane boxed,.

For example, in Partridge,NOREV - 1 18 - RENAULT CLIO WILLIAMS PHASE 1 - 1993 - 185230,. In Jorgensen, supra,Hot Wheels City Lot of 25 Cars 2014 2015 NIB Sealed NOS Mustang Charger,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.AMC Pacer 1975 Beige - Red 1 43 NEO 43521 New,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,MEBETOYS A-37 A37 A 37 NSU RO80 RO 80 METALLIC GREY MINT CONDITION RARE SELTEN,. That is the same situation in this case.1967 Beetle Kafer Stuttgart Germany Police Car 1 18 Diecast Model Car Greenlight,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Americana 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit - 13 Chevrolet Styleline 1950,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Bateau 1 43 de BATMAN - BATBOAT Corgi Toys 167 - Série années 60 - Bon Etat,.1 18 Dongfeng Peugeot 2016 3008 Credver Copper Brown Metallic Dealer Edition,.CITROEN GS blue Camargue 1972 1 18,.

(MA 114) - Bus-Set in 1 60 1 50 von Corgi - Coventry Transport ,.