1 18 Norev Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 grey metallic metallic metallic 182770 0f8c07

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 18 Norev Ford Sierra RS Cosworth 1986 grey metallic metallic metallic 182770 0f8c07
PAZ 3205 SSM 4002 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Kyosho Porsche 911 Carrera 3.2 1984 (orange),.VINTAGE 1967 HOT WHEELS REDLINE blueE SILHOUETTE DIECAST CAR MATTEL,.DINKY 163 BRISTOL 450 SPORTS COUPE - VERY GOOD in original BOX,.Schuco Replicas Grand Prix Racer with Box,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.DINKY Meccano England 1954 BEDFORD CA VAN 'OVALTINE & Ovaltine Biscuits',.Minichamps 1 43 minicar Opel Vectra GTSV8DTM limited edition 1728 units,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 43 MEGA RARE MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 GT1 LE MANS 1998 UNPAINTED CARBON TEST CAR,.Anson 30338, Mercedes-Benz CLK Cabriolet, red, bewegl. Stoffd.,1 18, NEU&OVP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Porsche 911 930 Turbo 3.3L Coupe 1977 Olive Green NOREV 1 18 NV187575 Model,.Toyota IQ 2009 Pearl 1 43 Model 44696 EBBRO,.BMW M535i (E12) (dark bluee metallic) 1978, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 43 1960's GAZ-M22 Volga Station Wagon NEO,.Mercury 1 43 - Ferrari 330 P Nurburgring,.BREKINA 40 Jahre Standard-Busse (MB Überland-Linienbus 0307 StÜLB ) 1 87 OVP ,.Premium X 1 43 Nissan Qashqai 2014 Red New F S,.

MÄRKLIN 8023 - Magirus Feuerwehr Drehleiter - Modellauto -- Model Feuerwehrauto,.HOT WHEELS 2 Park N Plates CAMARO Z28 Pink Tag Tampo & Tag VARIATIONS RARE,,.Schuco 07712 - Fendt 313 Vario mit Frontlader green white 1 32 NEU,.Schuco 450887400 Triumph TR5 mit offenem Surrey Top, black-red,.SUNSTAR 1 18 1948 CHRYSLER TOWN & COUNTRY American Collectibles Diecast Car 6141,.

1 43 kit Provence M. monté Bugatti EB 110, exceptionnelle ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE 1970 DODGE CHARGER 500 SE MODEL BN 13530,.Land Rover Range Rover Sport 2. Generation red Ab 2013 - Komplettset mit Akku ..,.2015 Mercedes-Benz AMG GT C190 V8 Turbo yellow 1 18 Maisto 36204,NEO MODELS Opel Ascona B Gr.2 No.18 Conrero Rally 1 43 45241,.Renault Clio Williams 1 18 Norev,.

Hot Wheels MASTERS OF THE UNIVERSE 200X COMPLETE COLLECTION,.Mercedes Benz 320 Cabriolet D Scala 1 43 Spark,.Schuco 3726 PORSCHE 908 n.21 NORISRING 68 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 3015 Mercedes Benz 300 SL1954 Red Model Car,.

TWO TONE GREEN BENTLEY by DSG dinky copies type3,. We agree in part.

MORRIS CS8 avec châssis Mk III, WW2 - Kit résine PLUS MODEL 1 35 N° 441,.Pontiac Bonneville Brougham (brown) 1980,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Dinky f - Estate Car - Light Brown Brown - B NB,.Classic Metal Works 1 24 DADE CITY FLORIDA Ford Police Interceptor,.MATCHBOX.BEST SET OF BRITISH, 6 OF THE 12 NEVER OPENED SEALED FROM 2007.,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Mg F Magma Salonette 1933 Green Ivory NeoScale 1 43 NEO46465,.Wiking Sondermodelle Interschutz 2010 Leipzig,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NEO SCALE MODELS NEO46236 MORGAN 4 4 FLAT RADIATOR S1 1936 GREEN 1 43,; TSM 1 43 Scale TSM134331 - 2012 McLaren MP4-12C GT3 Total 24hrs Of Spa,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Citroen C4 WRC Rally Monte Carlo 2007 - 1 18 - AUTOart,.NOREV 183597 Mercedes-Benz CLA-Klasse 2013 grey metallic 1 18 NEU OVP,Norev Renault 20 TS 1978 - Algue green metallic 1 18 - 185265,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Matchbox No.02D Mercedes Trailer htf 1. casting small braces boxed,.

Siku Plastik V 141 DKW Junior perlwhite greye Räder defekt V-Serie,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MINICHAMPS 1 18 - 150 081391 JAGUAR XKR GT3 orange 2008,.TSM Jaguar F-Type SVR AWD - Glacier White - 1 43,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3025 - F1 Force India VJM04 Monaco GP 2011,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, ASTON MARTIN DB3 S LE MANS 1955 T. BROOKS 1 43 SPARK S2422 NEU,; 1988 CHEVROLET WHITE CORVETTE FRANKLIN MINT 1 24 DIECAST W COA,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, AUTO ART MAZDA CX-9 blueE 1 43 NEW DIE-CAST + BOX,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Renault Clio Williams 2.0 16V (1St Series) 1993 bluee Met Norev 1 18 NV185230-2,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Porsche Carrera Cup ,2e Macau Race 2013, Sparkmodels,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Audi 100 Coupe S • 1970 • NEU • KK-Scale • 1 18,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

BMW 530i touring E34 green 1 43 Neo,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Schuco 1 43 450313000 Unimog U401 mit Anhänger siehe Foto m.O (WM2569),.Bruder Ambulance with Driver Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 1 16 Kids Toy Vehicle 02536,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Diecast Masters 85924 CAT 323F Raupenbagger Hydraulic Excavator 1 50 Top Preis,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Rare TRAX HOLDEN MONARO HK GTS 1968 BATHURST 1 43 BOX,.

CITROEN DS ID 21 ID21 Break Kombi 1970 red red RAR Norev 1 18,.Volkswagen VW T1 Samba Bus 1959 Red Creme 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Tekno Rare Van Rijn BV Holland Daf 95 XF Space Cab with Fridge Trailer,.Pontiac Grand Am Coupe red grey met 1973 NEO 44755 1 43,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.HOLLAND OTO UH1098 MERCEDES SPRINTER GLS 1 43,.

Norev 185215 1 18 RENAULT 5 GT TURBO SUPERCINQ RAGNOTTI THIMONIE TOUR DE COR,.Corgi US06005 America's Finest Dodge Monaco California Highway Patrol Ltd Ed.,.Norev 188520 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN 1303 1972 RED,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 060220 - 2012 Porsche 911 Carrera S - bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Force India Mercedes VJM05 Paul di Resta Formula 1 2012 1 43 410120011,.Hot Wheels Redline Magenta AMX 2,.Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 Haribo Racing Team , 24H Nurburgring 2016, Sparkmodels,.Peugeot 206 CC, red, 1 18 - WELLY,.Matchbox Regular Wheel 56A London Bus Drink Peardrax GPW 1958,.

1 43 Ixo Ferrari Enzo, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light Green 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.Matchbox Regular Wheels Original Moko Lesney Number 19 MG 'A',. The PartridgeVolkswagen VW Passat B3 VR6 Variant 1988 Dark bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.MODELLINO AUDI R8 McNISH BIELA KAFFER 24H LE MANS 2004 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Redline Hotwheels orange 1973 Double Vision oc17458,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Kabelstrang Ford Model T 919-25, T-5041, 09 04, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.1 43 RL97K Aston Martin DB3S KIT,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CORGI 342 Lamborghini P400 GT Miura Fighting Bull,.1 18 Autoworld Chevy Chevelle SS,PartridgePolistil 1 25 Vintage diecast - 02266 Jaguar XJ-S Congreenible Red Model Car,.BURAGO 1 18 3010 LANCIA AURELIA B24 SPIDER 1955 WHITE,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEW EBBRO 45381 1 43 Calsonic ImpulGT-R SuperGT GT500 2016 Rd.1 Okayama bluee, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Johnny Lightning Frightning Lightnings Job Lot,; Starter Models Kit 1 43 Scale Resin - sx6 Mercedes Benz 190 E 2.3 16 AEG,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Porsche 911 993 Turbo 1995 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 30341, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Minichamps Mercedes-Benz Atego EXEL LOGISTICS 1 43 OVP (R2_1_47), (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePORSCHE 911 GT2 EVO JARIER - PAREJA - CHAPPELI LE MANS 1996 1 43 SPARK S5513,.

Mercedes-Benz C-Klasse DTM W204 Bruno Spengler • 2011 • NEU • Norev • 1 18,.Corgi Toys 307 - E type Jaguar - Metallic Grey, Clarke's negligent act.Jaguar XKR GT3 2008 grey metallic, Modellauto 1 18 Minichamps,.SPARK - 1 43 - PORSCHE 911 CARRERA 4 GTS 2017 - S7621,.War Master 1 72 FAMO AND 88MM FLAK GUN,.

LAMBORGHINI DIABLO ROASTER SALON PARIS 1992 - 1 43 Heco Modeles Serie 100,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Johnny Lightning The Ultimate Collector Race Case Includes 32 Cars w Coins,Structo vista dome Horse van,. In Noska,1 18 Scale Diecast Auto World 2004 Chevy Corvette Pace Car,.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Merced es-Benz L 3500 PRE-12403,.Lloyd Lt 500 600 1955 Dark Beige Light Beige 1 43 Neoscale NEO43872,.Universal Hobbies Modellauto 1 18 Ford T Modell Party and Service, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Chevrolet Impala Coupe 1967 blue metallic, Modellauto 1 43 True Scale,.Norev GT by Citroen 2008 - Electric bluee - 1 18,.MODELLINO FORD FOCUS RS WRC RALLY MONTE CARLO 2002 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Porsche 911 953 4x4 Rallye Raid Dakar 1988 Laffite Norev base UMBAU 1 43,. Id., p 923.

GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 2720 2achs Kippanhänger zwillingsbereift 1 50,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo,RENAULT KANGOO COMPACT CONCEPT IAA SALON FRANCFORT 2007 1 43 orange RESINE,.1 43 Hi Story Model NISSAN Prince Skyline Deluxe bluee Grey 1957,.Bmw 502 Congreenible Autenrieth Brown 1 43 Neoscale NEO46385,.Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG Roadster (red),.Solido Renault 12 Gordini blue 1 18,.Wiking 120 3 DKW Limousine 4-türig rosé Spur H0,.Match Box 1 43 Chevrolet K 5 Blazer,. The parties Vitesse 1 43 Scale Operucette Mini Car 3 Set,.

HOTWHEELS 1 18 TWO TEAM JORDAN F1 MODELS FISICHELLA(BRASIL 03) AND DAMON HILL,.Alpine A110 Premiere Edition 2017 - 1 18 - Norev,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, KK-Scale Porsche B32 - metallic-grey - 1984 (VW T3) - 1 18,; DS E-Tense Salon De Geneve 2016 Metallic Green 1 43 Model PM0103 NOREV, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Truescale Miniatures 1 43 Honda Nsx Valencia Red Pearl Modulo Wheel Completed,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, 1 18 Hot Wheels Ferrari F2001 Schumacher 52th GP Sieg NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)First Gear 1 34 1953 White 3000 Stake Body Holztransporter RARITÄT reduziert,.WESTERN MODELS WRK 28 JAGUAR D TYPE 1953 WHITE METAL HAND BUILT 1 43 MIB,.Porsche 911 (991II) Gt3 Rs Año Fabricación 2018 black con Dorados,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Fiat 238 Furgone Polizia 1972 1 43 RIO 4578,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 18 REVELL BMW Isetta 250,.1 43 UNIQUE RIO DSM 1968 LAMBORGHINI P400 MIURA ROADSTER ONE-OFF,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR , 24H LeMans 1974 , Spark models,.CHEVROLET CAMARO SS 2010 POLICE 1 18,.1 43 Best Model Lola T70 Spyder Car from 1967 Laguna Seca P.Revson,. The Scottsdale SUPERB MINT BOXED 1972 - 1973 CORGI TOYS NO 164 WILD HONEY DRAGSTER ,KK-Scale BMW 2000 CS - dunkelred - 1965 - 1 18,.FERRARI 348 SPIDER - 1 43 HECO MODELES,. Id.,Kess Alfa Romeo 2600 Osi De Luxe in White 1965 KE43000250 Ltd Ed 250 1 43,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Vintage Corgi Toys The Santa Pod 'Glo-Worm' Dragster Whizzwheels no 163,; Budgie 238 British Railways Articulated Delivery Van. Red Cream. NM Boxed 1980's,SPARK BENTLEY R Type 1954 S4891 1 43,.Art Model AM0062 FERRARI 500 TR N.58 7th 1000 KM MONZA 1956 STARRABBA-MEJER 1 43,. The ScottsdaleFord Escort I TC ADAC Gp des Voitures de Tourisme 1968 Arundell 1 43,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, CADILLAC ELDORADO BIARRITZ pink 1 18,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Best Model BT9545 ABARTH 2000S N.92 WINNER CAMP.EUROPEO MONTAGNA 1969 A.MERZARIO,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, TON10010 - Chargeur CATERPILLAR 950 GC sur pneu - 1 50,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST BMW 530 I 4 DR SEDAN CAR RE 8841 BOX SCUFFED,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast 33130 Giugiaro Design Prima Yellow Model Car,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Auto World 1 18 American Muscle 1969 Yenko Chevrolet Nova Diecast Car AMM1135, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, VINTAGE 1958 DINKY TOY HUMBER POLICE CAR NEAR-MINT, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Conversion 1 50 Scale Diecast - VAN3 D. Steven & Sons + Trailer,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRIO RI4237 ALFA ROMEO 1750 POLIZIA 1932 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Trofeu TF1621 AUDI QUATTRO N.8 RETIRED TOUR DE CORSE 1984 DARNICHE-MAHE' 1 43 Mo,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBrumm BMS1735A FIAT 500F BABBAZZA NATALE AUTOSTOP 2017 (MORA) 1 43 Modellino,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 Capanelle Red 1 18 Norev 184779,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Hot Wheels 2017 Super Treasure Hunt '69 Chevelle SS 396 gold Short Card VHTF,Spark Porsche Carrera RSR J. 1 43 S4419,.PORSCHE 962 C 24h Daytona Winner 1989 Miller Wollek Bell Spark Resine 1 43,.Wonderful PR-modelcar VW BEETLE GSR 2015 - sunflower yellow - 1 43,. The HuygheMinichamps 1 43 Max Verstappen Red Bull RB12 F1 rd GP Brazil 2016 417162333,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheNorev 521200 1 43 PANHARD K173 LES CHORISTES 1949 RED MAROON,.

Corgi 231 Triumph Herald Coupe gold Boxed original,.DAF 55 Marathon Variomatic 1971 White with Decor 1 43 Neo 43343,.

Neo 43375 AUDI COUPE GT RED 1 43 Modellino,.EUROBRUN JUDD EG189 OSCAR LARRAURI F1 1989 GP AUSTRALIA 1 43 RESIN,. Nonetheless, on the facts of ORIGINALE - DINKY TOYS - FRANCE - 2 CV VESPA 400,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMOTEUR V8 CHEVROLET BLOWN HOT ROD 1 6,.Majorette Globe Toys 1 60 Nr. 117 Ford Capri Coupe red black OVP,.

For example, in Partridge,AUTOCAR ISOBLOC PANORAMIQUE TOIT COULISSANT OUgreen ELIGOR EPM 130067 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,Spark S4936 1 43 Resin 2016 Porsche 991 Carrera S Coupe with LHD, Dark Grey,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Britains Motorcycle 9692 Harley Davidson Sheriff & 9697 Triumph Police Patrolman,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,2016, 2017,2018 HOT AUGUST NIGHTS RENO EXCLUSIVE 1 OF 777 EXCLUSIVE AUTOGRAPHED,. That is the same situation in this case.BoS MODELS 1 43 Audi pinkmeyer 2000 aluminium,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.2012 2013 BENTLEY CONTINENTAL SUPERSPORTS ISR WHITE 1 18 CAR BY BBURAGO 11035,. Detroit Edison, supra.

The Fast and Furious 1 64 scale Mitsubishi Eclipse by Revell issue diecast,.Neo Models MG F Magna Salonette in White and Green 1933 46465 1 43 NEW,.Hamann Guardian Yellow Carbon 2011 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.

Circle K Sunks Kyosho 1 100 Honda Mini Model Car Collection Set of 18 Pcs,.