Ford Mustang GT Twister Twister Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models 32e6b6

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Ford Mustang GT Twister Twister Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43   Neo Scale Models 32e6b6
1 64 Kyosho Toyota SPORTS 800 No.20 Diecast Model Car,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BMW Z4 E85 Cabrio black Roadster 2002-2008 1 18 Bburago Modell Auto mit oder..,.Corgi Toys 104 Dolphin 20 Cruiser near mint empty original box,.TOYOTA Celica ST205 Marlbor o Rallye Portugal Bakhashab 1998 WM Trofeu 1 43,.VW Passat Variant 1993 Metallic Dark Grey 1 43 Premium X,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Audi rs4 1 43,.Mercedes Benz 230 Ge W460 1991 Thw Minichamps 1 43 400038091 Diecast Model,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Ferrari 365 Gt4 2+2 1972 Light bluee Metallic 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST DKW JUNIOR CAR,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.HOT WHEELS 2017 Batman 8 Car Lot JUSTICE LEAGUE DARK KNIGHT PENGUIN set NEW ,.Minichamps 1 18 - F1 Jordan Ford EJ14 Heidfeld,.NSU Ro 80 Anno di Costruzione 1972 Bianco 1 18, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Citroen Mehari 1983 Ataca Yellow Norev 1 18 NV181525,.2010 PORSCHE 911 TURBO BROWN METALLIC 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY NOREV 187622,.Rio RI4571 FIAT 1500 6C GASOGENO 1935 1 43 Modellino,.Corgi Superman Van Boxed 435 Dc Comics Batman Wonder Woman justice league,.

Danbury Mint Ford 1940 Deluxe Coupe 1 24 Scale A1,.Schuco 1666 ORDNER '03 CD+VW BUS PRISTCHE Modellino,.OPEL Manta B CC GTE Neo scale models 1 43 NEO43723,.Spark Models 1 43 Scale S1484 - Zytek 07S 2-Zytek Trading Perf LM 2008,.Ferrari F575 GTC Barron Conner N0. 62 LM 2004 scale 1 43 REDLINE RL030 NEW,.

Neo Mercedes C111-IID 1976 1 43 47020,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Bentley Continental Flying Star by Touring 2010 NEO44215 1 43,.Ferrari LaFerrari 1 18 Bburago Signature Series,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3085 - F1 Infiniti Red Bull Racing Australia GP 2014,DTE LESNEY MATCHBOX REGULAR WHEELS 70-1 FORD THAMES ESTATE GRN WINDOWS FBPW BOX,.FORD Taunus P6 15M Coupe 1968 1 43 Neo scale models NEO43331,.

REVELL 1 18th SCALE DIE CAST FORD 12M STREIFAN-TOUNUS CAR RE 08879,.Bburago B18-16901r 1 18 Scale the Laferrari From Bburago Die-cast Model - Car,.Die-Cast Promotions Company International Semi With Van Trailer 1 64th Scale,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Chevrolet Impala SS 1967 Congreenible Cabriolet Royal plum TSM Modellauto 1 43,.

Innocenti Mini Cooper 1300 Export 1973 Castgold 72 1 43 Kess Model KS43012031 Mod,. We agree in part.

Schuco Piccolo Knupp Car Carrier Auto Transporter Item SHU01531,.Corgi Toys 218 Aston Martin DB4 Saloon red with flat disk hubs EXC condition,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Ferrari 365 GTC 4 1971 silver 1 18 KK-Scale NEW,.1 18 Maisto VOLKSWAGEN 1951 G RIDEZ mattblack - RARITÄT neu ovp §,.Spark 1 43 Pagani Huayra Supercar Yellow 2012 S3564,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 18 GT Spirit Bentley Continental GT V8S Congreenible 2014 white,.1992 Fiat 590 Giannini Model Car in 1 43 Scale by Spark,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Venturi America (2013) Resin Model Car S2248,; Plumbies 1 43 Scale White Metal - P17 Mercedes 130H Cabriolet 1933,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Mondo – 25169 – Radio Commande – Voiture – Cars Light Control MC Queen,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Galaxy 2.3 16V 2000 Green met 1 43 Minichamps-GT RS VR6,Hot Wheels Redline 1967 bluee HK Hot Heap White Interior Beautiful Condition,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 18 Norev VW Käfer 1303 Cabriolet 1973 orange 188521,.

1 43 Rio Volkswagen Beetle2 Set,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MATRIX - FACEL METALON COUPE 1951 - DARK GREEN 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 37,.Maisto 1 18 VW Volkswagen Cabriolet 1951 (31826 ) mit OVP (OR8,.Herpa 121736 DAF XF SSC Euro 6 Kühlkoffer-Sattelzug Henglein , PC - 1 87,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, American Muscle Speed Racer Shooting Star Racer X 1 18,; Road Legends 1957 Ford Ranchero Red White 1 18 Diecast (C4),. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Matchbox Superfast Nr. 09A Boat & Trailer top in Box,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Ford Mustang GT Twister Twister Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43   Neo Scale Models 32e6b6Ford Mustang GT Twister Twister Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43   Neo Scale Models 32e6b6Ford Mustang GT Twister Twister Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43   Neo Scale Models 32e6b6Ford Mustang GT Twister Twister Twister II 1985 red black, Modellauto 1 43   Neo Scale Models 32e6b6

1 18 Norev Simca 1000 Rallye 2 1976 Maya yellow yellow Nr. 185708 OVP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Antigua miniatura 1 43 Mira 4007 Seat 1200 Rallye. Made in Spain.,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Suzuki Sx4 Winner Pikes Peak 2010 Nobubiro Tajima 1 43 Spark S43PP10,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Tatra 111 C White Red Benzina Tank 1 43 47032,.Bburago Ferrari 488 GTB The Schumacher 1 18 18-76102,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1963 Studebaker Avanti Dorado 1 18 Signature Models 18101,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12213 - Scania 4 Series Curtainside - Westfield,.

Minichamps Bmw Sauber F1 2006,.Dinky 36f British Salmson 4 Seat Sports Car,.1 18 Norev Alpine A110 PREMIERE EDITION 2017 white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Mercury Appx 1 43 Scale vintage diecast 307 Mercedes Benz C 111 orange,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Wonderful modelcar VW PUMA GTE SPIDER (Brazil) 1971 - red - 1 43 - lim.ed.,.

1 18 Norev Porsche 911 (997) GT2 white 2007 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Kit à monter ALFA ROMEO 155 GTA 1 43,.Volkswagen Emma'S Beetle 1967 Once Upon A Time Yellow GREENLIGHT 1 18 GREEN12993,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CLASSIC gold 2018 RELEASE 2 SET A OF 6 CARS 1 64 BY JOHNNY LIGHTNING JLCG014-A,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Jadi 1 18 Scale - FOX3 Mini Cooper Foxton - Green,.BMW 4er M4 GTS F82 Coupe Weiss mit orangenen Felgen Ab 2014 limitiert 504 Stüc..,.Danbury Mint 1956 Corvette Roadster- Nbr Ltd Ed,.1 43 Modeline Ford Fiesta,.Matchbox Masterclass LS001 Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet 1 24 Mint & Boxed,.

Lamborghini Veneno 2013 black red, Modellauto 1 43 Kyosho, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Vintage Hotwheels Redline 1969 Whip Creamer Apple Green USA EX NM+ (C50),.CORGI MINI COOPER MONTE CARLO -RARE-MINT,. The PartridgeMassey Ferguson 135 Tractor 1 16th Universal UH2698U Farming Model 180mm,.McLaren Mercedes MP4-25 J.Button 2010 530104301 1 43 Minichamps,.Norev 1 18 Renault Fregate Diecast Model Car bluee 185280,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MINICHAMPS 430 055112 Volkswagen 1303 VW 1303 1973 Ltd Ed 1344 pieces 1 43, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.2 RED MATCHBOX CASES FULL OF 46 ASSORTED MATCHBOX, HOT WHEEL, ETC VEHICLES,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.1965 Pontiac GTO Capri gold 1 18 Sun Star 1809,.Ford Capri Mklll Turbo Bianco Ford Bikersport 1981 Neo 1 43 Neo43329 Model,PartridgeToy Old 1 43 Chrysler New Yorker No. 47 + Trailer Boat Engine Years 60,.SCHUCO CLASSIC STUDIO I POP ART EDITION NR 0439 orange 01114,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 43 Rampini Mercedes-Benz 220 Taxi Berlin 1952 Handmade Resin Model Car, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Mercedes 190 SL & SLK Limitiere Box 1900 2005 Modellautos 1 43 Minichamps in OVP,; MAISTO 1 18 - 36637 MORGAN AERO 8 - DARK GREEN,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 940031 - F1 Simtek Ford S941 D.Brabham, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 2001 Hot Wheels Final Runs Full Set - All 12 AWESOME , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFord Mustang Shelby GT 350H Baujahr 1966 black gold 1 18 ShelbyCollectibles,.

New Bburago 1 32 Ferrari 488GTB Red Die Cast Model Car from Japan,.Spark 1 43 Scale US004 - Nissan Deltawing th Petit LM ALMS 2012, Clarke's negligent act.Hot Wheels Elite Ferrari 150 Italia 2011 Turkish GP-Fernanado Alonso 1 18 Scale,.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES EAGLE'S RACE 1 18 FORD GT 40 STREET VERSION BOX x,.Jada 1 24 Scale 97173 - Brian's Nissan Skyline GT-R (BNR34) - Fast & Furious,.

Art Model Ferrari 250 P 1963 1 43 Surtees Parkes Targa Florio (JO),.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ford Fiesta Rs Turbo Mkiii 1989 Red Ed.Lim.Pcs 258 1 43 Kess Model KS43015020,PENNY 1 66 ALFA ROMEO 2600 PANTERA - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX - EXTREMELY RARE,. In Noska,1 18 Norev BMW M 535i 1987 bluemetallic 183267,.MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18072BL,.Subaru Leone 4Wd 1800 Rx 1982 SPARK 1 43 S7354 Model,.Siku V 232, Ford 17M Badewanne , 1964, darkred, Siku (Germany) 1 60, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal,.PORSCHE 911 GT2 (997) 2006 Rare Minichamp made for Porsche 1 43 NLA,.JADA 1 18 Bigtime Muscle 1967 SHELBY GT-500KR in blueish Purple w Flames New,.Neo Citroen SM Opera by Henri Chapron - dunkelred - 1 43,. Id., p 923.

Ebbro 45456 ZENT CERUMO RC F Super GT GT500 2016 Rd.2 Fuji No.38 1 43 scale,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo,GreenLight 12859 1 18 Scale 1987 Pontiac GTA, sizedega 500 Pace Car Diecast,.MOTORMAX MTM73108Y FORD COUPE' 1940 YELLOW 1 18,.Uhrwerk-Bus, made in occupied Japan, Blech (GK110),.1 87 Brekina VW T1 b Gute Fahrt,.MONDO 1 18 - 500406 LAMBORGHINI REVENTON - GREY,.MODELLINO AUDI A4 R. CAPELLO DTM 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Ebbro 1 43 Toyota 86 Bull New F S,. The parties Wiking Sondermodell-Set 1 87 blackbau MB NG Low Loader, u 406 Und,.

Brooklin 1 43 Scale BRK16 048 - 1935 Dodge Van Apotheek de Korenbloem 1 Of 750,.1971 Saab 96 V4 black 1 18 MC Group 18063,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, BMW M 535i 1980 - 1 18 - Norev,; Spark Model Porsche 911 3.2 Speedster 1989 1 43 S4470, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

ALPINE RENAULT A310 V6 yellow 1 18,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CORGI OM 46510A THE WITCHWAY BUS,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Greenlight Collectibles 19011 1 18 1971 Volkswagen Type 2 T2B Bus,.Renault 30 TS 1978 blue 1 18 Norev,.MARK43 PM4311R 1 43 HONDA Integra Type 98 Spec DC2 Milano Red,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,MAZ 5337 grey SSM 1175 1 43,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Austin 7 Ruby 1934 Branchlines Models MIB 1 43 white metal built rover mg jaguar,.Minichamps 400808410 1 43 FORD ESCORT II RS1800 VATANEN RICHARDS WINNER ACROPOLI,.2017 Mercedes-Benz AMG GT C Roadster solarbeam 1 18 Norev 183451,.DeAgostini 550 MARANELLO 1996 1 24 Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.18 Japan F S,.CONRAD METALLMODELL MERCEDES PUMI PUTZMEISTER BETONPUMPE OVP 1 50 7.BM-147,. The Scottsdale1971 Rolls-Royce Corniche Congreenible in 1 43 Scale by True Scale Miniatures,1 24 FUJIMI 08246-EM31 PORSCHE 365B C 2000 GS CARRERA 2 RARE COLLECTOR HARDTOP,.AUTOWORLD AMM1094 1969 69 DODGE CgoldNET SUPER BEE 1 18 & 1 64 2 CARS SET CREAM,. Id.,Trofeu 221 TOYOTA CELICA GT4 BASTOS RALLY COSTA,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Albedo 80009 Man Roadtrain NDR Hannover 1 87 H0 sehr gut erhalten BOXED,; Schuco 03263 Mercedes Benz L 322 Feuerwehr Stadt Donauworth 1 43 MIB OVP diecas,Lagonda 3 Litre 4-door Saloon 1955 bluee 1 43 NEO 45155,.ROAD SIGNATURE 1 18 92389 02 PONTIAC FIREBIRD T AM RUST,. The ScottsdaleLexus LFA no. 88 24h ADAC Nürburgring 2011,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 1 43 NEO Model Ford Taunus P7b Turnier Light bluee Metallic1968,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Hot Wheels Honda NSX Acura 14 x,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Ford Fiesta RS No3 WRC Monte Carlo 2012 Latvala & Anttila SPA3311,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark 1 43 Scale - S4947 Alpine Celebration Le Mans 2015 bluee Resin Model Car,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 RS Rallye du Var 2012 Winner Dumas Spark 1 750 lim 1 43,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1968 DARK GREEN REDLINE HOT WHEELS LOLA GT70 VERY NICE , (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, DINKY TOYS 171 HUDSON SEDAN UNUSUAL COLOUR (SEE PHOTOS), (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 43 Spark Oreca 07 Gibson Le Mans 2018 Gutierrez Allen Guibbert S7025,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeAUTO ART SPECIAL DISPLAY CASE 1 18 FOR ONE SCALE WANGAN MIDNIGHT RED,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, VW Kombi Bus T4 t 4 Caravelle anthrazit metallic, Schabak 1 43 DEALER innen white,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMaxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 067120 - 1964 Porsche 911S - orange,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CORGI LTD EDITION NO 20902 GUINNESS LEYLAND ERGOMATIC 8 WHEEL LORRY BEER CRATES,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,RARE Tatra 613 1 1979 FOXtoys FOX021 1 43,GreenLight 1 18 2018 Schmidt Peterson Motorsports, Arrow 11029,.Cars 2 - Supercarreras en Tokio V3615 - NUEVO,.1 18 Signature Models REO Touring 1917 bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. The HuygheCORGI TOYS HILLMAN IMP SALOON RALLYE MONTE CARLO CODE 3 UNIKAT,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheHiko Seven SPARK KBS071 1 43 Dauer 962 LM Road YellowHobby Fo NEW F S,.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - C10 BMW M3 E30 DTM Warsteiner Hayne,.Volkswagen VW T1 Samba Bus 1959 Red Creme 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.

Jada 1 24 Scale 97603 Fast & Furious - Brian's Mitsubishi Eclipse,.MERCEDES BENZ C Klasse AMG DTM ITC 1996 Thiim UPS UT Exclusive Cars 1 18,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Winnebago Brave 1995 2nd Edition Die Cast New in Box USA Made 10 Ertl,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgePuma GT Coupe 1968 VW Do Brasil Red 1 43 NEO 46155,.DINKY TOYS F 24X FORD VEDETTE PALE-GREY 1954 SCALE 1 43,.

For example, in Partridge,Mercedes 1908 Ambulance 1 43 Model RIO,. In Jorgensen, supra,Matchbox 1969 Charger R T 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Peugeot 504 Cabriolet 1970 Capucine Yellow 1 18 Model NOREV,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,1 43 TRU SCALE DIECAST TEAM MARTINI RACING SET OF 6,. That is the same situation in this case.New Mercedes AMG GT Metallic bluee Exclusive Edition 1 18 Diecast Model Car by M,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Bruder Dodge Power Wagon with Horse Trailer RAM 2500 1 16 Toy Vehicle 02501,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Fiat 238 Ambulanza Croce green Model RIO,.Alpine Renault A110 1600s 1971 bluee 1 18 Model 185300 NOREV,.Club Bialbero 006EDL ALFA ROMEO 2600 SPRINT gold 1 43,.

1 24 proportion Ford F-350 Super Duty plastic assembly model,.