Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527
Panhard Scarlette 1953 Dark bluee Vehicle Miniature Wb147 Whitebox 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals 1 43 Rennaissance Models Dauer Porsche,.1 43 UNIQUE DSM 1951 MASERATI A6G SPIDER CARROZZERIA FRUA,.Dinky Toys 507 Simca 1500 GLS Break excellent plus all original condition,.FN MPC 2-1014 KIT 1 32 MASERATI INDY,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 GT3 Cup UPS,.Bentley Brooklands 1992 Dark Red 1 43 Model S3812 SPARK MODEL,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Brooklin models BRK 25, 1958 Pontiac Bonneville congreenible.. Boxed,.PORSCHE 911 993 Gt Coupe 1995 White SPARK 1 43 S4196 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Porsche 962c Piece ADAC Nürburgring 1986 1 18 Norev 187411 962 C,.Schuco SH3339 VW T2a BUS 1967 RED W WHITE ROOF 1 43 Modellino,.1 18 Alfa 8C competizione (Red) Burago 18-12077, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Dinky a - Trojan 15cwt Van (Esso) - Red - B NB,.EBBRO 44638 LEXUS LFA NURBURGRING PACHAGE 2011 - orange 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 12,.Signature Ferrari California T Open 2014 White 1 18 Burago BU16904 Model,.Neo Borgward RS 1500 Schauinsland - mit Rennspuren - 1958 - 1 43,.

DINKY TOYS JAGUAR XK 120 - REF-157 Meccano Made in ENGLAND,.Danbury Mint 1 24 1969 Chevrolet Corvette ZL-1 Coupe Daytona Yellow,.MERCEDES BENZ C Klasse AMG DTM ITC 1996 Schneider D2 UT Exclusive Cars 1 18,.Rio 4352 MB 300D CABRIO 1958 BORDEAUX 1 43 Modellino,.HOGAN WINGS HO4050GR 1 200 747-8 BOEING HOUSE RED ROLLOUT,.

Spark Model S5904 VENTURI S.SARRAZIN 2016 N.4 Rd1 HONG KONG FORMULA E 1 43 Model,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Dinky Toys 137 Plymouth Fury made in England 1 43 scale EXC,.Mercedes-Benz L319 Früba 1957 Nuovo Norev 1 18,.MCG - 1 18 - CADILLAC FLEETWOOD SERIE 60 SPECIAL - 1941 - 18071R,Corgi Toys Mercedes 350 SL white original ,.MERCEDES BENZ G650 Landaulet weiss white G-Modell 4x4 SUV Pro R Schuco 1 43,.

LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO spyder blue clair 1 18,.Mint Bike 1 18 Scale Model Real Motor Cycle,.Rare Tootsietoy No.230 La Salle Saden 3 , 1940-1941,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Rio RI4306 FIAT 501 OPEN REPUBBLICA DI SALO' 1944 1 43 Modellino,.

1 18 Ferrari 412 T2 1995 Minichamps,. We agree in part.

5242 Valtra S394 with dual wheels, limited edition 1 32 Universal Hobbies,.Road Signature 1 18 Scale Diecast - 92378 1979 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.HOTWHEELS 2018 50th Anniversary Favorites 10 Car LOT New Case FLF35-956A,.Dinky atlas ford camion baché calberson,.RENAULT 12 R12 GORDINI blue de France 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Modellauto - Matchbox - Lesney Greyhound - Bus Nr. 66 - OVP,.MATCHBOX LESNEY MODEL NO.5a LONDON BUS (52mm) NMIB,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, VW Volkswagen K70 Limousine Weiss 1970-1975 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit oder oh..,; Autodrome 1 43 Scale Unbuilt Kit - AD1A Mercedes Benz 180SL 1975,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Trofeu TF1609 AUDI QUATTRO N.3 WINNER R.A.C.1983 S.BLOMQVIST-B.CEDERBERG 1 43 M,.Peugeot 2008 DKR No.319 Dakar 2017 S-K. Al Qassimi Maimom S5618 Spark 1 43,Caparo T 1 2007 orange 1 43 Spark Sp0627 Model,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Solido Renault 5 MAXI TURBO Tour de Corse 1985 1 18 421180230 10,.

FORTSCHRITT ZT 303 red 07751 SCHUCO 1 32,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Spark Models 1 43 S3084 - F1 Scuderio Tgold red STR9 Australian GP 2014,.Spark 1 43 Audi RS 5 DTM 2014 SG170,.Best Model 9512 LOLA T70 SPIDER LAGUNA SECA '66 1 43 Modellino,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, IXO MODELS 1 43 BENTLEY EXP SPEED LE MANS 2001 NEUF EN BOITE,; Miniature IXO Car CITROEN ID 19 Break 1958 Scale 1 24e Diecast Metal,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Frontiart SophiArt Koenigsegg Regera Green color 1 43 Diecast Model,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527Corgi Original Omnibus New Routemaster London United Regent Regent Regent Street OM46611A c43527

Corgi Showmans series No 16501 Scammell,Trailer and Living van Carters New,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Matrix Cisitalia 33DF Volo Radente 1954 1 43 MX10307-011,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Original sealed 1 24 Plastic Esci Kit Made in Renault 5 Alpine Calberson,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 43 code 3 Hertfordshire Police Vauxhall Astra,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.MONDO MOTORS 1 18 501069 MERC-BENZ SLS AMG RED,.892G Norev 157036 Citroën ID 19 Le Caddy H. Chapron 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 43 Hispano Suiza J-12 1935 bluee,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Ferrari 365 GT4 2+2, 1972 green metallic KK-Scale 1 18 NEU OVP,.

Early Dinky Toys London Taxi Cab with Driver - Dinky Toys Public Transport,.Corgi Toys no.333 BMC Mini Cooper `S` SUN RAC Rally Car.Vintage Diecast,.AUTOart 1 43 Lamborghini Gallardo Superleggera Metallic White AA54615,.ROLLS-ROYCE CORGI CAMARGUE 1 22 MADE IN ITALY,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Autocult Shelter 1958 Yellow 1 43 ATC03004,.

Saab 95 GL 1979 brown, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Porsche 962 C – 3rd Place Le Mans 1988 NOREV - NO 187410 - Echelle 1 18,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Opel Admiral B 2.8L I6 Auto 1974 Green 1 43 Minichamps-Rekord,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Fiat 500 F 1965 blue Notte 1 43 Spark S2692 Model,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Dinky Toys Market Gardeners Lorry Type 4 1940's Post War Dinky Toys 25f Lorry,.Matchbox Lesney Superfast Number 20 Lamborghini Marzal. In Excellent Condition.,.Aquavit 7711147491 1 43 1990 Renault Laguna Concept Handmade Resin Model Car,.ALEZAN MODELS . 1 43 . CHRYSLER LE BARON CABRIOLET . 1994 .,.DINKY TOYS RENAULT 6 - 1416 - ORIGINAL - JOUET ANCIEN,.

1 43 CL34K JAGUAR XJC KIT BY SMTS, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MATCHBOX SUPERFAST 14 ISO GRIFO - blueE - VERY GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Mac Due MCG18091 VW 1500 S (TIPO 3) LIGHT blueE 1 18 Modellino,. The PartridgeMcLaren F1 Xp-4 1993 bluee Experimental Predotype 1 43 Model,.2016 Bentley Bentayga 1 43 Scale Model BL1319,.Laurel & Hardy Vintage 1923 Ford Speedster 1 24 Danbury Mint,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Century 1 43 Scale White metal 2701 Mercedes 500 SL 1975 dark bluee, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Signature Models 1 43 Scale PM43709 - 1950 Mercedes Benz 170S - Met Light bluee,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Spark Model SG301 AUDI R8 LMS N.17 NURBURGRING 2017 LAPPALAINEN-MIES-TERTING-YOO,.DATSUN 240Z 1971 orange MAISTO 1 18 1 18 JAPAN MODEL CAR MODELE REDUIT NISSAN,PartridgeCITROEN 2CV Dolly, Green White , 1 18, Norev,.Rare Dinky 128 Mercedes Benz 600 Diecast Model with Original Case,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hot Wheels Redline Mercedes Benz 280 SL Aqua with Dark Interior Excellent, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Spark Model Pagani Huyara 2012 Yellow 1 43 S3564,; HI FI Kit à Monter 1 43 - Ferrari Mondial 3.2L,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Volkswagen Beetle 1303 1972 Green Metallic 1 18 -188523 NOREV, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes Benz L 3500 Pritsche Rennabteilung Premium ClassiXXs Diecast 1 43, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMatchbox Superking K-95 Audi Quattro white top in Box,.

2010 F.Massa F10 Bahrain GP Ferrari Team F1 1 18 scale,.Kyosho Original 1 43 Toyota 86 Gt Limited 2016 As Light Bull JAPAN Import, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi Classics 1 50 CC99129 HAIG TRANSPORT SET. Last chance before its split ,.1 18 Norev Renault R.S. 01 2016 Interceptor 185137,.Peugeot 908 Hdi-Fap No. 9 2009 Le Mans Gewinner Harz 1 43 - Spark,.

MCG 1 18 Sapgoldshez SAS 966 1966 - orange,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, PORSCHE 914 6 914 Rallye Monte Carlo 1971 Waldegaard Nightversion Spark 1 43,MID52 1 43 kit of 1964 King Cobra, car Dave MacDonald or Hobert, Laguna Seca,. In Noska,Mercedes Benz Sls Gt3 2012 Driving Performance Minichamps 1 43 410133200 Model,.UAZ 3163 Patriot Russian Police 2010 (DiP 1 43 231632),.1 18 Norev Peugeot 309 GTI 16 V 1991 miami bluee 184881 cochesaescala,.Norev Saviem SC1 Autobus in White Dark Green on 1 43 in Box, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.MCG Opel Manta B Mattig 1991 yellow-blue 1 18 aus dem Film Manta-Manta 18095,.SUNSTAR 1 18 QUARTZO LOTUS 72 JOCHEN RINDT 1970 SPANISH GP DIECAST CAR 18273,.1 18 BMW M3 Werner DTM 2013 1 18 • Minichamps 100132202,.PORSCHE 962C 3eme 24H du MANS 1988 1 18,. Id., p 923.

1990 1992 Porsche 911 (964) Turbo 3.3 Yellow Welly 1 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo,French Dinky Toys 24H Mercedes Benz 190SL with turned hubs made in England EXC,.1 18SCALE DIECAST 1960 CHYSLER 300F CABRIOLET IN WHITE BY ROAD SIGNATURE.,.OCCASION BMW SERIE 3 325i E36 DTM 1994 1 43,.Boxed Dinky 289 Routemaster Bus (Esso),.Minichamps 1 43 - Bentley S1 Continental Flying Spur whitehe,.NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Porsche 911 Targa USA 1985 Green Art. 43248,.Spark 1 43 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 n.15 7th ADAC 24h Nurburgring 2014 SG134,. The parties Tyrrell Ford 007 M.leclere 1975 Retired Usa Gp 1 43 Model 400750115,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona in bluee by Greenlight Diecast Model,; Ferrari 275 Gtb 4 Safety Car Goodwood Revival 2013 Yellow BEST 1 43 BE9718, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Alte Feuerwehr Modellauto Blechauto 40 cm Oldtimer Feuerwehrauto,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Replicagri REPLI209 TRATTORE RENAULT TRACFOR 133 54 Modellino,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)NEO 46230 ALFA ROMEO GIULIA SUPER GIARDINETTA RED 1 43 NEW IN BOX,.Scottoy 27M AUTOBOTTE VIBERTI 'MOBIL' RED Modellino,.HOTWHEELS 1 18 TWO TEAM JORDAN F1 MODELS FISICHELLA(BRASIL 03) AND DAMON HILL,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Ixo model TRU020 DAF 2600 FRANS MAAS 1965 1 43 Modellino,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1 50 DM Caterpillar Cat M318F Wheeled Excavator Diecast Model,.CORGI 261 JAMES BOND DB5 ASTON MARTIN FULLY RESTORED & REPODUCTION BOX,.Maserati 3500 GT Touring Coupe 1957 Metallic bluee 1 43 NEO 45910,.Vitesse VE24014 DE LOREAN RITORNO AL FUTURO 3 C PORZIONE redAIA 1 43,.SPRINT CARS 3 DIFFERENT OUTLAW SERIES MINT BOXED NEVER ON DISPLAY RARE VITEMS,. The ScottsdaleDTM 2018 Mercedes C 63 AMG Coupe Lucas Auer 1 43 Neu OVP,BMW M235i M Eifelblitz Scheid Honert 24h Nürburgring 2015 Schrey Eber Spark 1 43,.Mclaren P1 2013 orange AutoArt 1 43 AA56012 Model,. Id.,Spark Models 1 43 Scale S0258 - Lotus 19 st Nassau 1962 I. Ireland,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Panhard 24 Ct 1964 Turquoise, Model Car 1 18 Norev,; BRUDER SCANIA CONCRETE MIXER U03554,1 43 Minichamps Audi S3 Gletscher white DEALER NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.AutoCult 07006 1951 NSU Kompressor Weltrekordwagen 1 43 Resine günstig,. The ScottsdaleDinky toys 571 Coles Mobile Crane Boxed - Original Condition,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Minichamps 1 43 F1 McLaren Ford M23 WC 1976 J. Hunt Art. 436760011,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 1 18 Norev Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Cabrio 1986 dunkel blue Softtop1 18 Norev 183466,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Audi Quattro A2 SESAB Nr 9 1000 Seen Rally 1983 Eklund Spjuth 1 18 Sun Star Mo..,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lot 17 Lledo Chevron Commemorative Atlanta 1996 Olympics Die Cast Metal Cars NEW,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Mercedes SLR McLaren 722 Edition 1 24 KIT DI MONTAGGIO 24317 TAMIYA,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ferrari 208 Gtb Turbo 1982 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Hot Wheels redline 1969 Classic Nomad VINTAGE Red NICE , (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Citroen AMI 6 Jade Green 1964 1 18 181536 Norev,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeKK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 275 GTS PININFARINA SPYDER 1964 ROSSA MODELLINO,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, PORSCHE 917 K Gunston Coca Cola Kyalami David Piper 1970 Truescale Resin 1 43,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheTrax TRS9B Ford XR Falcon 30th Anniversary Set,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Vintage - LAMBORGHINI JARAMA Bertone - 1 43 Politoys-M25,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,KK-SCALE 1 18 FERRARI 400 SUPERAMERICA 1962 ROSSA MODELLINO,Porsche Kremer K8 , 24H Daytona 1995 , Spark models,.Toyopet Skb Kiyoken Van bluee Yellow 1 43 Model EBBRO,.Lancia Beta , DRM Zolder 1981 , Sparkmodels,. The HuygheMinichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 430 052207 - VW T1 Delivery Van - Sinalco Kola,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheKYOSHO KS03634KR14 1 43 Toyota 86 KYOSHO From japan,.

Dinky Telephone Service Van - Green - A NB,.Tekno 71829 MAN TGX XLX 6X2 LHD Plain White 1 50 Scale,.

Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 VW T 1 B Camioncini con Cassone Persil Von 1958 In,.Lot de Dinky Toys Atlas, Rare DS 23C + 2cv,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Hot Wheels Redline The Demon,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBritains Big Farm 1 16 Scale Model 42428 - Bulk Tipping Trailer - Green,.Audi 100 Coupe S • 1970 • NEU • KK-Scale • 1 18,.

For example, in Partridge,Corgi Toys Vintage Box Massey- Ferguson 780 Combine Harvester,. In Jorgensen, supra,2007 PORSCHE 911 GT2 NOREV 187594 1 18 DIECAST CAR,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Porsche 911 GT3 RS n.66 Winner 24H Daytona 2003 in 1 43 Scale by Spark,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Ford Focus ST • 2011 • NEU • Minichamps • 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.MINICHAMPS 1 12 HONDA NSR 500 TEAM NASTRO AZZURRO V ROSSI 46 2000 TEST BIKE MOTO,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.FORD GT 2017 blue 1 18 GT40,. Detroit Edison, supra.

1 18 Model Car Group Opel Manta B Mattig 1991 yellow orange,.Porsche 997 GT3 Cup, Carrera Cup Asia 2013 , Spark models,.NZG 1 50 New Holland W170B Radlader,.

Spark 1 43 Porsche 911 RGT n.23 2nd RGT Monte Carlo 2015 S4518,.