Norev 181730 181730 181730 Citroen SM 1971 golden leaf 1 18 Neu OVP 74157b

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Norev 181730 181730 181730 Citroen SM 1971 golden leaf 1 18 Neu OVP 74157b
FIRST GEAR 1 28 SCALE CASE IH MODEL BN 70-0558,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals AUTO WORLD 1 18 OLDSMOBILE 1968 442 W-30 DIE-CAST BRONZE AMM1084,.Dinky Toys F n° 546 Austin Healey 100 repeinte en boîte,.Aston Martin Rapide Ginevra 2010 Pma 1 43 437137904 Model,.Spark S4936 1 43 Resin 2016 Porsche 991 Carrera S Coupe with LHD, Dark Grey,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Maserati Quattroporte IV Neo Scale Models 45170 Neu in OVP 1 43,.Minichamps 1 18 McLaren MP4-12C GT3 'Street' 2012 red L.E. 1002 pcs.,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.DANBURY MINT NIB 1931 FORD MODEL A ROADSTER GREEN NEVER DISPLAYED,.Ferrari F355 Spider Red 1 18 25733,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Neo 1 43 Opel Olympia A LS , weiss matt-black 2-Türer , 1970,.Corgi16701 Scammell Articulated and Low Loader Wrekin , 1 50, NEU & OVP,.1 18 Otto Renault Super 5 Bacara brownmetallic, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

EMEK 50895 MAN TGS LX, offener Haengerzug 1 25,.47076 Tatra 128N, blue weiss, Pritsche, 1951, 1 43 Premium Classixxs,.SPARK AUDI RS5 DTM 2016 Team Abt Sportsline Miguel Molina SG296 1 43,.Ford Gt 2017 bluee White, Model Car 1 18 Maisto Exclusive,.

DeAgostini JAGUAR XK 120 Bicolour red and bluee - DINKY TOYS 157,.Spark 1 43 Scale S5615 - Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid Paris Dakar 1988,.NOREV 1 43 2er Set Coffret Alpine A110 Pure&Legende 2018,.Borgward Hansa 2400 Red-Grey 1955 NEO43450 1 43,.AUTO UNION Dinky Toys vintage 1 43 made in France de Meccano,.

UT MODELS 1 18 BMW Z3 ROADSTER - JAMES BOND 007 - MINT BOXED L@@K ,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Talbot Lago 2500 coupe T14 LS 1955 Spark 1 43 S2719,.Vanguards 1 43 Vauxhall Cavalier Mk3 GSi 2000 16v Baikalblue bluee VA13103A,.Mercedes-Benz E-Klasse Cabrio Stannit grey A207 Vor Facelift 2009-2013 1 43 Sc..,Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 102 - Mercedes Benz 260D - bluee Unboxed,.Citroen CX 2500D Super Break Serie I Be 1 18 18088,.

Volkswagen Bulli T1 Samba Fiera Di Norimberga 2019 KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180153N Mod,.Minichamps 410160644 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS F1 TEAM F1 W07 HYBRID LEWIS HAMI,.VW POLO R WRC 6R 6C GTI LATVALA - ANTTILA RACE CAR 1 43 SPARK (DEALER MODEL),.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

PREMIUM CLASSIXXS Mercedes Benz LP 608 PP Roncalli 1 43 12508,.

Matchbox Lesney No.38c Honda Motorcycle And Trailer In E4 Series 'New Model' Box,. We agree in part.

1 43 Toyota Mark X 250G F Sport Version Die Cast,.FERRARI 348 TS HIGH TECH COLLECTION HERPA 1 43 RaRE,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1969 Peugeot 504 Coupe weiss 1 18 Norev 184825,.SUN STAR 6123 1931 FORD MODEL A ROADSTER 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BREWSTER GREEN,.Planex Communications 1 43PLANEX COLLECTION LOTUS F1 SERIES Lotus72E Austr...,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 64 Johnny Lightning - Toyota Land Cruiser - White - Chase,.Brumm BMS1735A FIAT 500F BABBAZZA NATALE AUTOSTOP 2017 (MORA) 1 43 Modellino,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, DIECAST CAR & CASE 1956 LINCOLN CONTINENTAL MARK II SIGNATURE 20078BU 1 18,; 1957 Chevy Bel Air Diecast Model 1 24 50th Anniversary Enterprise Rent A Car NEW,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1956 LINCOLN CONTINENTAL MARK 2 blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BY ROAD SIGNATURE 20078,.MB matchbox MINTY VW 1972 FLYING BUG, BPW RARE 4 hole ......,NEO MODELS Austin Cambridge Traveller 1 43 44456,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Kado 14 1 43 1959 Toyota Toyopet Crown RS 1500 Handmade White Metal Model Car,.

Volkswagen T3 Multivan Minibus Red Star 1993 Red KK SCALE 1 18 KKDC180203 Model,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Trofeu TFRRAL49 SUBARU IMPREZA WRC N.1 WINNER RALLY OF MADEIRA 1999 THIRY-PREVOT,.ERTL 1 50 SCALE JOHN DEERE 470 GLC EXCAVATOR MODEL BN 45335,.Matchbox 22a Vauxhall Cresta in type B1 box,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Hot Wheels 2016 Indy 500 100th Running 1 64 DieCast Signed Alexander Rossi,; NEO Porsche Panamericana Closed 1 43 44585,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Minichamps McLaren Ford MP41C 43 530834308,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

DINKY TOYS 105 MAXIMUM SECURITY VEHICLE CAPTAIN SCARLET VINTAGE GERRY ANDERSON,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Chevrolet Impala Sport Sedan A Team 1967 1 18 - 19047 GREENLIGHT,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

ZUNDAPP JANUS ADAC PREMIUM CLASSIXXS LIM. HANDMADE 18054 1 43,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1 125 Caterpillar CAT 994K Wheel Loader Diecast Car Model Masters () Toys,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.VINTAGE 60 LEGO 1 87 CAMION MERCEDES TRANSPORT yellow SUPERBE,.Pagani Huayra (2012) Resin Model Car S3563,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Minichamps 1 43 Iso Grifo 7 Ltr 1968 limited edition model,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Schuco 1 43 Hanomag L28 Kreidler 450292900,.

Bentley Turbo S 1995 Green Metallic 1 43 SPARK S3803,.Hot Wheels 1 18 scale - 54600 Ferrari 550 Maranello red Red,.BMW 700 Sport Coupe Ceramic blue 1959-1965 70653 1 18 AutoArt Modell Auto mit ..,.Mercedes-Benz Actros MP4 Bis Space 4x2 White Line 1 50,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.AUTO ART SPECIAL DISPLAY CASE 1 18 SCALE FOR ONE RAUH-WELT BEGRIFF,.

Matchbox Moko No 23 Berkeley Cavalier Caravan AND ORIGINAL BOX VN MINT,.1 43 Russian bus PAZ-672M Militsia Sovetsskiy Avtobus 1970's,.HOT WHEELS 2010 SUPER TREASURE HUNT OLD NUMBER 5.5 FACTORY SEALED W+,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi OOC OM46611B OM46611 NBFL New Routemaster Boris London United 10KingsCross,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Eheim Trolley Bus Bildpreisliste Katalog (GK110),.Chevrolet El Camino - red 1959 NEO 44850 1 43,.NEO MODELS Mercedes 450 SLC AMG Gr.2 43 45219,.CONRAD - METALLMODELL - IVECO - EURO TRAKKER - MULDENKIPPER - 1 50 - (9.BM-15),.Citroen Cx 25 Trd Turbo 2 Break 1986 White Ewt Kess Model 1 43 KS43011022 Model,.

Schuco Piccolo (Germany) Light Dark Green Mercedes-Benz Bus O-3500 Diecast NIB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MTECH SUZUKI WAGON R - GREY METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 4,.FERRARI SCG 003C 24h Nürburgring 2017 Westphal Laser Simonsen Spark 1 43,. The PartridgeNEO Hamann Volcano 2011 1 43 45710,.Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 Goliath Goli Cajones Wäscheverleih Berlín Von 1957,.NEO47040 - JAGUAR XJ40 SHOOTING BRAKE 1989 MET.DARK blueE 1 43 MODELLINO MODELLO,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Siku Plastik V52 Mercedes Benz 190 Peterwagen Polizei V Serie, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.WESTERN MODELS 1 43 WRK 24 1979 MARCH 792 F2 POLIFAC,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.GAMA OPEL ASTRA CABRIOLET Sondermodell 2000km durch Deutschland 1 43 blue,.Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12102 - Renault Premium Curtainside - Armstrong,PartridgeBROOKLIN 1 43 Scale 1939 LA SALLE TWO-DOOR TOURING SEDAN BRK 98 ,.1966 Ferrari 365 California Spyder red 1 18 KK KKDC180051,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi 1 50 Scale CC20305 - Garrett 4CD Showmans Tractor - Katrina, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, NZG Mercedes-Benz Actros Wensink Aangenaam Semi-Tractor Trailer 1 50 NIB D,; Greenlight 1 43 Scale 86522 - 1973 Ford Falcon XB - Green Chase Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, ZAZ 965 light bluee 1960 DIP Models resin 196501 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 87 Herpa Set PRANGL MB, Scania transport exceptionnel, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeFiat Punto 2003 Carabinieri C O Esercito Italiano 1 43,.

Norev 1 18 2010 Fiat 500C Cabrio Pink Diecast Model Car Pink 187752,.Burago 1 18 scale Diecast - 3020 Mercedes Benz 500K Roadster 1936 Red, Clarke's negligent act.1972 Lincoln Continental Reagan Limousine 1 24 Diecast Car Model,.Ford 999 72Hp World Speed Record 147Km H Henry Ford RIO 1 43 RIO4589,.Lamborghini Gallardo LP560-4 White Lamborghini Academy 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.

FERRARI CALIFORNIA T OPEN TOP CONgreen WHITE SIGNATURE SERIES 1 18 BBURAGO 16904,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Matchbox Kingsize No K-1 2 Foden 8 wheeled tipper Hoveringham VNMB,Norev Mercedes-AMG GT3 whitepain Gt Series 2016 - 1 18,. In Noska,NEW 1 43 MAKI F101 Test Car 1974 Resin Model Fomula Hiroshima figure hayami,.MARK43 1 43 Mazda RX-7 (FD3S) Mazda Speed ​​A Spec GT Wing Yellow PM4367CY,.Corgi Modern Heavy Haulage CC13806 Mercedes Curtainside Norfolkline 1 50 Scale,.Porsche 917 Flat 16 1971 True Scale 1 43 Tsm114301 Model, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Franklin Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - B11JR67 Mercedes Benz 500K Special Roadster,.Gumpert Apollo Test Car 2005 Red Met SPARK 1 43 S0666 Model,.KK-Scale Ferrari 400 Superamerica - red - 1962 - 1 18,.Ferrari Laferrari Año Fabricación 2013 black Mate 1 18 Bburago,. Id., p 923.

Toyota Mr2 Domestic Famous Car Collection 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Best Model BT9583 FERRARI 330 P2 N.77 DNF DAYTONA 1965 SURTEES-RODRIGUEZ 1 43 Mo,1980`s Mira made in Spain Renault 25,.F&F Mold Co. Plastic Car Lot,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Built Kit 36 - CTA Arsenal 1947,.1 50 Corgi Nottingham City Transport Daybrook Karrier W Trolleybus Set 34701,.Franklin Mint 1 24 Richard Petty Diecast,.GMP Models 12430 MCLAREN M8B LOW WING KOVELESKI 1 43 Modellino,.AUDI RS5 MIGUEL MOLINA AUDI SPORT TEAM DTM 2016 1 43 SPARK SG296,. The parties AUTOWORLD AMM1136 1 18 1969 DODGE SUPER BEE GREEN HARDTOP HEMMINGS MOTOR NEWS,.

MCG - 1 18 - LADA NIVA - 1976 - 18111G,.Märklin 18103-02 Ford Capri 1 43 gold blue grey-NEU OVP,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Porsche 911 991-2 Gt3 Rs Coupe 2018 SPARK 1 43 S7620 Model,; PORSCHE 911 964 Carrera RSR Le Mans 1993 FATurbo Larbre FAT Resin Spark 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

BOS274 - Dodge Cgoldnet Club Coupe, hellblue weiss 1952- BOS 1 18,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Rietze -0- 14242 Mercedes-Benz Citaro E4 Die Post Klopfstein Bus AG (CH) 1 43,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Spark WAX02020055 - Porsche 911 Carrera GTS Bj. 2017 in grey-red 1 43 NEU,.1 64 Kyosho Toyota SPORTS 800 No.20 Diecast Model Car,.Joal 1 50 Diecast - 218 Cat 825B Compactor Construction Model,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Set Of Six Metals Die Cast DC Figurines Brand New Factory Sealed New Fast Ship,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Mercedes C-111 Original Hot Wheels Redline Premium Restoration Red,.Spark Model 1 43 Porsche 956 Winner 24H Le Mans 1985 Art. 43LM85,.Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940039001 Mercedes Benz 300Sl Coupe 1955 Red,.1 43 Minichamps F1 Super Aguri F1 Team Honda SA07 T.Sato 2007,.Brooklin models BRK 25, 1958 Pontiac Bonneville congreenible.. Boxed,. The ScottsdaleRenault 5 Turbo th Monte Carlo Rally 1982 Spark S3854 1 43,Burago 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette (1997) silver -3056- Die-Cast Modell Auto OVP,.Mint Kyosho Benz 1 43 Minicar,. Id.,Ferrari 250 Gtl Jay Kay Personal Car bluee 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Spark Citroën DS3 WRC Rallye du Chablais 2013 S. Loeb 1 43 SF068,; Out-of-print rarity Chgold Q SKYLINE (Skyline) Collection,NOREV NV183467 MERCEDES 300 SL 1986 INCA RED 1 18,.CITROËN Dyane 1975 6 Green Diecast 1 18 Norev 181621 Nip,. The ScottsdaleBURAGO 1 18 3040 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA CABRIOLET 1994 blueE,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Opel Kadett C Caravan 1978 Brilliant Green 1 43 MINICHAMPS NEW 400048110,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Kit Alfa Romeo Spyder Bertone 1955 -Tron Models kit 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPANISH DINKY 011542 CHRYSLER 1308 GT - NR MINT in original BOX,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Citroen 2Cv 6 Basket Cabriolet Open 1976 NOREV 1 18 NV181498,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Renault 20 TS 1978 Algue Green Metallic 1 18 - 185265 NOREV,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, MINICHAMPS JEEP GRAND CHEROKEE LIMITED V8 - RED 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 7, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Motorkits 1 43 Scale Built Model Kit - Fod Y Van - Atco - Unboxed, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, VOLKSWAGEN VW POLO R WRC TEAM VOLKSWAGEN MOTORSPORT st SPAIN 2014 NOREV 1 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRENAULT ALIPNE A 110 1600S 1971 BERLINETTE 1 18 BURAGO,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, MEBETOYS 1 43 ALFA SUD T RALLY A90 - IN ORIGINAL BOX - GOOD CONDITION,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe1 43 Truescale TSM Model Mclaren 650S GT3 H Spa 2017 TSM430344,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Lexus LS600HL 1 43 Kyosho 03647BK,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Minichamps Toleman Hart TG183 Derek 1 43 400830035,Spark Model S5821 ALPINE A470 GIBSON N.35 5th LM 2017 PANCIATICI-RAGUES-NEGRAO 1,.Corgi CC13784 Malcolm Logistics Scania R Colin Prior Collection Ltd Edition,.DINKY MATCHBOX DY-13B BENTLEY R CONTINENTAL MINT BOXED DUTCH PROMOTIONAL,. The HuygheMINICHAMPS, 1979 PORSCHE 934 KORES RACING, 1 43 SCALE,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMebetoys A 85 Fiat 131 Mirafiori Mattel 1 43 blue rare box OVP 1411-10-56,.

INTINITY FX50 VERSION 2 2010 PEARL 1 43 Neoscale NEO44541 Model,.Trofeu 1 43 Scale 1008 - Ford Escort Mk2 1st RAC Rally 1979,.

Meri Kit to assemble White Metal 1 43 - Ferrari 640 F1 1989 Airscope,.Art Model AM0254 FERRARI 225s N.8 DNF 12H SEBRING 1953 HILL-SPEAR 1 43 Modellino,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Volkswagen VW Bulli T3 Multivan 1992 Metallic bluee 1 18 Model KK SCALE,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeDCP 34071 Lentz Freightliner Cascadia Evolution Day Cab Tractor & 53 Reefer 1 64,.Rarität Alfa 40 60HP Aerodinamica Ricotti ,1914 von Rio 1 43 sgt Zustand in Box,.

For example, in Partridge,Provence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin - KC9 Sauber C9 Mercedes Le Mans 24H 1989,. In Jorgensen, supra,Corgi Toys 344 Ferrari Dino 206 sport scala 1 43,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 43 Spark - 43PP16 Norma M20 No.30, Winner Pikes Peak 2016 Romain Dumas,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Norev 1 43 - Renault Fuego Turbo Grey,. That is the same situation in this case.Moskvich 422 Van Post 1954 (DiP 1 43 140102),. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs,. Detroit Edison, supra.

BMW M4 COUPE YELLOW BMW DEALER PARAGON 1 18,.Dinky toys Leyland Octopus Esso Tanker All ORIGINAL GREAT PRICE ,.New American Graffiti 1983 Plymouth Reliant 1 64 MOTOR MAX 73640AG Series III,.

KK-Scale 1 18 Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 rood nieuw in doos,.