NOREV BMW M 535i E 28 1986 white 1 18 OVP 9543fa

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
NOREV BMW M 535i    E 28  1986  white  1   18  OVP 9543fa
47031 Premium ClassiXXs 1 43 Tatra 147 DC-5 red hellyellow,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps BMW i8 Roadster in White Pearlescent 2018 410027031 1 43 NEW Ltd 504,.Tiny Mini Cooper Hong Kong Police Members Only Novelty,.Herpa Art Collection 3 X BMW 525i Touring 3er Cabrio 1x AUDI A 3 CABRIO limitato,.1971 Ford Mustang Sportroof blueE 1 18 SunStar 3612,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.1 18 AutoArt Lamborghini Diablo 6.0 in Yellow 74526.,.Britains Skip Lorry 9603 Boxed 1 32 Scale,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Hot Wheels 1 64 Scale Minifigure Display Case Wall Cabinet, HW11-BL,.1 18Kyosho Lamborghini Urakan Resin Model Car,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 19 - Alfa Romeo 158 1950 - Red,.Camion MB Arocs con Escavatore Mini scala 1 16,.Tim Richmond Folgers 86 Chevy Monte Carlo Action RCCA 1 24 BWB 1 of 5000, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

NEO Chevrolet Corvette C1 1959 1 43 45997,.1 18 GMP Ford Vintage Deuce Release Three window Coupe,.Neo 1 43 Opel Kadett C City Irmscher, black,.Renault Alpine A60 Celebration 2015 bluee Spark 1 43 S4947 Model,.

DINKY TOYS NO 240 COOPER RACING CAR; Yellow helmet; Original box,.Herpa 121521 DAF XF 105 SSC Baustoff-Sattelzug Mai Logistik Kann Baus - 1 87,.Hot Wheels Matchbox Display Case Cabinet w 98% UV Predection Door Model Cars,.Peugeot 205 Gti 1.9 black 1983-1998 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne ind..,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Ford Escort MkII 1300 L LHD 1975 Red 1 43 Minichamps-MkI RS,.

Norev 181651 Citroen C4 Cactus weiss 2014 Maßstab 1 18 Modellauto NEU °,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.KYOSHO- 03075G- LOTUS Europa Special,.VW Beetle 1303 Red 1973 1 18 Norev 188520 Beetle Volkswagen,.Ktm X-Bow Gt 2016 bluee SPARK 1 43 S5663 Miniature,Mint Hiace 200 Series 1 43 Scale,.BBurago 1955 Lancia Aurelia B 24 spider 1955 1 18 scale bluee very nice,.

Corgi 71 Wheel Controlled Tandem Disc Harrow Very near mint boxed,.XA015 FUJIMI 1 24 maquette voiture 08102 1800 Ferrari 365GTB4 Daytona spéciale,.JOHN DAY 1 43 MORGAN + 4 1966 - SOFT TOP - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

WR LM Le Mans 1994 Libert-Yvon-Regout S0341 Spark 1 43 New in a box RARE ,.

KYOSHO KS03634KR14 1 43 Toyota 86 KYOSHO From japan,. We agree in part.

OLIVER 1650 TRACTOR W FRONT WHEEL ASSIST 1 16 DIECAST MODEL BY SPECCAST SCT684,. Siku Promo - Mercedes Car Crane - Upat Ultra - 3723 - (9.SI-20),.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Lotus 102B, No.12 San Marin GP 1991 Julian Bailey by Spark in 1 43 Scale,.Porsche 911 Turbo S 3,3 964 Lightweight 1992 speedyellow yellow 1 43 Minichamps,.War Master 1 72 FAMO AND 88MM FLAK GUN,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; NOREV Citron DS 3 Cabrio 2013 Aluminium blue infini 1 18,.MINICHAMPS BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GTC SPEED CONgreenIBLE ST.JAMES RED 436139061,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Coffret Alpine A110 Pure & Legende 2018 Limited.500 Pcs 1 43 Model 517864 NOREV,; MARKLIN GERMANY 1812 GLAS BMW 1600GT COUPE COLOUR blueE MET. SCALE 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Simca 1000 LS 1974 Amarante Red NOREV - NO 185713 - Echelle 1 18,.IXO 1 43 Lada Niva mit Dachzelt 1981 - red,RENAULT 10 whiteHE JOAL EN BOITE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Ford Mustang II (Green Metallic) 1974,.

Mint Mini Champs 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera 2 Cup 1993,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.SCHUCO HANOMAG L 28 + KREIDLER 02929 1 43,.Trofeu 1 43 Scale 510 - 1973 Ford Escort RS 2000 RHD - White bluee,.MULLIN AUTO MUSÉUM 1931 BUGATTI TYPE 54 ROADSTER MINICHAMPS 1 43,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Porsche 911 (993) Turbo S - silver - 1 of 300 - Minichamps - car.tima EXCLUSIVE,; Vw T1 Greater Platform Porsche 1 43 Premium Classixxs PREM18505 Model,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Lot Of 65 + Hot Wheels lot A,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

NOREV BMW M 535i    E 28  1986  white  1   18  OVP 9543faNOREV BMW M 535i    E 28  1986  white  1   18  OVP 9543fa

MODELLINO PORSCHE MACAN 2013 RED METALLIC IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

New Ferrari FXX Evoluzione bluee 1 18 Diecast Car Model by Hotwheels T6922,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Alte Feuerwehr Modellauto Blechauto 40 cm Oldtimer Feuerwehrauto,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

1950 Oliver tractor 1 16 Ertl 16191,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Muky 21 Cadillac El Dorado Diecast silverina very rare,.TW Collection 1 43 Scale White Metal Kit 3 - Connaught B Type 1957 -,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bburago FERRARI FXX-K 1 18 Scale Model Toy Gift Die Cast Sports Race Car RED,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.GAMA MINI-MOD 9600 - FIAT ABARTH - 1 46 - NEU in OVP - Modellauto - Model Car,.

Atlas Editore 1 43 Traccia 0 Opel Blitz Trasportatore Holzaufbau Von 1949,,.Action Collectibles C5-R Corvette Daytona 2001 1 18 Die Cast Car,.CORGI 1 50 CC12926 SCANIA TOPLINE CURTAINSIDE - MULGREW HAULAGE LTD,.McLaren MP4-12C-2011 white 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Fujimi model 1 24 real sports car series No.27 McLaren F1 GTR short tail Le Man,.

1 12 Ducati 998 RS Nannelli SBK 2004 1 12 • Minichamps 122040224,.NEO - 1 43 - CHEVROLET EL CAMINO - 44852,.Citroen DS19 40thAnniversary 1955-1995 Vitesse Mint Limited Edition,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast 940 033101 - 1955 Mercedes Benz 180 - Red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.MIB Limited Edition Authentic DeWalt Adult Collectible Diecast Metal Car Toy,.Majorette 1 60 Nr. 213 Mercedes Benz 350 SL Cabrio yellow Nr.2,.Spark 1 43 Lotus 24 France 1963 Phil Hill S4822,.STAR MODELLI 12 KIT BUILT FERRARI 348 TS - RED 1 43 - GOOD IN BOX,.CHRYSLER Town & Country Neo scale models 1 43 NEO44795,.

Vintage Tibidabo 1 10 Scale Ford GT (spares rep), the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.AUTOWORLD AW230 2016 16 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR GARNET RED,.DATSUN 240Z 1971 orange MAISTO 1 18 1 18 JAPAN MODEL CAR MODELE REDUIT NISSAN,. The PartridgeKrAZ 256B1 Muldenkipper NVA (olivgreen),.AUTOWORLD AWSS102 1 18 1958 PLYMOUTH FURY CHRISTINE NIGHTTIME VERSION W LIGHTS,.Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC056 - Aston Martin DB35 - LM 1953,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Sunbeam Alpine Tiger Mkii 1960 Red SPARK 1 43 S4063, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Matchbox Superfast No 36 Draguar Met Red Draguar Boot Label Ivory Interior,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Corgi superhaulers 1.64 x 9,.Wiking Zürn Direktschneidwerk ProfiCut 700 mit Wagen - 1 32,PartridgeMaxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 044101 - 1979 Opel Kadett D - orange,.Bentley R-type Continental 1955 Red 1 43 Model 436139422 MINICHAMPS,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, LESNEY VINTAGE STEAMROLLER NO. H DIE CAST RARE MINT, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, CC15806 Corgi Hauliers of Renown Mercedes Actros Mulgrew Haulage 1 50,; Best Model 9437 PORSCHE ABARTH TARGA FLORIO '63 1 43 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Corgi Classics FAB 1 - Pink - A+ A+, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Audi TT Roadster Model 1 18 Artikel-Mr 13.318R Revell 1998 Brand New Boxed, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBentley S1 Continental Park Ward DHC 1956 - Matrix 1 43 - MX10201-041,.

Spark Model SB160 MERCEDES GT3 N.88 NC 24H SPA 2017 SERRALLES-JUNCADELLA-VAUTIER,.CORGI TOYS VOLKSWAGEN VW KÄFER 1200 POLICE OVP 1973 MINT, Clarke's negligent act.McLAREN HONDA MP 4-7 - AYRTON SENNA 1992 540924301 Minichamps 1 43 new in a box ,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Diecast - 400 113902 Mercedes Benz C Class DTM 11 Paffett,.Minichamps Formel 1 McLaren Mercedes MP 4 16 Mika Hakkinen 2001 1 18 OVP,.

1 43 Truescale TSM Alfa Romeo 4C Spider Matt White Predotype LHD 2016,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Scale model 1 43 Intermeccanica Indra Cabriolet, gold, 1971,Gama 1 41 Opel GT 1900 hellred,. In Noska,Spark 1 43 Audi RS 5 DTM 2014 SG170,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Lamborghini Jarama 400 GTS 1974 Red 1 43 Minichamps-Espada,.VOITURE COFFRET CITROEN C4 1 43 GE18 11 16 NOREV,.Renault R16 1968 Grey Met NOREV 1 18 NV185133 Model, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.1 18 Modelcar Group Rover 3500 V8 Police MCG18045 OVP,.Bulli VW T3 Porsche B32.Bus Baujahr 1984 hellblue met. KK-Scale KKDC180222 1 18,.Conrad Demag AC 25 Telescopic Crane in White on 1 50 in Box,.Mercedes- Benz 250 T S123 (W123) 1978- 1982 red - 1 18 KK-Scale,. Id., p 923.

OVER 55 TOY AUCTION CATALOGUES, DINKY, CORGI, TINPLATE, MATCHBOX, ROBOTS, VECTIS,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hot Wheels Drag Race Set Includes 2 Cars New in Box YR. 1996 Mattel Inc. Dayton,Bentley 1 43 Bentayga 2016 in Glacier White,.1 18 Revell VW Käfer 1302 LS Cabriolet bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.DINKY TOYS MODEL No.293 SWISS PTT POSTAL BUS VN MIB,.Instruktionsbuch Ford Model T 9000325 auf englisch,.Mercedes Amg G 500 4x4 (2) 2015 White 1 43 Model S4693 SPARK MODEL,.Citroen Arcadiane Michelin Bj.1984 - Scheunenfund Diorama im Maßstab 1 43,.TOYOTA YARIS WRC MOUNTED CARLO 2017 LATVALA SPARK 1 43 S51642,. The parties Porsche 356 a 1500 Gs Carrera Gt Anno di Costruzione 1957 green Metallico 1 18,.

1969 Dodge Charger R-T green 1 18 Maisto Design 32612,.DAYS - GONE Lledo COLLECTION 'Job lot' of Cars,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, OPEL ASCONA B I2000 1979 WHITE YELLOW SUNSTAR 5343 EUROPEAN COLLECTIBLES 1 18,; Triple 9 Honda Civic EF9 JTC 1991 PIAA Sug 1 18 1800102, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Morgan 4-4 Flat Radiator S1 Spider 1936 Green NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO46236,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Dinky a - Trojan 15cwt Van (Esso) - Red - B NB,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)SPECCAST 1957 CHEVY PANEL DELIVERY BUDWEISER BEER,.ISUZU Gemini ZZ 1600 DOHC Handling by Lotus Green 1 43 LUMYNO KB NOREV NEW,.Spark 1 43 Scale S3052 - F1 McLaren MP4-28 Australian GP 2013,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,1958 CHEVROLET IMPALA ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1 18 NEW MINT,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Speedracer Shooting Star Yellow 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 33261,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE HERITAGE EX70514 - RENAULT 1000KG - RENAULT SERVICE,.Best Model BT9380 ALFA ROMEO TZ 1 N.152 27th TARGA FLORIO 1970 GIUGNO-SUTERA 1 4,.Auto le Monde 1 18 2016 Ford Mustang Gt Moulé yellow Aw229,.1969 Holden Monaro HT GTS 350 Bathurst 32 Scale Classic Diecast Model Car,. The ScottsdaleStahlberg Mercedes-Benz W123 T-Modell 1 20 Brown metallic (JS),Jada Bigtime Muscle 1967 CHEVY NOVA SS 1 24 Diecast Car Dub City Vehicle 90058,.Mebetoys 6624 - Fiat Abarth 3000 - Scala 1 43 Die cast,. Id.,Original Porsche911 GT3 RS 2018, black, 1 43, Limited Edition 500 Stk, Resin,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Matchbox Yesteryear Y5-1 1929 Le Mans Bentley Green No. 5 Issue 4 All Original,; Hot Wheels LDC92328BN VW MICROBUS 1962 2 TONE BROWN 1 18 Modellino,Hot Wheels Leo Mattel India Chevy Monza in Red, loose,.1 43 Spark Oreca 07 Gibson Le Mans 2018 Gutierrez Allen Guibbert S7025,. The ScottsdaleHYUNDAI i20 R5 - ASSEMBLY KIT + DECAL ABDELLA - Rally Portugal 2017,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, AUTOWORLD AW209 1 18 1964-1 2 FORD MUSTANG 289 INDY 500 PACE CAR DIECAST MODEL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MINICHAMPS B66962440 B66962449 B66960065 MERCEDES ESTATE model brown bluee 1 18th,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 02748 - Mercedes Benz O 6600 Reisebus Wanderfreunde m. Fahrer 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Koenig Testa Rossa 1985 White 1 43 Neoscale NEO45923 Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Dinky Toys no. 110 Aston Martin DB3 Sports,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, EFE CODE 3 BRISTOL VR 3 IN YORKSHIRE RIDER LIVERY EASTERN NATIONAL FLEETNAMES, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1967 Ford GT40 Mark IV yellow 1 18 Shelby Collectibles 422, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SSM LKW 1 43 Tatra-815 S3 Baukipper-LKW red orange 83SSM1345,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the Partridge1969 Pontiac GTO Liberty bluee 1 18 Ertl American Muscle 32916,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, DINKY TOYS 584 CAMION BACHE - EMPTY BOX - GOOD CONDITION,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBentley Continental Supersport 2009 Satin White Minichamps 1 43 519431390 Model,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Classic Metal Works 1 24 TOWN OF RIVERHEAD NEW YORK Ford Police Interceptor,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Shelby Mustang Ertl American Muscle 1969 GT-500,DINKY 279 AVELING BARFORD DIESEL ROLLER MECCANO ENGLAND ROULEAU COMPRESSEUR,.1965 FORD MUSTANG CONgreenIBLE GREY LIMITED 1002PCS 1 18 AUTOWORLD AMM1103 MODEL,.Audi R8 Spyder sit in Car -ToysGirls pink,. The HuygheRio RI4440 FIAT 238 LA STAMPA 1 43 Modellino,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRio RI4388 ALFA ROMEO P3 N.2 MONTECARLO 1933 R.CARACCIOLA 1 43 Modellino,.

VW Bulli T1 Samba Baujahr 1962 Bus blue mit cream KK-Scale KKDC180152 1 18 Neu,.PAZ 32051 City Bus SSM 4026 1 43,.

Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 103 - Ford E93A Popular - bluee,.Britains Ford transit Chassis Float 00234b Boxed,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Lancia Aurelia B24 Congreenible 1956 Spark S2378 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLESNEY MATCHBOX NO. 38 VAUXHALL VICTOR WAGON - 300 WHEEL VARIATION ,.Spark Model SG334 SCG SCG003C N.704 NURBURGRING 2017 WESTPHAL-MAILLEUX-SIMONSEN-,.

For example, in Partridge,Spark 1 43 Scale S3012 - F1 HRT F1-10 Brazil GP 2010,. In Jorgensen, supra,Bentley T2 Continental 1977 SPARK 1 43 S3823 Model,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 50 International HX620 Tridem Tractor Diecast Masters 71011 Trailer Head,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Corgi 1 50 Scale Model Fire Engine 54702 - E-One Side Mount Fort Monroe,. That is the same situation in this case.Daf 2300 met Container Opzet Laadbak - Lion Car Code 3 Model - 1 50 35280,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Spark Model S4721 LANCIA D20 COMPR.N.30 DNF LM 1953 P.TARUFFI-U.MAGLIOLI 1 43 Mo,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Spark 1 43 Scale S3061 - F1 Scuderia Tgold red STR8,.1 43 Mattel Ferrari 612 Scaglietti,.BMW M 535i 1980 in gold 1 18 SCALE New in box 183268,.

Dinky Toys England - 216 Dino Ferrari - With original Display Box - MINT NEW,.