1 18 Norev VOLKSWAGEN VW Escarabajo Beetle 1303 1972 1972 1972 - RED 188520 cochesaescala 845027

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
1 18 Norev VOLKSWAGEN VW Escarabajo Beetle 1303 1972 1972 1972 - RED 188520 cochesaescala 845027
Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 (1973) - blue,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Spark Porsche 956 n°1 Winner 24h du Mans 1982 1 43 S43LM82,.Hot Wheels Real Riders Dodge Rampage Red 5903 Dirt Bike Hong Kong Die-Cast,.VW T1 Bus Bulli Samba Van orange modelcar 92327 Road Signature 1 18,.Spark 1 43 Scale Resin S0318 - Spyker C8 Spyder GT2R Le Mans 2007,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Ferrari 308 Gts 1978 White 1 43 Model BEST MODELS,.CASE IH KENWORTH T880 SLEEPER CAB W LOWBOY TRAILER 1 64 BY SPECCAST ZJD1809,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.AUTOWORLD AMM1065 1 18 1971 PLYMOUTH GTX HARDTOP B5 blueE 440,.Vtg 1960's Tonka Toys USA Pink Surrey JEEP w Canopy parts repair,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.CITROEN DS 19 Cabriolet 1961 Sahara Grey 1 18 181563 Norev,.Provence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin Model - Jaguar XK 220 - Dark Green,.Minichamps - Audi Typ A Phaeton 1910 - red Bordeaux - neuf MIB en boite 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Vv volkswagen t1 pistenbulli chenille combi,.Vintage Hot Wheels Red Lines HK 1970 Nitty Gritty Kitty [Copper] w button,.VW Volkswagen Tiguan II SUV L Allspace silver 2. Generation Ab 2016 1 43 Paudi..,.HOT WHEELS 2018 50th RACE TEAM SUPER TREASURE HUNT BONE SHAKER FACTORY SEALED W+,.

SSM 1 43 Artillerieschlepper ATS-59G,.COLLECTOR'S CLASSICS-CHEVROLET 1955 DIECAST 1 43 CAR--WITH CERTIFICATE--NO 09756,.OM99186 CORGI 50TH ANNIVERSARY BUS SET,.Ferrari 550 Barchetta Pininfarina (red),.CMC GMBH A009 FERRARI 156F1 SHARKNOSE 1961 1 87,.

Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.52 250 GT Berlinetta Tour de France 1956 1 24,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Minichamps McLaren Mercedes MP4-18 2003 1 43 Kimi Raikkonen (FIN) Testcar,.KK-Scale KKDC180152 VW T1 Samba, 1959, bluee creme,.KINSFUN RENAULT TWIZY 1 18 SCALE WHITE NEW NO BOX USA FREE SHIP,Ertl 1 18 American Muscle 1970 Mustang Boss 429 MOVIE Gone in 60 Seconds 33028,.Peugeot 308 SW mokka-grey-metallic, 1 43 and Keychain,.

Vintage PL Estetyka RUCH 1 72 Jelcz MEX-272 good condition with missing bumper,.1 18 1971 FORD BAJA BRONCO STROPPE LIMITED EDITION 714 PIECES.,.1 18 OTTO Model RENAULT 21 SUPER TOURISME Turbo 4x4 1989 Red OT560,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Modellino BMW 1600 TI quattroruote collection 1 24 car toys,.

Corgi Toys 341 Mini Marcos GT850 with good original display box,. We agree in part.

Action 1 18 Scale Diecast - 101731 2001 Corvette C5R Post Race gold,.Neo VW Käfer Nordstadt - black - 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Tekno Denmark 926 Jaguar E type congreenible Grey near mint in box,.Citroen C4 Cactus 2018 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181660,.JADA 1 32 DISPLAY JDM TUNERS - 1995 MITSUBISHI ECLIPSE 12PCS BOX SET 99130-DP1,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; CORGI TOYS CHRYSLER IMPÉRIAL CROWN CONgreenIBLE REF 246 BON ÉTAT,.OPEL ASCONA VOYAGE 1970 FIREFIGHTERS OF FIRE COESFELD Minichamps 400045890,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, NZG 1 35 Scale Vintage Diecast - 282 Mercedes Benz 500 SEC Dark Grey,; Spark Benetton B194 J. J. 1 43 S4482,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Bentley Continental T 1996 Light bluee 1 43 Model MINICHAMPS,.SIMCA 1000 Rallye 2 1976 Maya yellow 1 18 Norev 185708 1294 2 DC,19x 2019 Matchbox '18 JEEP WRANGLER JL UNLIMITED NEW,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.1 43 Provence Moulage (France) Peugeot 203 berline Handmade Resin Model Car,.

Lancia Astura Type 233C Pininfarina 1936 Metallic bluee 1 43 SPARK S2724,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Kit Ferrari 275 GTB C ch.07185GT 1965 - Tron Models kit 1 43,.1 18 scale RC Toyota Hiace,.VW Typ V3, grey, 1 18, BoS-Models - BOS101,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Corgi 1 72 Scale AA27606 Hawker Hurricane Mk1 N2359 YB-J - LW.Stevens RAF Sq.,; Hot Wheels Redline Chrome Mustang Boss Hoss R L,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Mercedes 220S 1956 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34338,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

1 18 Norev VOLKSWAGEN VW Escarabajo Beetle 1303 1972 1972 1972 - RED 188520 cochesaescala 8450271 18 Norev VOLKSWAGEN VW Escarabajo Beetle 1303 1972 1972 1972 - RED 188520 cochesaescala 845027

Hot Wheels 1 24 Scale - 24623 McLaren MP4-14 David Coulthard + Fuel pump diorama,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Fiat 127L 3P 1977 White Ed.Lim.Pcs 250 1 43 Kess Model KS43010070 Model,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 18 Minichamps NSU Ro80 1972 white weiss Limited Edition Nr. 151015406 in OVP,.CORGI TOYS ASTON MARTIN V12 VANQUISH JAMES BOND 40TH ANNIVERSARY,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Trofeu 1 43 Scale 524 - Ford Escort RS 1600 BP Monte Carlo 1972,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Lotus Elan SE Roadster 1966 Royal bluee 1 18 Model 4055 SUN STAR,.

Majorette Full Set of 6 ZAMAC Limited Edition Serie 5 New Diecast Car 2019 FEB,.AUDI R8C R8 C Le Mans 1999 UK Audi Wallace Weaver McCarthy Infine Spark 1 43,.CITROEN 2CV GREY 1950 NOREV 181497 1 18,.Solido 190 Ford Capri 2900 Injection Rallye car made in France 1 43 scale rare,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car NVBL907 - 2011 Bentley Continental GTC - Breeze,.

2018 Club Car Exclusive DATSUN blueEBIRD 510+Button&Patch Redline Hot Wheels 7687,.Rio RI4220 FIAT 128 RALLY 1971 YELLOW 1 43 Modellino,.Norev 188520 1 18 VW VOLKSWAGEN 1303 1972 RED,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, AUDI Quattro Rallye Gr.B 1983 Mikkola RAC GB crash version limit Trofeu 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.CORGI 1 50 CC12916 SCANIA TOPLINE CURTAINSIDE - MONTGOMERY TRANSPORT,.Greenlight Hitch & Tow Toys R Us Exclusives 3 piece set.,.Citroen DS 23 Pallas 1973 red 1 18 Norev neu & OVP 181568,.Revell Mga Roadster 08447 - box never opened, collectible,.GG 1 43 PARADCAR 100 CITROEN XSARA 2001 METALLIC GREEN MINT BOXED RARE SELTEN,.

Porsche 911 (991II) GT2 Rs Weissach Paquete Año Fabricación 2018 Kreidegrey 1 43, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.1937 Tatra 87 black 1 18 MC Group 18069,.KK-Scale VW Bus T3 - weiss - White Star - 1993 - 1 18,. The PartridgeLancia Delta HF Integrale 16V 1989 Metallic bluee 1 18 Model 3152 SUN STAR,.Premium Classixxs 11030 MERCEDES-BENZ L319 1 43,.2014 Citroen C4 Cactus hello yellow1 18 Norev 181650 NEU,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Minichamps 410150044 1 43 MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS F1 TEAM W06 HYBRID LEWIS HAMILTO, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.VW Beetle 1303 Red 1973 1 18 Norev 188520 Beetle Volkswagen,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Hot Wheels Rumblers Bold Eagle Yellow-Tan Rider,.CSM Collector's Model 1 76 Scale CM-DA102B - Dennis Dragon Bus - Hong Kong R269C,PartridgeTrofeu 1 43 Scale 1018 - Ford Escort Mk2 4th Rally 1977 Clark Pegg,.330E Dinky France 24X Ford Star 54 Taxi 1 43,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, NEO MODELS Pontiac Grand Am 2-d Coupe 1973 (red me 1 43 44755 1 43 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, GREENLIGHT 1 18 1981 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z28 DIECAST CAR gold METALLIC 12907,; ERIA France n° 31 Peugeot 403 Rare,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, NEO 43651; 1995 Saab 900 Sedan; White; Excellent Boxed, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, ROVER Vitesse (SD1) Bastos ETCC Neo scale models 1 43 NEO45586, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeSaviem SC1 1964 - Service Scolaire 1 43 Norev 521011,.

Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 053060 - 1972 Volkswagen T2b Delivery Van - Grey,.Minichamps 1 43 minicar B.A.R Honda F1 Takuma Sato limited edition 9504 units, Clarke's negligent act.1 18 Model Car Group Barkas B1000 Halbbus Volkspolizei 1970,.Motormax MTM73145CR FORD MUSTANG OPEN 1964 CREAM 1 18 Modellino,.1 18 Ixo 18RMC015 FORD FIESTA RS WRC V. ROSS MONZA RALLY 2015 cochesaescala,.

Peugeot 206 RC red 3 Türer 1998-2012 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit oder ohne indi..,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Wonderful BOS-modelcar CHEVROLET 150 2-DOOR SEDAN 1957 - yellow white - 1 43,Audi 100 Coupe S • 1970 • NEU • KK-Scale • 1 18,. In Noska,Replicagri REPLI073 FIAT 880DT5 1 32 Modellino,.Bburago 1 18 Diamond Nissan GT-R (2009) (Colours may vary),.Giocher F127C FIAT 127 2' SERIE 5 PORTE CARABINIER Modellino,.Kyosho original 1 43 Lexus RC 350 F Sport heat bluee CL finished product, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Action Performance Nascar Monte Carlo 1999 (Coca Cola) 24 ohne Vp. ,.CITROEN XSARA 5 Portes white PARADCAR 1 43,.Spark Model SG330 PORSCHE CAYMAN 981 N.150 NURBUR.2017 BREUER-HOBERHEIM-KERN-HEN,.VW Volkswagen T4 Camping California grey Weiss 1990-2003 1 43 Premium ClassiXX..,. Id., p 923.


In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Hot Wheels Drag Race Set Includes 2 Cars New in Box YR. 1996 Mattel Inc. Dayton,Peugeot 206 RC 2003 red 1 18 Norev 184823 neu & OVP,.Models of Yesteryear Y-8 Morris Cowley Bullnose 1926 in brown, Originalbox Typ A,.Wolga M24 Policía Popular green whiteo 1 18 Modelo Car Grupo,.FORD Fiesta New WRC 2017 Rallye GB Wales Ogier Red Bull Autosport Spark 1 43,.Ferrari 275 P Retired 24h Daytona 1966 Follmer Wester Hawkins 1 43 Model,.International Eagle Tour 2000 Semi With Van Trailer 2002 NTTCS Edition By DCP,.Herpa 1 87 Scania 144 TL Zingg Kühlsattelzug Schweiz Rarität,. The parties NEO DKW Meisterklasse Universal Typ 89S 1 43 46275,.

Replica Dinky 1 43 - Peugeot 402 Grey,.NEO 1 43 Scale Resin Model NEO43287 - BMW 3er (E21) Baur - Dark Metallic Grey,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, FINEWORK Chgold Q size TOYOTA Celica XX Resin Kit,; Hot Wheels 2012 TREASURE HUNTS - Complete Set of 15 - Last of the Green Stripe, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Porsche 997 RSR , Predon Competition , 24H LeMans 2014 , Spark models,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, LES MINIATURES DE NOREV BUS PARISIEN SAVIEM SC 10U Lg 26 cm TBÉ BOITE REF 98,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Bentley Continental 1984 Red 1 43 Model S3824 SPARK MODEL,.Saab 900 Gli 1981 bluee Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO43652 Model,.1 64 DCP Massey-Furguson - Kenworth T880 Sleeper Cab with Fontain Renegade Lowbo,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 624 SUBARU IMPREZA WRX HUMBERSIDE POLICE GB,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Minichamps 1 43 - Jaguar XJS Cabriolet whitehe,.Schuco Piccolo Mercedes Unimog 411 Warsteiner Beer Delivery SHU05666,.Dinky Toys F n° 552 Chevrolet Corvair en boîte,.1 18 scale model cars,.Franklin Mint 1933 Duesenberg Twenty Grand 1 24 scale,. The ScottsdaleRENAULT ESTAFETTE PIK-UP orange MODELE NOËL 2010 DINKY TOYS ATLAS,BN150-1x Herpa H0 1 87 Bus MAN+Kässbohrer THW DB+US-Schulbus etc, sehr gut,.Lexus RC F - lava orange crystal shine 1 43 Kyosho 03653P,. Id.,Koenig Testa Rossa 1985 White 1 43 Neoscale NEO45923,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MG MG-TD MG Hubley Kidde Red with Chrome Enhancements Nice MgTd Antique MG-TD,; Vintage Hot Wheels Cap Blastin' Bridge Blaster Set With Extras 1990,Rio RI4421 VW BEETLE N.53 2nd EIFELRENNEN NURBURGRING 1954 W.VON TRIPS 1 43 Mode,.Best Model BT9508 JAGUAR E SPIDER SOFT TOP 1961 GUNMETAL 1 43 Modellino,. The ScottsdaleAlfa Romeo Spider 4 mit abnehmbarem Softtop Baujahr 1990 black 1 18 KK-Scale,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Hot Wheels 2018 Car Culture Japan Historics 2 Mazda RX-3 orange (Lot of 6) NEW,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Hot Wheels Car Culture Japan Historics Mazda RX-3 Minicar DJF78 New,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Corgi 1 43 Scale Metal Model 96682 - Jaguar Mk2 Inspector Morse - Maroon,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Volkswagen VW T3 Doka Pritsche 1983 orange 1 43 Model 400055261 MINICHAMPS,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MODELLINO MERCEDES BENZ C CLASS R. SCHUMACHER DTM 2010 MINICHAMPS,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Spark Model Lotus 59 Graham Hill Winner 1 43 S4277, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Schuco Piccolo Mercedes-Benz Car Carrier Auto Transporter Item SHU01941, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 2018 Hot Wheels 50th Anniversary REDLINE REPLICA 5 car set (unpunched),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHot Wheels Redline 1967 Job Lot,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Minichamps 1 43 Chaparral 2F Le Mans 1967,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheWiking 9902049 VW Transporter 50 Jahre,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.FIAT SEDICI 2006 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Matchbox Super Kings Motor-Cycle Transporter Team Honda in bluee in Box,Best Model 9454 LOLA T70 SPIDER NASSAU 1966 1 43 Modellino,.Bitter SC Coupe' Red 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.Jada 1 24 2008 Dodge Challenger Ribbon 5 - JA96894,. The HuygheRio 4276 FIAT 8CV 1901 OPEN WHITE 1 43,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePORSCHE Kremer K8 Daytona Winner 1995 Lässig Werner Bouchut Spark Res 1 43,.

Emek Scania R Hook Lift Skip Tipper (White),.F1 RIAL Ford ARC2 V8 Cosworth GP Brazil 1989 Danner STP Spark 1 43,.

Wiking Drahtachser 620 2 Dodge Leiterwagen Feuerwehr RAR o.VP(EC740),.Wiking 773 47 Claas Scorpion 7044 Telescopic Loader 077347 1 3 2 New Boxed,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Honda Civic Ef3 Si 1987 SPARK 1 43 S5450 Model,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLola Mk4 th Monaco GP 1962 John Surtees Spark S1814 1 43,.SHELBY COBRA 427 S C R S RED 1 43 KYOSHO 03016RW,.

For example, in Partridge,Norev Jet Car 1 43 - Citroen CX red N°845,. In Jorgensen, supra,Dip Models DIP106302 ATSUP-20 (63)-60 FIRE ENGINE ON GAZ-63 CHASSIS 1 43 Modelli,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Hot Wheels 1 18 scale Diecast - 50430 Ferrari F50 red Red,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VINTAGE HOT WHEELS 1970 PROWLER THE DEMON NEW ON CARD,. That is the same situation in this case.CITROEN DYANE 6 blue Myosotis 1 18 2CV,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Scale model 1 43 Studebaker Champion Starlight Coupe, red, 1951,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Volkswagen VW Microbus Soft Top 1962 Light Green w White Roof 1 18 Model,.1950 Oliver tractor 1 16 Ertl 16191,.FORD Falcon Granada Racing XW GTHO19 Moffat 70 limited Autoart Biante 1 43,.

KYO09001S by KYOSHO Mercedes-Benz CLK Coupe 1 18,.