Mercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre Jahre Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP f91caf

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Mercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre Jahre Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP f91caf
HPI RACING - Toyota Celica Monte Carlo Rally 8572, RARE ,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ferrari Ferrari 400 Superamerica 1962 Red KK Scale 1 18 KKDC180061 Model,.Spark Sunbeam Alpine Congreenible Roadster in Yellow S4945 1 43,.SPARK 375 ASTON MARTIN DB7 ZAGATO 2003 - GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 19,.DRAG DAIRY w RR (1 64) '13 Hot Wheels 27th Collectors Convention Dinner (1 2000),.

The essential facts are not in dispute.BMW 320i E46 4 STRASSE VERSION 2005 orange 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400052400 NEU,.Tekno 1 50 - DAF 95 Remorque Citerne Prestaplast Transplast,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 18 RMZ Model BMW F07 5er 535 GT 5 Series Gran Turismo White,.Land Rover Series Defender Dakar Handmade 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Siku 3721 White Pferdetransporter (Werbemodell - Upat) - 1291-86,.Red 1969 Chevy Camaro RS Cragar American Muscle 1 18 Scale Die Cast,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 3090 Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet 1994 Brown, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Hot Wheels Mattel 22690 Nascar (Kellogg`s Racing ) 24 OVP ,.Bmw 5-Series M535I (M5) (E12) 1978 bluee Met NEOSCALE 1 43 NEO49540 Model,.@ 1 18 UT MODELS PORSCHE 911 GT1 LE MANS 1997 MINT BOXED,.Hot Wheels Steadly Tudor Fat Fendered 40 Limited 7000 Pcs Lot Of 3 CC0239,.

MODELLINO AUDI A4 CH. ABT DTM 2005 IN METALLO MINICHAMPS,.Wiking 1 32 077320 Traktor Anhänger Claas Uniwrap Rollant 455 - NEU OVP,.DODGE MONACO blueESMOBILE MODEL CAR 1 24 SCALE blueES BredHERS LARGE GREENLIGHT K8,.RENAULT NEW A110 Alpine 2017 Premiere Edition blue bluee 185148 Norev 1 18,.BMW M3 Alpina DAnner DTM 1988 1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 430882022,.

Minichamps Suomy helmet Neil Hodgson (GBR) 2001 1 2 Ducati SBK WSB,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.DINKY TOYS FORD ESCORT POLICE PANDA CAR TURQUOISE WHITE NM M SCALE 1 43,.SIKU 1627 - MAN LKW - Koffer-Sattelzug - Bodycote - Werbemodell - NEU&OVP - 1 87,.MINICHAMPS 437150332 Scale 1 43, DUESENBERG SJN (SUPERCHARGED) in ,SCHABAK 1610 BMW 535i - METALLIC GREEN 1 24 - NEAR MINT IN BOX,.KK-Scale Alfa Romeo Alfasud 1.3 - weiss - 1 18,.

1 43 Schuco Setra S6 Reisetraum lightbluee bluee ltd. 1000 pcs.,.NEO MODELS Pegaso Z-102 Berlinetta 1 43 45590 1 43 1 43,.Porsche 911 (991 II) Gt2 Rs Weissach Pacchetto Anno di Costruzione 2018,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Audi 100 Coupe 1969 Dark Emerald Green 1 43 Minichamps 430019129 NEW,.

Matchbox Lesney 1969 Yellow Lamborghini Miura ,. We agree in part.

Corgi Toys 388 Mercedes Benz C111 orange perfect mint in box superb,.Winross 1-64 diecast tanker reitz oil 20 years NIB,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Schuco 1 43 Nr 301622 Audi 50 blue in OVP,.Mercedes Cls 63 Amg Shootin Brake 2014 bluee 1 43 Spark S1081 Model,.NSU Ro 80 Anno di Costruzione 1972 Bianco 1 18,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Corgi Toys 318 Lotus Elan S2 with factory error,.1 50 Caterpillar 14M3 Motor Grader High Line Series 85545 CAT Diecast Vehicles,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 18 SAIC Volkswagen 2017 Skoda Octavia Combi White Dealer Edition,; Schuco 7561 AUDI Q5 2012 BROWN 1 43 Modellino,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

FORCES OF VALOR FOV861009A 1 700 BRITISH AIRCRAFT CARRIER 1942,.Bmw V12 LMR 1999 Le Mans sebring 1 18 Kyosho,YELLOW FERRARI 360 MODENA BBURAGO 1 18 - MADE IN ITALY, MINT IN BOX,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Norev 181481 CITROËN DS 19 1959 brown GLACÉ & white CARRARE 1 18,.

Porsche 911 RS Touring 1973 - yellow - Norev 1 18 - 187638,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Kit Alfa Romeo Giulia Cabriolet 1963 - Gamma Models kit 1 43,.2008 HW 8th Annual Collectors Nationals '70 CAMARO Real Riders 2,000 Made,.DINKY TOYS 30C COUPE LINCOLN ZEPHYR,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Renault 12 Gordini 1971 bluee White Strips Diecast 1 18 Norev 185210,; Dinky 955 Fire Engine With Extending Ladder, Good Condition in Original Box,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, CHEVROLET CAMARO SS 2010 bordeaux 1 18,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Mercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre Jahre Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP f91cafMercedes Benz C 197-SLS AMG GT3 Sondermodell 45 Jahre Jahre Jahre AMG black 1 43 Neu OVP f91caf

Citroen Ds 19 General De Gaulle 1960 Rio4114 1 43 Model Diecast,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

New Anson Lamborghini Muira 1 18 metal die-cast car,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Contessa Hino 1 43 Minicar,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

EBBRO 44625 1 43 Honda S600 coupe From japan,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 43 Minichamps 2013 Renault RB9 Infiniti Red Bull Racing M. Webber 410130002,.1 50 Siku Lorry With Trough Tipper - 150 3537 Actros Fliegl Model Scale,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Ferrari FXX K 18 - Bburago,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.SSM 1 43 Artillerieschlepper AT-T,.

Hot Wheels Lot Of 30 Cars And 2 Haulers Greddy Nissan fairlady Z 180sx Type X,.. MINICHAMPS CITROEN SM 1970 METALLIC gold FEUILLE DOREE MINT BOXED,.1 18 Norev Citroen 2CV 6 1976 Basket Nr. 181498 OVP,.Ixo model FER074 FERRARI F599 GTB PANAM 06 blueE 1 43,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Auto Replicas kit Renault Record 1 43 (JO),.

Matchbox Superfast Nr. 42B Tyre Fryer DUNKEL metallic blue top in Box,.1 50 ROS 194 Sennebogen 305C Multihandler Forklift Model,.NEO SCALE MODEL 1 43 Bmw 5-Series M5 (E34) 1991 Red Art. Neo43314,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Lotus Seven S2 1960 Green SPARK 1 43 S2222,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1 43 NEO Model Audi 100 C3 typ 44 Taxi 1989,.Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps Lotus Honda 99T Ayrton Senna 1987 4138...,.1 43 Sowjetischen GAZ-51 board. UdSSR, USSR,.Hot Wheels Super Treasure Hunt '70 Ford Escort RS1600 And The Regular Escort,.1 76 Hong Kong Bus Model- KCB Dennis Trident Duple Body 12m B2,.

Corgi Juniors No. 26 ERF Fire Engine Water Tender. Red. MINT CARDED. 1970's, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Porsche 911 RSR 2.1 Le Mans 1974 1 18 Norev 187424,.Ford Rs200 1 43 Minichamps In White Very Rare,. The Partridge1 18 Modelcar Group Mercedes-Benz 8 W115 Polizei Nr. 18054 OVP,.Porsche 911 Gt3 2017 White MINICHAMPS 1 43 410066025 Model,.Atlas Editorial 1 43 Escala 0 Goliath GD 750 silverforma Sinalco Von 1950 Raro,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AUTOWORLD AMM1116 1969 DODGE CgoldNET R T 1 18 DIECAST 50TH ANNIVERSARY blueE, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Minichamps 400 103304 Lamborghini 400 GT 2+2 1964 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.CORGI cc13725 BARRY HAULAGE SCANIA R CURTAINSDE i, Tekno, wsi,.SETRA S215 HD 1976 bluee Beig Red - 1 43 - IXO,PartridgeBUGATTI VEYRON 16.4 GRAND SPORT VITESSE orange RASTAR 43900 NEW 1 18 SCALE,.RED BULL RACING TAG-HEUER RB12 RICCIARDO 2016 417160003 Minichamps 1 43 New ,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Siku Promo - Mercedes Car Crane - Upat Ultra - 3723 - (9.SI-20), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Frankling Mint - 1907 Thomas Flyer Diecast Car - The Great Race 1 24 (no box),; Ixo model TRU016 SAVIEM SM8 1974 BRITISH PETROLEUM 1 43 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Brooklin Models Cadillac V16 Congreenible Coupe 1 43 scale England, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 2012 2013 FERRARI 458 ITALIA SPIDER DARK blueE METALLIC 1 18 BY HOTWHEELS X5529, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBMW 733i (E23) 1977 - metallic-black - 1 18 KK-Scale,.

Peugeot 403 Cabriolet, red, 1 18 - WELLY,.NZG 409 KAELBLE TYP KDV 22 E 8, 1 50 [F], Clarke's negligent act.Classic Metal Works 1 24 CLEVELAND CITY POLICE Ford Police Interceptor,.Mclaren MP4 12C Spider 2012 orange Metallic, Model Car 1 43 Minichamps,.Kraz 214 NVA 1 43 Premium ClassiXXs 47038,.

Petite voiture, Majorette, Mercédès 280 SE orange, 1 64,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 18 Norev Renault A110-50 Predotype 2012 blueemetallic orange,Spark Model Porsche 996 GT3 RS 2003 1 43 S4473,. In Noska,Anson 30338, Mercedes-Benz CLK Cabriolet, red, bewegl. Stoffd.,1 18, NEU&OVP,.Spark 1 43 Toyota TS 010 th Le Mans 1992 J.Lammers-T.Fabi-A.Wallace S2365,.Volga M24-10 Red 1 18 Model MODELCARGROUP,.Herpa Scania R TL Schubboden-Sattelzug Godelmann II Mai Logistik (R1_5_56), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.HOT WHEELS CLASSICS 1968 CAMARO SS AND 1970 MUSTANG BOSS 429 SCALE 1 42,.Datsun 260 Z2+2 1975 bluee Metallic 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,.BURAGO 1 18 - COD 3350 PORSCHE 911 CARRERA - YELLOW,.BATTLESTAR GALACTICA titanium set of 2,. Id., p 923.

Greenlight 1 18 1950 GMC 150 & CHEVRON Vintage Gas Pump Diecast Model 12992,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Spark S7623 Porsche 911 GT2 RS Baujahr 2018 in indisch red 1 43 NEU ,Mercedes SLS AMG GT3 Street orange 2011 1 18 Minichamps neu & OVP 151113105,.Mint Mini Champ 1 43 Car Ford Mustang Gt 2005 World Limited 2688 Units,.Wiking 773 41 Pöttinger Corn Thresher Novacat V10 077341 NEW 1 3 2 Boxed,.PORSCHE 911 Carrera RSR 3.0 DRM 1975 Vaillant Wollek Minichamps Kremer 1 43,.Auto Art Gateway 60671 PORSCHE 911 997 GT3 CUP CAR 06 1 43,.Maisto 1992 BUGATTI EB 110 DIECAST CAR (blueE) 1 24,.Hot Wheels SUPER Treasure Hunt 2017 CAMARO ZL1 Red Line Card Variation,. The parties MCG 1 18 Wartburg 353 (1985) - brown brown,.

RENAULT MEGANE coupé GENDARMERIE 2001 1 43,.Corgi 393 Mercedes Benz 350sl,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, JEM METAL MINIATURES 1 43 MG MIDGET R BUMBERS - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION,; MAISTO 1 18 31168 - MERCEDES BENZ SL63 AMG - PEARL WHITE, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Porsche 911 GT3 RSR n°81 LM 2004 The Racers Group S0922 1 43 Sparkmodel,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Fiat 238 Garage Francorchamps 1972 Rio 1 43 Rio4242 Model Diecast,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)UCC SAISOKU NO TUBASA Collection Complete Set 8pieces Japan Free Shipping ,.WSI13-1027 - Camion 4x2 DAF 3300 Space Cab - 1 50,.TEKNO MONZA GT Spider Réf 931 white Excellent ETAT D'ORIGINE 1 43 1965,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,VINTAGE 118 SPOT ON TRIANG TRI ANG TOYS BMW ISETTA BUBBLE CAR MODEL 1 42 SCALE,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.1990’s Matchbox Nigel Mansell Collection Williams INDY Car Racing Set Mint Toys,.BLITZ VERSAND Ford Mustang 1 2 1964 Coupe red red Welly Modell Auto 1 18 NEU OVP,.Paudi 1 18 Scale Diecast - PAU7 Nissan Murano 2011 gold Metallic,.RENAULT RS 01 INTERCEPTOR 2016 NOREV 1 18,.Wonderful MINICHAMPS-modelcar BMW M4 GTS COUPE (F82) 2016 - grey metallic - 1 43,. The Scottsdale1964 Lotus Elan 26R Walker Racing Crystal Palace 1 43 by Spark S0267,Spark Model S5272 BRM P153 R.WISELL 1972 N.4 RETIRED silverINIAN GP 1 43 Modelli,.AUTOWORLD AW230 1 18 2016 CHEVROLET CAMARO SS GARNET RED,. Id.,Mercedes-Benz C-Klasse Cabriolet (A205) diamant white 1 18 iScale,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, VW Volkswagen T3 A Camping Westfalia Joker Transporter Personen blue 1979-1992..,; Hot Wheels Redline Mercedes Benz 280 SL Aqua with Dark Interior Excellent,LANSDOWNE 1 43 LDM109 1966 FORD ZODIAC AMBER Mk4 METALLIC gold SUPERB MODEL,.Matchbox Lesney 900 Long Haul Articulated Trailer 1979 TP-25 Superfast MIB,. The ScottsdaleKYOSHO original 1 43 Lexus RC350 F Sport White No ve glass flakes,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Trofeu 1 43 Scale 524 - Ford Escort RS 1600 BP Monte Carlo 1972,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Vintage Corgi No 469 London Routemaster Bus; 1974; VGC,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ROAD LEGENDS 1 18 1932 FORD 3 WINDOW COUPE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Shelby Collectibles 2011 Ford Shelby Mustang GT350,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, (Go) 1 18 Burago Signature Series Ferrari California T Cabriolet NIP,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Danbury Mint 1 24 1964 Aston Martin DB5 English Verson. RH Drive, LN Blank Title, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 50 CATERPILLAR Diecast Model 924G Versalink Wheel Loader with Work Tools, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1 18 Solido Volkswagen T1 Bus Van Michelin Rarity,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCAT CATERPILLAR 950H WHEEL LOADER WITH OPERATOR 1 50 BY DIECAST MASTERS 85196NEW,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Audi S1 2014 Yellow 1 43 Model NEO SCALE MODELS,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheNorev 1 18 1971 Renault Alpine A110 1600S bluee Diecast Car 185300,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.MINI COUNTRYMAN WRC PARIS AUTO SHOW PRESENTATION TRUESCALE TSM114349 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Puma GT Coupe 1968 VW Do Brasil Red 1 43 NEO 46155,Aston Martin V8 Vantage in Metallic Green in 1 18 by Hot Wheels CAT No H3068,.Bob Riggle's Hemi Xpress 1 24 Die Cast Johnny Lightning 381-04 NEW [1370],.Dodge Challenger R T 426 HEMI 1970 red S3612 Spark Modellauto 1 43,. The Huyghe1 18 Porsche 911 Carrera S Diecast Welly Car model Toy Gift 18047 Yellow,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRenault Megane Trophy Team Oregon Winner 2012 - 1 18 - Norev,.

Danbury Mint 1957 Studebaker golden Hawk 1 24 Diecast Car,.Fiat 238 Van Assistenza Vacanze 1970 1 43 Model RIO,.

Mx572, Cursor Modell Mercedes Benz 200- 300E 200D-300D Taxi 1 35 BOX 1084,.WESTERN MODELS 1986 CHEVROLET CORVETTE JIM LINK SPECIAL 1 43 SCALE SERIAL,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Dinky 1 43 Scale Diecast DY-903 - Classic British Sports Cars Series 2,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge2012 Sahara Force India F1 Team Mercedes VJM05 1 43 Scale by Minichamps,.PEUGEOT 205 RALLYE 1 18 1986,.

For example, in Partridge,WOW EXTREMELY RARE Audi 100 C1 1.9L I4 Saloon 1969 Polizei Ingol 1 43 Minichamps,. In Jorgensen, supra,Minichamps 1 43 Scale 403651203 - 1965 Alfa Romeo Giulia TZ 2 - Red,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Renault 20 TS 1978 Algue Green Metallic 1 18 - 185265 NOREV,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VW Volkswagen Käfer 1303 Cabrio orange 1972-1975 1 18 Norev Modell Auto mit od..,. That is the same situation in this case.Matchbox Regular Wheels Nr. 72 A Fordson Tractor bluee orange GPW Lesney 1,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.CORGI 75302 LEYLAND DAF PETROL TANKER SET JET,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Mercedes Benz T1 208D Transporter 1988 weiss - 1 18 KK-Scale NEW Auktion,.Porsche 928 S4 GT bluee Metallic 1990 - Spark 1 43,.Danbury Mint Pewter - approx 1 43 scale - 1935 Jaguar SS1 Saloon,.

1960s.MATCHBOX.LESNEY.26 FODEN CEMENT MIXER Grey plastic WHEELS.,original,.